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  • proliferating cell nu
  • A unique feature of p21 that distinguishes it from the other cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors is its ability to associate with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), an auxiliary factor for DNA polymerases delta and epsilon. (mendeley.com)
  • vitro
  • Here, we show by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) that the N‐terminus of CENP‐N lies in close proximity to the N‐terminus of CENP‐A in vivo, consistent with in vitro data showing direct binding of CENP‐N to CENP‐A. Furthermore, we demonstrate in living cells that CENP‐N is bound to kinetochores during S phase and G2, but is largely absent from kinetochores during mitosis and G1. (biologists.org)
  • Here we show that acetylated Sp1 loses p21- and bak-promoter -binding function in vitro . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • All three CSBP II proteins show specificity for binding the wild-type cycling sequence in vitro. (asm.org)
  • Using yeast two-hybrid analysis and three independent in vitro binding assays we identified a new LAP2α interaction partner of hitherto unknown functions, which we termed LINT-25. (biologists.org)
  • extracellular
  • Thus, for example, between steps 1 and 2, if there are $N_{12}$ systems in which extracellular ('outside') A binds every second, there is an equal number ($N_{21} = N_{12}$) for which A unbinds to the outside. (physicallensonthecell.org)
  • The proliferative effects of ROCK on vascular endothelial cells is due to the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). (wikipedia.org)
  • yeast
  • To gain further insight into the molecular mechanisms of LAP2α functions in chromatin organization and cell cycle control, we aimed at identifying novel LAP2α interaction partners in a yeast two-hybrid screen. (biologists.org)
  • These include the Xenopus protein importin and its yeast homolog, SRP1 (a suppressor of certain temperature-sensitive mutations of RNA polymerase I in Saccharomyces cerevisiae), which bind to the NLS. (cancerindex.org)
  • Another, more recently discovered function of WHI3 is encoding for memory in budding yeast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • During sexual reproduction, two yeast cells signal their presence by diffusing pheromones, and it has been shown that when a cell is exposed to mating pheromones but does not perform mating, it "remembers" the event and is less likely to undergo mating afterwards. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Super-Assembly of WHI3 Encodes Memory of Deceptive Encounters by Single Cells during Yeast Courtship. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the START point in the yeast cell cycle, the G1-cyclins Cln3, Cln1 and Cln 2 activate Cdc28. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor
  • FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities and are involved in a variety of biological processes including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • Here we report a novel 25 kDa protein termed LAP2α interactor-25 (LINT-25) that binds to the LAP2α-specific C-terminus. (biologists.org)
  • In addition, the data reveal hundreds of novel loci that bind Fkh1 only and exhibit a distinct chromatin structure from loci that bind both Fkh1 and Fkh2. (cshl.edu)
  • High-mobility group nucleosome-binding protein 1 is a novel clinical biomarker in non-small cell lung cancer. (nih.gov)
  • regulatory
  • Here we show that the RPA34 regulatory subunit is dephosphorylated at the exit of mitosis and binds to chromatin at detergent-resistant replication foci that co-localize with the catalytic RPA70 subunit, at both the initiation and elongation stages of DNA replication. (biologists.org)
  • Inhibition of L-type amino acid transporter modulates the expression of cell cycle regulatory factors in KB oral cancer cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The effect of BCH on cell growth suppression and the influence of BCH to cell cycle regulatory factors in KB cell growth inhibition were examined using cell cycle analysis, immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • sequence
  • Crithidia fasciculata cycling sequence binding proteins (CSBP) have been shown to bind with high specificity to sequence elements present in several mRNAs that accumulate periodically during the cell cycle. (asm.org)
  • Polypeptides of identical size were radiolabeled in UV cross-linking assays performed with purified CSBP II and 32 P-labeled RNA probes containing six copies of the cycling sequence. (asm.org)
  • embryonic
  • Since the successful isolation of mouse and human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in the past decades, massive investigations have been conducted to dissect the pluripotency network that governs the ability of these cells to differentiate into all cell types. (mdpi.com)
  • The culturing of pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESC) began in the 1980s, when they were established by explanting the inner cell mass (ICM) from mouse embryos at blastocyst stage [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • inhibitors
  • Expression of a recombinant Sp1 mutant (K703A), which could not be acetylated, resulted in increased expression of the lipoxygenase (12-LOX) gene [ 3 ] whilst treatment with HDAC inhibitors attenuated the expression of COX-2 in HT29 cells and IGFBP3 in CaCo2 cells [ 5 , 6 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Cdk6
  • While doing this, the CDK6 in conjunction with CDK4, act as a switch signal that first appears in G1, directing the cell towards S phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • CDK6 has also been found to be important in the development of other cell lines, for example, CDK6 has a role in the alteration of the morphology of astrocytes and in the development of other stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies in the metabolic control of cells have revealed yet another role of CDK6. (wikipedia.org)
  • This pathway is a known route altered in cancer cells, when there is an aberrant overexpression of CDK6 and CDK4. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • reprogrammed human and mouse somatic cells into ESC-like pluripotent cells (termed induced pluripotent stem cells or iPSC), simply by direct transduction of ESC transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc [ 2 , 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells treated with fasudil showed a decrease in cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • The phage gene and insert DNA hybrid is then inserted (a process known as "transduction") into Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterial cells such as TG1, SS320, ER2738, or XL1-Blue E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other studies showed that lack of Daxx gene caused a higher apoptotic rate in embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These gene products are important in determining cell fates during normal development and in maintaining homeostasis, or they can lead to de-regulated growth in disorders like cancer by responding to mutations in β-catenin, APC or Axin, each of which can lead to this de-regulated β-catenin level stabilization in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This new fusion gene, BCR-ABL, encodes an unregulated, cytoplasm-targeted tyrosine kinase that allows the cells to proliferate without being regulated by cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • At the level of the cell, Daxx is found in the cytoplasm, interacting with Fas-receptor or other cytoplasmic molecules, as well as in the nucleus, where it is interacting with some subnuclear structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • initiation
  • Media conditions that support fast growth in bacteria also couples with shorter inter-initiation time in them, i.e. the doubling time in fast growing cells is less as compared to the slow growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • During initiation, DnaA bound to high affinity DnaA box R4 donates additional DnaA to the adjacent low affinity site and progressively fill all the low affinity DnaA boxes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the various stages of interphase are not usually morphologically distinguishable, each phase of the cell cycle has a distinct set of specialized biochemical processes that prepare the cell for initiation of cell divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • potent
  • In addition, the local production of ammonia at the site of cancerous tissues is thought to readily diffuse into the cancer cells to exert a potent cytotoxic effect by interfering with their critical metabolic functions. (drugs.com)
  • ribosomes
  • Zoospores of B. dendrobatidis, which are typically 3-5 µm in size, have an elongate-ovoidal body with a single, posterior flagellum (19-20 µm long), and possess a core area of ribosomes often with membrane-bound spheres of ribosomes within the main ribosomal mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this phase, the cell increases its supply of proteins, increases the number of organelles (such as mitochondria, ribosomes), and grows in size. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Additionally, our outcomes also claim that TRPC3 shows up as a fresh mediator of breasts cancer tumor cell migration/invasion and represents a potential focus on for a fresh course of anticancer agent. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Within this research, we discovered the functional appearance of TRPC3 in individual MCF-7 breasts cancer tumor cell-mediated Ca2+ entrance. (cancercurehere.com)
  • This study will also look at specific substances called biomarkers in your blood, and in the tumor tissue which are involved in the growth of tumor cells, and determine if the levels of these biomarkers are related to your response to treatment or development of side effects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Cardiac arrest Cytokine release syndrome Tumor lysis syndrome, causing acute renal failure Infections Hepatitis B reactivation Other viral infections Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) Immune toxicity, with depletion of B cells in 70% to 80% of lymphoma patients Pulmonary toxicity Bowel obstruction and perforation Two patients with systemic lupus erythematosus died of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) after being treated with rituximab. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins
  • Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • The cell-division cycle is a vital process by which a single-celled fertilized egg develops into a mature organism, as well as the process by which hair, skin, blood cells, and some internal organs are renewed. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancerous
  • By doing so at the site of cancerous tissues in the body, L-DOS47 is believed to modify the microenvironmental conditions of lung cancer cells in a manner that leads to their death. (drugs.com)
  • Among these theorized effects, L-DOS47 is believed to stimulate an increase in the pH of the microenvironment surrounding the cancerous cells, effectively reversing the acidic extra-cellular conditions that are known to be necessary for cancer cell survival. (drugs.com)
  • This, in turn, allows the cell to become cancerous. (wikipedia.org)
  • complexes
  • These complexes, which help regulate cell growth in addition to creating and maintaining epithelial layers, are known as adherens junctions and they typically include at least cadherin, β-catenin, and α-catenin. (wikipedia.org)
  • α-catenin participates in the formation and stabilization of adherens junctions by binding to β-catenin-cadherin complexes in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • When the cell is treated with TGF-β, HIPK2, a nuclear kinase, phosphorylates Daxx and the activated Daxx in turn activates the JNK pathway (see "The Daxx Pathway" figure). (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA-binding activity of the ubiquitously expressed ABL1 tyrosine kinase is regulated by CDC2-mediated phosphorylation, suggesting a cell cycle function for ABL1. (wikipedia.org)
  • One such inhibitor is imatinib mesylate, which occupies the tyrosine kinase domain and inhibits BCR-ABL's influence on the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • As a result, its levels in the cell are stabilized as it builds up in the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the final stage, cytokinesis, the chromosomes and cytoplasm separate into two new daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • selective
  • Evaluation of cytotoxicity in Human noncancer cells indicated that the compounds 3i and 3m were practically ineffective in quiescent peripheral blood lymphocytes, and may have a selective antiproliferative activity against cancer cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • inhibition
  • Over-expression of PPARδ also sensitised THP-1 cells to phorbol ester and correspondingly, inhibition of PPARδ by anti-sense RNA completely abolished this response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • β-catenin acts by anchoring the actin cytoskeleton to the junctions, and may possibly aid in contact inhibition signaling within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli
  • For example, the set of carboxylic acids that are best known as the intermediates in the citric acid cycle are present in all known organisms, being found in species as diverse as the unicellular bacterium Escherichia coli and huge multicellular organisms like elephants. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Their main structural uses are as part of biological membranes both internal and external, such as the cell membrane, or as a source of energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • biochemical
  • Coat colour in mammals is determined by the presence, distribution and biochemical activity of the melanocytes, which are specialized cells where eumelanins (black/brown pigments) and pheomelanins (yellow/red pigments) are synthesized. (biomedcentral.com)
  • activity
  • The Achilles tendon does not have good blood supply or cell activity, so this injury can be slow to heal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previously it was called resting stage because there is no apparent activity related to cell division.Typically interphase lasts for at least 90% of the total time required for the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • indicate
  • For instance, when an epithelial layer is complete and the adherens junctions indicate that the cell is surrounded, β-catenin may play a role in telling the cell to stop proliferating, as there is no room for more cells in the area. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • king May Help Cut Women's Breast Cancer Risk Cedars-Sinai increases the body's estrogen levels fostering the growth of cancer cells. (villa-agata.eu)
  • In other words, it is possible that in fast growth conditions the grandmother cells starts replicating its DNA for grand daughter cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactions
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Components
  • Components and strategies Cell lifestyle MCF-7 cells had been grown up in DMEM moderate filled with 10% fetal leg serum and 1% penicillin/streptomycin serum as defined (9). (cancercurehere.com)
  • surface
  • In F9 cells lacking both β-catenin and plakoglobin, very little E-cadherin and α-catenin accumulated at the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the zoospore reaches its host, it forms a cyst underneath the surface of the skin, and initiates the reproductive portion of its life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • When an injury occurs to the tendon, cells from surrounding structures migrate into the tendon to assist in repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • During this phase, the biosynthetic activities of the cell, which are considerably slowed down during M phase, resume at a high rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer cell
  • The modification of isoCA-4 by introduction of difluoromethoxy group at the para-position (3i) and substitution of the two protons of the linker by two fluorine atoms (3m), produced the most active compounds in the series, with IC50 values of 0.15-2.2 nM (3i) and 0.1-2 nM (3m) respectively, against a panel of six cancer cell lines. (deepdyve.com)
  • Although
  • Ferroptosis is a kind of regulated cell loss of life driven by oxidative damage promoting lipid peroxidation, although detailed molecular regulators are largely unknown. (biomasswars.com)
  • essential
  • May play also an essential role in telomere length maintenance and telomere capping in mammalian cells. (abcam.cn)
  • allows
  • It is hypothesized that DNA stretching by DnaA bound to the origin promotes strand separation which allows more DnaA to bind to the unwound region. (wikipedia.org)