• A new study by researchers at the Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, is raising questions about the therapeutic use of botulinum toxin A. (scienceblog.com)
  • Functional repair of motor endplates after botulinum neurotoxin type A poisoning: biphasic switch of synaptic activity between nerve sprouts and their parent terminals. (medscape.com)
  • Attrée O, Guglielmo-Viret V, Gros V, Thullier P. Development and comparison of two immunoassay formats for rapid detection of botulinum neurotoxin type A. J Immunol Methods. (springer.com)
  • Detection of botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A and B using a chemiluminescent versus electrochemiluminescent immunoassay in food and serum. (springer.com)
  • Insights into the extended duration of neuroparalysis by botulinum neurotoxin A relative to the other shorter-acting serotypes: differences between motor nerve terminals and cultured neurons. (uptodate.com)
  • In a small-scale study, adults whose reading difficulties due to convergence insufficiency had been unsuccessfully addressed by convergence exercises, base-in prism glasses or strabismus surgery showed improved reading after botulinum toxin therapy, maintaining improved reading remaining also after six months. (wikipedia.org)
  • Botulinum toxin therapy has been reported to be similarly successful as strabismus surgery for patients with binocular vision and less successful than surgery for those who have no binocular vision. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another study reported similar long-term success rates for infantile esotropia treated before 24 months of age by either strabismus surgery or botulinum toxin treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurotoxins are toxins that are poisonous or destructive to nerve tissue (causing neurotoxicity). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ching KH, Lin A, McGarvey JA, Stanker LH, Hnasko R. Rapid and selective detection of botulinum neurotoxin serotype-A and -B with a single immunochromatographic test strip. (springer.com)
  • This review is focused on the toxin structure, mechanism of action, detection methods, clinical diagnosis, and therapy including the second-generation vaccines using cell-free expression system as alternate strategy. (springer.com)
  • Even if the effect of botulinum toxin is short-lived, there could be an important benefit because atrial fibrillation that occurs after cardiac surgery -- though also usually short-lived -- is associated with longer stays in the ICU and hospital and increased risks of complications and death. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Through the inhibition of neurotransmission between peripheral nerve endings and muscle fibers, botulinum toxin weakens or paralyzes skeletal muscle. (uptodate.com)
  • Botulinum toxin types A and B are used in medicine to treat various muscle spasms and diseases characterized by overactive muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medical studies have also shown that botulinum toxins A and B effectively treat migraines, excessive sweating, and muscle pains as well. (globalsecurity.org)
  • First, if the "antagonist" muscle (the muscle pulling in the opposite direction) is active, the injected muscle will be stretched, and may permanently lengthen by adding tissue during the period of toxin paresis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The toxin will be injected through the skin into the targeted muscle. (memorialhealth.com)
  • Some agents (e.g., botulinum toxin) can be injected at the insertional end of a muscle under visual guidance, using special forceps and allowed to diffuse posteriorly, whereas others (e.g., bupivacaine) must be distributed throughout the body of the muscle, which requires non-visual guidance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Botulinum toxin paralysis reduces total muscle force by removing, or reducing, the contractile component. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following this voluntary admission, the 1995 defection and debriefing of a key Iraqi official provided western intelligence experts with evidence of 100 R400 bombs and 13 Al Hussein SCUDS that were loaded with 19,000 liters of concentrated botulinum toxins. (globalsecurity.org)
  • In 1995, authorities arrested a man suspected of possessing botulinum toxins as he crossed the US-Canadian border. (globalsecurity.org)
  • Blood can carry a number of ingested toxins, however, which would induce significant neuron death if they reach nervous tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Klein was an outspoken critic of the misuse of prescription drugs, toxins, and certain synthetic dermal fillers, including ArteFill. (wikipedia.org)