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  • atrophy
  • Our findings suggest that the presence of distinct spatial distribution patterns of brain atrophy and global FC impairments might be pathological features of MDD. (deepdyve.com)
  • psychotherapy
  • He was psychiatrically hospitalized for a major depressive episode and was treated aggressively with a combination of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy, which continued going forward. (nyu.edu)
  • At age 39, after 10 years of treatment, he terminated psychotherapy. (nyu.edu)
  • cingulate
  • Helen S. Mayberg, MD , and colleagues in Toronto published a report in 2005 which demonstrated encouraging results when using DBS in the subcallosal cingulate (SCC) matter, an area of the brain that has been dubbed "Area 25. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • electrodes
  • Here, each study participant was implanted with two thin wire electrodes, one on each side of the brain. (innovations-report.com)
  • In DBS, specialists surgically implant stimulating electrodes in the brain to send electrical currents to targeted areas. (sott.net)
  • People with epilepsy have electrodes surgically implanted in their brains as part of routine preparation for surgery. (sott.net)
  • cognitive
  • The bidirectional communication between the brain and the gastrointestinal tract, the so-called "brain-gut axis," is based on a complex system, including the vagus nerve, but also sympathetic (e.g., via the prevertebral ganglia), endocrine, immune, and humoral links as well as the influence of gut microbiota in order to regulate gastrointestinal homeostasis and to connect emotional and cognitive areas of the brain with gut functions ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Imaging
  • Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed scattered white matter foci of increased signal. (nyu.edu)
  • However, given the abnormal nonspecific brain MRI and SPECT imaging findings, there was also concern about a low-grade encephalitic process, such as seronegative autoimmune encephalitis, that might be treatable. (nyu.edu)
  • medications
  • The disadvantages of a combination strategy include multiple medications, a broader range of treatment-emergent adverse events and higher costs. (springer.com)
  • In October 2003, the FDA issued a public health advisory regarding reports of suicidality in pediatric patients being treated with antidepressant medications for major depressive disorder. (medscape.com)
  • As many neuroleptic agents currently in use have some neuroprotective properties it is possible to speculate that medications with primarily neuroprotective mode of action might be of additional help in treatment of schizophrenia. (bioportfolio.com)
  • blood-brain b
  • Ultrastructural analysis revealed lipofuscin granule accumulation exclusively within the neurovascular unit, indicative of oxidative stress leading to blood-brain barrier dysfunction. (nyu.edu)
  • Hormones and peptides that the ENS releases into the blood circulation cross the blood-brain barrier (e.g., ghrelin) and can act synergistically with the vagus nerve, for example to regulate food intake and appetite ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)