Loading...
  • Kenyon
  • They have been defined anatomically as a discrete neuropil composed of an abundance of parallel fibers originating from densely packed cell bodies, called globuli cells or Kenyon cells ( Schürmann F-W, 1973 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • To facilitate the analysis of the mushroom body we provide a compilation of transgenic fruit flies that express transgenes under direct control of the Kenyon-cell specific promoter, mb247. (frontiersin.org)
  • The transgenes expressed are fluorescence reporters to analyze neuroanatomical aspects of the mushroom body, proteins to restrict ectopic gene expression to mushroom bodies, or fluorescent sensors to monitor physiological parameters of neuronal activity of Kenyon cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Overall, the collection of transgenic flies expressing sensor and reporter genes in Kenyon cells facilitates combinations with binary transcription systems and might, ultimately, advance the physiological analysis of mushroom body function. (frontiersin.org)
  • Kenyon cells extend their dendrites at the calyx, the main sensory input region of the mushroom body. (frontiersin.org)
  • In class-I large-type Kenyon cells and class-I small-type Kenyon cells, the somata are localized at the edges and in the inner core of the mushroom body calyces, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In class-II Kenyon cells, the somata are localized at the outer surface of the mushroom body calyces. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Detailed expression analyses of mKast led to the discovery of novel 'middle-type' Kenyon cells characterized by their preferential mKast -expression in the mushroom bodies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Neural activity mapping using an immediate early gene, kakusei , suggests that the small-type and some middle-type Kenyon cells are prominently active in the forager brain, suggesting a potential role in processing information during foraging flight. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our findings indicate that honeybee mushroom bodies in fact comprise four types of Kenyon cells with different molecular and cellular characteristics: the previously known class-I large- and small-type Kenyon cells, class-II Kenyon cells, and the newly identified middle-type Kenyon cells described in this review. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this review, we summarize recent progress in analyzing the gene expression profiles and neural activities of the honeybee Kenyon cell subtypes, and discuss possible roles of each Kenyon cell subtype in the honeybee brain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • regulate
  • Scientists have known that a type of brain cell circuit helps regulate a variety of innate and learned behavior in animals, including their temperature preferences. (scripps.edu)
  • Here, we sought to understand the mechanism by which this occurs by investigating the protein complex cohesin, which is considered to regulate gene expression and, when defective, is associated with higher-level brain dysfunction and the developmental disorder Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS). (rupress.org)
  • odor
  • This is important in the brain because chances are that you'll never smell the exact same odor twice. (scienceblog.com)
  • But, as other researchers had seen, when Waddell's group boosted the levels of dNPF in the insects' brains, the flies beelined for the sugar-associated odor, even if they had been allowed to eat. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Somewhere in the brain that difference of a second-of whether the odor comes before or after the reward-makes a huge difference. (rockefeller.edu)
  • This pathway is time sensitive, so whether the dopamine neuron is activated before or after an odor makes a critical difference in the strength of connections between cells in the mushroom body," says Ruta. (rockefeller.edu)
  • circuits
  • The complete synaptic wiring diagram of the LON paves the way to understanding how circuits with reduced numerical complexity control wide ranges of behaviors. (elifesciences.org)
  • Relatively small and simple, the fly brain offers a unique opportunity to study the neural circuits underlying this phenomenon-and that's exactly what Ruta and Handler did. (rockefeller.edu)
  • stimuli
  • Most motile animals show some form of active foraging behavior to locate resources they need in their environment, and will actively avoid stimuli that are harmful to them. (frontiersin.org)
  • mammalian
  • Thus stable structural synaptic rearrangements, including the growth of new synapses, seem to be a common property of insect and mammalian brain networks involved in the storage of stable memory traces. (jneurosci.org)
  • Located at the bifurcation of the carotid artery in the neck, the mammalian carotid body is a chemosensory organ that senses decreases in blood oxygen to stimulate breathing within seconds. (washington.edu)
  • Two decades ago, the discovery of neuropeptide Y ( NPY ), a peptide in the mammalian brain involved in food-seeking behavior, sparked a search for a weight-loss remedy that could interfere with its activity. (scientificamerican.com)
  • neuronal
  • Could it be possible that tyramine found in the brain is of non-neuronal origin? (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, low levels of cohesin expression in the developing brain lead to changes in gene expression that in turn lead to a specific and abnormal neuronal and behavioral phenotype. (rupress.org)
  • behavioral
  • We tested the hypothesis that queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) causes changes in gene expression in the brain of the adult worker honey bee, and that these changes can be correlated to the downstream behavioral responses induced by QMP. (pnas.org)
  • QMP consistently activated "nursing genes" and repressed "foraging genes," suggesting that QMP may delay behavioral maturation by regulating genes in the brain that produce these behavioral states. (pnas.org)
  • larvae
  • Here, we assessed the effects of imidacloprid ingestion by stingless bee larvae on their survival, development, neuromorphology and adult walking behavior. (bijensterfte.nl)
  • Therefore, stingless bee larvae are particularly susceptible to imidacloprid, as it caused both high mortality and sublethal effects that impaired brain development and compromised mobility at the young adult stage. (bijensterfte.nl)
  • Disrupting synapse formation between the retina and the brain in zebrafish larvae-by eliminating the molecular motor Kif5A-triggers a compensatory increase in the branching of retinal axons aimed at restoring synapse number. (elifesciences.org)
  • forager
  • We compared the list of QMP-regulated genes with the lists of genes differentially regulated in nurse and forager brains generated in a separate study. (pnas.org)
  • responses
  • The transcriptional responses to selection for locomotor, aggressive and mating behavior from the same base population were highly overlapping, but the magnitude of the expression differences between selection lines for increased and decreased levels of behavior was uncorrelated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Expression profiling of genetically divergent lines is an effective strategy for identifying genes affecting complex behaviors, and reveals that a large number of pleiotropic genes exhibit correlated transcriptional responses to multiple behaviors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • insights
  • Understanding how novelty detection strategies compare in both domains could give us valuable insights into both brain algorithms and computing. (scienceblog.com)
  • A map of the entire array of cell types and potential projections in the mushroom body of the fruit fly brain provides insights into the circuitry that supports learning of stimulus-reward and stimulus-punishment associations. (elifesciences.org)
  • Known
  • Professor Buonomano is well known and respected among neuroscientists, and his recent book, "Brain Bugs," has raised his profile with the public at large with its examination of how the brain's flaws affect our lives. (ucla.edu)
  • adult
  • 3D standard brain of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum: A tool to study metamorphic development and adult plasticity. (uni-marburg.de)
  • research
  • The Brain Research Institute is a complex, multi-faceted operation that is considerably greater than the sum of its individual parts. (ucla.edu)
  • In this issue we profile ICLM faculty member Dean Buonomano, a member of the Integrative Center for Learning and Memory, whose research has changed our conception of how the brain keeps time - a function underpinning our ability to understand language, appreciate music, and make sense of memory. (ucla.edu)
  • The information-processing properties of mushroom bodies remain, however, unclear and are the subject of much current research. (frontiersin.org)
  • molecular
  • However, the molecular mechanisms by which pheromones are further transduced in the brain to influence behavior are only beginning to be understood ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • pheromone
  • In the case of the silkworm moth, programmed sequential behavior was observed with the acquisition of a pheromone, that is, walk straight, zigzag-turn and then loop, by sensing a pulse of pheromone. (mdpi.com)