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  • guanine
  • In mammalian and yeast cells, the main target of brefeldin A appears to be a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) called GBF1. (wikipedia.org)
  • The complete prevention by Brefeldin A strongly suggests that the retinal extract contains an ARF-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor. (selleckchem.com)
  • Brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange proteins (GEPs) BIG1 and BIG2 activate ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPases, which are required for vesicular trafficking. (pnas.org)
  • apoptosis
  • Brefeldin A exerts its cytotoxic effects mainly by inducing differentiation and apoptosis in tumor cells. (selleckchem.com)
  • Apart from B-CLL cells, Brefeldin A reportedly causes apoptosis in multiple myeloma (U266, NCI-H929), Jurkat, HeLa, leukaemia (HL60, K562, BJAB), colon (HT-29) and prostate, as well as adenoid cystic sarcoma cells. (selleckchem.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the apoptosis resulting from NSC 95397, brefeldin A, bortezomib and sanguinarine in neuroendocrine tumor cell lines. (diva-portal.org)
  • BIG2
  • Two ≈200-kDa brefeldin A-inhibited GEPs, BIG 1 and BIG2, first purified together in macromolecular complexes from bovine brain ( 6 ), are 74% identical in overall amino acid sequences, with 90% identity in their Sec7 domains ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • membrane traffic
  • Lippincott-Schwartz J, Yuan L, Tipper C, Amherdt M, Orci L, and Klausner RD (1991) Brefeldin A's effects on endosomes, lysosomes, and TGN suggests a general mechanism for regulating organelle structure and membrane traffic. (springer.com)
  • membranes
  • We have studied the effects of Brefeldin A (BFA) on the distribution of several SV membrane proteins (synaptophysin, synaptotagmin, synaptobrevin, p29, SV2 and rab3A) and on endosomal markers to investigate the relationship between SVs and the membranes with which they interact in cultured hippocampal neurons developing in isolation. (unimi.it)
  • accumulation
  • Of these, Brefeldin A (BFA) was the most successful at inducing lipid accumulation and was used to evaluate secondary screens including measuring levels of fatty acids, photosynthetic pigments, proteins and carbohydrates. (unl.edu)
  • concentrations
  • The treatment with 20 μg/mL Brefeldin A substantially abolishes the bradykinin-induced decreases in [Ca 2+ ] i and tension in the range of concentrations between 1 nM and 1 mM. (selleckchem.com)
  • 2014). With regards to the meals item, the limit concentrations authorized for usage of sorbic and benzoic acids as meals additives mainly range between 0.5 to 2 g/L (Western Commission, Brefeldin A 2011). (healthconnectionsvt.org)
  • cells
  • Cells were treated with brefeldin A or manumycin A, and the resulting supernatant was collected after 48 h for exosomal preparation (lanes 1 and 2), or exosomes obtained from C81 cells were trypsin-treated or freeze/thawed (F/T) and then trypsin-treated (lanes 3 and 4). (selleckchem.com)
  • The administration of 25 ng/mL of Brefeldin A completely blocks growth of HF4.9 and HF28RA cells, whereas higher Brefeldin A doses (75 ng/mL) are required to achieve the same effect in HF1A3 cells. (selleckchem.com)
  • changes
  • When HCT 116 human colon cancer cell is treated with Brefeldin A, morphological changes indicating cell differentiation are observed. (selleckchem.com)
  • Conclusion: NSC 95397, brefeldin A, bortezomib and sanguinarine induced caspase-3 activation with modest changes in nuclear morphology. (diva-portal.org)
  • Nevertheless, this candida species can be a meals spoilage agent, having the ability to conquer several harsh circumstances that are used in the meals industry to keep up the microbial balance of its Keratin 7 antibody items and avoid unwanted changes Brefeldin A within their organoleptic properties (Wayne and Stratford, 2003). (healthconnectionsvt.org)
  • treatment
  • The treatment of the strips with 20 μg/mL Brefeldin A for 6 hours completely abolishes the relaxation induced by bradykinin in the presence of 10mM indomethacin and 30 μM L-NOARG. (selleckchem.com)