• These results support the possible utility of some vertebral morphometrics in predicting mechanical properties of the vertebral column in crocodiles, which also should be useful for forming functional hypotheses of axial motion during locomotion in extinct archosaurs. (biologists.org)
  • The stable isotope compositions of biologically precipitated apatite in bone, teeth, and scales are widely used to obtain information on the diet, behavior, and physiology of extinct organisms and to reconstruct past climate. (pnas.org)
  • Approaches to understanding the physiology of extinct animals and the evolution of endothermy have largely focused on biophysical modeling, anatomical observations, growth rate analysis from bone histology, and behavioral studies such as estimating predator/prey ratios ( 1 - 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • In most cases, safety factors in bending calculated from force/video data are lower than those determined from strain data, but are as high or higher than the safety factors of bird and mammal limb bones in bending. (biologists.org)
  • 1983 ). Locomotory stresses in the limb bones of two small mammals: the ground squirrel and chipmunk. (biologists.org)
  • Masaya Iijima, a vertebrate paleontologist from Hokkaido University in Japan and lead author on the study, measured more than 120 alligator and crocodile skeletons from nearly a dozen museums across the world. (nytimes.com)
  • If this pattern of increased bone stress with the use of a more upright posture is typical of taxa using non-parasagittal kinematics, then similar increases in load magnitudes were probably experienced by lineages that underwent evolutionary shifts to a non-sprawling posture. (biologists.org)
  • High limb bone safety factors and small body size in these lineages could have helped to accommodate such increases in limb bone stress. (biologists.org)
  • Although this ranked fifth among the species tested, Erickson said it really ranks sixth, behind the American crocodile, a rare species for which he was unable to test the largest specimens. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Bones have been found of animals identical to those we have today, but some have been found of species which do not exist today. (anchorstone.com)
  • The creature who owned this jaw bone undoubtedly swan alongside Kourisodon puntledgensis, another enormously powerful marine predator and new species of Mosasaur unearthed on Vancouver Island. (science20.com)
  • He uses fossils, proteins, and bone histology to understand molecular evolutionary rates, trends in proteins degradation and modification, and the biogeography and evolution of turtles. (smithsonianchannel.com)
  • Micro-computed tomography and histology of the synovial jaw joint of hatchling (a-d), juvenile (e-h) and adult American alligator (i-l) demonstrate articular cartilage-covered joint surfaces and a synovial cavity bounded by a fibrous joint capsule. (phys.org)
  • While investigating joints located within the heads of alligators, we found their peg-and-socket shape does not necessarily indicate movement capabilities as it had often been assumed," said Alida Bailleul, Ph.D., a post-doctoral research fellow in the MU Department of Pathology and Anatomical Sciences. (phys.org)
  • There also are pegs and sockets in the heads of alligators that researchers widely assumed were built similar to knee joints with a cavity, fluid and cartilage on both sides. (phys.org)
  • This strategy of crushing and ingesting bones would have been particularly useful for the T. rex, according to the researchers, because the giant dinosaur was not only an efficient killing machine, but also an opportunistic scavenger. (nytimes.com)
  • However, when the researchers examined the joints under the microscope, they found that they had a different internal structure with cartilage on only one side, an element that may reflect the bones' embryological origins. (phys.org)
  • In subsequent research , Dr. Erickson and his colleagues also found evidence of digested bones in the fossilized excrement of a T. rex, showing that the beast had consumed bones. (nytimes.com)
  • The saurischians had hip bones like a modern lizard - the three hip bones radiating away from the socket that held the leg, and the pubis bone pointing down and forwards. (factmonster.com)
  • The ornithischians had hip bones like a modern bird - the pubis sweeping back along the ischium, while a pair of extensions to the pubis reached forward. (factmonster.com)
  • Instead of being like modern day lizards or legendary physicists, their tongues were probably rooted to the bottoms of their mouths like alligators. (science20.com)
  • 1983 ). Allometry of quadrupedal locomotion: the scaling of duty factor, bone curvature and limb orientation to body size. (biologists.org)
  • 1983 ). Bone stress in the horse forelimb during locomotion at different gaits: a comparison of two experimental methods. (biologists.org)
  • The finding helps provide more evidence to the idea that the T. rex shattered bones and swallowed the fragments for sustenance. (nytimes.com)
  • That skin had fused miserably to the floor, knotted flesh and jutting bones recalling their mistreatment. (forumotion.com)
  • Stephen Brusatte , a paleontologist from the University of Edinburgh who reviewed the paper, said the ability to bite through bones made tyrannosaurs unique. (nytimes.com)
  • Crocodiles are nocturnal animals and during the day they either remain submersed or bask and rest on land. (scielo.org.za)
  • The general opinion was that the queer things probably were the bones of animals drowned in the Great Flood - Noah's Flood. (anchorstone.com)
  • The sad truth is that the study of these giant fossil bones has, from the beginning, been based on the conjectures of men who have completely discarded any belief in the Biblical record. (anchorstone.com)
  • His first question was whether the gashes were the work of some prehistoric giant crocodile or a tyrannosaur. (nytimes.com)
  • He played a major role in the fieldwork, and he was, in fact, one of the first to realize that some of the fossilized bones appeared to belong to a giant snake. (smithsonianchannel.com)
  • Dizzied by the brilliance of it, he crumpled back into his former placement with a brutal crack of bone and moved no further. (forumotion.com)
  • If you could bite through bone, you can get nutrients from within the bone itself," said Paul M. Gignac , a paleobiologist at Oklahoma State University and the lead author on the paper. (nytimes.com)