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  • woman's
  • NCI's Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool uses a woman's risk factors to estimate her risk for breast cancer during the next five years and up to age 90. (cancer.gov)
  • The tool uses a woman's personal medical and reproductive history and the history of breast cancer among her first-degree relatives (mother, sisters, daughters) to estimate absolute breast cancer risk-her chance or probability of developing invasive breast cancer in a defined age interval. (cancer.gov)
  • The Iron Spider would have been attached to the wall, and the woman's breasts were fixed onto the claws of the tool. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a breast reduction surgery for re-establishing a functional bust that is proportionate to the woman's body, the critical corrective consideration is the tissue viability of the nipple-areola complex (NAC), to ensure the functional sensitivity and lactational capability of the breasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The indications for breast reduction surgery are three-fold - physical, aesthetic, and psychological - the restoration of the bust, of the woman's self-image, and of her mental health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Afterwards, the woman's ability to comfortably perform physical activities previously impeded by oversized breasts improves her emotional health (self-esteem) by reducing anxiety and lessening psychological depression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The medical history records the woman's age, the number of children she has borne, her breast-feeding practices, plans for pregnancy and nursing of the infant, medication allergies, and tendency to bleeding. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The physical examination records and establishes the accurate measures of the woman's body mass index, vital signs, the mass of each breast, the degree of inframammary intertrigo present, the degree of breast ptosis, the degree of enlargement of each breast, lesions to the skin envelope, the degree of sensation in the nipple-areola complex (NAC), and discharges from the nipple. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fat-graft transfer approach augments the size and corrects contour defects of the breast hemisphere with grafts of autologous adipocyte fat tissue, drawn from the woman's body. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a non-implant breast-augmentation procedure, some fat-graft injection approaches feature tissue-engineering, which is the pre-operative, external expansion of the tissues of the recipient site to receive the grafts of adipocyte tissue drawn from the woman's body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, in most instances of fat-graft breast augmentation the increase is of medium volume - usually one brassière cup-size or less - which usually is the physiologic limit allowed by the metabolism of the woman's body. (wikipedia.org)
  • For breast reconstruction, and for the augmentation and enhancement of the aesthetics - size, shape, and texture - of a woman's breasts, there are three types of breast implant devices: saline implants filled with sterile saline solution silicone implants filled with viscous silicone gel alternative-composition implants, filled with miscellaneous fillers - soy oil, polypropylene string, etc. - that are no longer manufactured. (wikipedia.org)
  • Breast bondage is a bondage technique which involves the tying of rope around a woman's breasts in a visually intricate and decorative pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • When combined with breast bondage, bound arms force the woman's chest and breasts to protrude further. (wikipedia.org)
  • The woman's breasts can generate extraordinary discomfort, turning feverish, red, itchy, and even causing the skin to peel. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue expander
  • In a breast-reconstruction procedure, within a multi-stage reconstruction-mammoplasty, a tissue expander (a temporary breast-implant device) is emplaced and used to prepare (shape and enlarge) the recipient site (implant-pocket) to receive and accommodate the breast implant prosthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two most common are: Tissue Expander - Breast implants This is the most common technique used worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of acellular human or animal dermal grafts have been described as an onlay patch to increase coverage of the implant when the pectoral muscle is released, which purports to improve both functional and aesthtic outcomes of implant-expander breast reconstruction.Typically done in the same procedure of a mastectomy, a tissue expander is placed in the sub-pectoral pocket more colloquially considered to be under the chest tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanical breast enhancement, such as through use of the BRAVA Breast Enhancement and Shaping System, a clinically-effective external breast tissue expander.Mark Eden bust developer, a fraudulently marketed method and device. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Brava External Tissue Expander: Is Breast Enlargement without Surgery a Reality? (wikipedia.org)
  • ultrasound
  • Technologies such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and molecular breast imaging are being evaluated, usually as adjuncts to mammography, and are not primary screening tools in the average population. (cancer.gov)
  • The cystic nature of a breast lump can be confirmed by ultrasound examination, aspiration (removal of contents with needle), or mammogram. (wikipedia.org)
  • Breast ultrasound is considered the best option when diagnosing breast cysts because it is 95 to 100% accurate, it provides a clear image on the cyst's appearance (simple or complex) and it may also distinguish between solid lumps and fluid-filled cysts, which a mammogram cannot do. (wikipedia.org)
  • cyst
  • Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is a percutaneous ("through the skin") procedure that uses a fine needle and a syringe to sample fluid from a breast cyst or remove clusters of cells from a solid mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • A breast cyst is a fluid-filled sac within the breast. (wikipedia.org)
  • In texture, a breast cyst usually feels like a soft grape or a water-filled balloon, but sometimes a breast cyst feels firm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluid leaking from a cyst, as may happen due to puncture or vigorous compression during mammography, or due to seatbelt injury in the course of an automobile accident, may trigger an aseptic inflammation in the surrounding breast tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • Hormone therapy (also called hormonal therapy, hormone treatment, or endocrine therapy) slows or stops the growth of hormone-sensitive tumors by blocking the body's ability to produce hormones or by interfering with effects of hormones on breast cancer cells. (cancer.gov)
  • Breast tumors that contain estrogen and/or progesterone receptors are sometimes called hormone receptor positive (HR positive). (cancer.gov)
  • Breast tumors that lack progesterone receptors are called progesterone receptor negative (PR or PgR negative). (cancer.gov)
  • Breast tumors that lack both estrogen and progesterone receptors are sometimes called hormone receptor negative (HR negative). (cancer.gov)
  • Inflammatory breast tumors are frequently hormone receptor negative, which means they cannot be treated with hormone therapies, such as tamoxifen, that interfere with the growth of cancer cells fueled by estrogen. (cancer.gov)
  • mastectomy
  • Types of surgery vary from breast-conserving surgery to mastectomy . (wikipedia.org)
  • Both custom made and off-the shelf breast prostheses come in varieties that are designed to either be held in a pocket in a specially designed mastectomy bra or attached to the skin and worn with a standard bra. (wikipedia.org)
  • fibrocystic breast
  • Also called: fibrocystic breast disease, chronic cystic mastitis, diffuse cystic mastopathy, mammary dysplasia These may be caused among others by trauma, secretory stasis/milk engorgement, hormonal stimulation, infections or autoimmune reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • estrogen
  • Exposure of breast tissue to estrogen made by the body. (cancer.gov)
  • Further examination of tissue from the affected breast should include testing to see if the cancer cells have hormone receptors (estrogen and progesterone receptors) or if they have greater than normal amounts of the HER2 gene and/or the HER2 protein (HER2-positive breast cancer). (cancer.gov)
  • The master regulators of breast development are the steroid hormones , estrogen and progesterone , growth hormone (GH), mostly via its secretory product, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and prolactin . (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been found that both estrogen and GH are essential for breast development at puberty - in the absence of either, no development will take place. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although IGF-1 is responsible for most of the role of GH in mediating breast development, GH itself has been found to play a direct, augmenting role as well, as it increases estrogen receptor (ER) expression in breast stromal (connective) tissue , while IGF-1, in contrast, has been found to not do this. (wikipedia.org)
  • During puberty in females, estrogen, in conjunction with GH/IGF-1, through activation of ERα specifically (and notably not ERβ or GPER), causes growth of and transformation of the tubules into the matured ductal system of the breasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Progesterone, in conjunction with GH/IGF-1 similarly to estrogen, affects the development of the breasts during puberty and thereafter as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hormonal breast enhancement, through experimental administration of hormonal agents such as estrogen.Herbal breast enlargement supplements, pills or other ingested substances containing herbs asserted to increase breast size hormonally. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, proposed factors have included increased levels/expression of or heightened sensitivity to certain hormones (e.g., estrogen, progesterone, and prolactin) and/or growth factors (e.g., hepatic growth factor, insulin-like growth factor 1, and epidermal growth factor) in the breasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammation
  • Engorgement may lead to mastitis (inflammation of the breast) and untreated engorgement puts pressure on the milk ducts, often causing a plugged duct. (wikipedia.org)
  • ducts
  • The lymph nodes, lobes, lobules, ducts, and other parts of the inside of the breast are also shown. (cancer.gov)
  • The most common type of breast cancer is ductal carcinoma , which begins in the cells of the ducts. (cancer.gov)
  • These rudimentary tubules will eventually become the matured lactiferous (milk) ducts , which connect the lobules (milk "containers") of the breast, grape-like clusters of alveoli , to the nipples. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mammography
  • Mammography is specialized medical imaging that uses a low-dose x-ray system to see inside the breasts. (radiologyinfo.org)
  • Three recent advances in mammography include digital mammography, computer-aided detection and breast tomosynthesis. (radiologyinfo.org)
  • Digital mammography , also called full-field digital mammography (FFDM), is a mammography system in which the x-ray film is replaced by electronics that convert x-rays into mammographic pictures of the breast. (radiologyinfo.org)
  • Breast tomosynthesis , also called three-dimensional (3-D) mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), is an advanced form of breast imaging where multiple images of the breast from different angles are captured and reconstructed ("synthesized") into a three-dimensional image set. (radiologyinfo.org)
  • Mammography is the most widely used screening modality for the detection of breast cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System, BI-RADS: Mammography. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Comparison of the performance of screening mammography, physical examination, and breast US and evaluation of factors that influence them: an analysis of 27,825 patient evaluations. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Mammography is the process of using low-energy X-rays (usually around 30 kVp) to examine the human breast, which is used as a diagnostic and screening tool. (wikipedia.org)
  • The goal of mammography is the early detection of breast cancer, typically through detection of characteristic masses and/or microcalcifications. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Cochrane Collaboration (2013) concluded that the trials with adequate randomisation did not find an effect of mammography screening on total cancer mortality, including breast cancer, after 10 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) can provide a higher diagnostic accuracy compared to conventional mammography. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary interest in DBT is in breast imaging, as an extension to mammography, where it offers better detection rates with little extra increase in radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Breast MRI, an alternative to mammography, has shown substantial progress in the detection of breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • menopause
  • Risk factors for developing breast cancer include being female, obesity , lack of physical exercise, drinking alcohol , hormone replacement therapy during menopause , ionizing radiation , early age at first menstruation , having children late or not at all, older age, and family history. (wikipedia.org)
  • aesthetic
  • Breast bondage often focuses on the decorative, aesthetic and erotic aspects of the result, and not on immobilization of the female subject. (wikipedia.org)
  • chest
  • Groups of lymph nodes are found near the breast in the axilla (under the arm), above the collarbone , and in the chest. (cancer.gov)
  • Treatment with radiation therapy to the breast/chest. (cancer.gov)
  • If the subject is being suspended, particularly in a horizontal position such as a suspended hogtie, breast bondage is used as the main supporting area under the chest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Off-the shelf breast prostheses come in a range of shapes and sizes, while customised breast prostheses are moulded to fit an individual's chest by taking an impression of both breasts and sculpting a mirror image. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-customised prostheses are made of different shapes to suit the extent of breast tissue removal or the shape of a crossdresser's chest. (wikipedia.org)
  • ovaries
  • While the thyroid gland contains the body's highest concentration of iodine, the salivary glands, brain, cerebrospinal fluid, gastric mucosea, breasts, ovaries and a part of the eye also concentrate iodine. (westonaprice.org)