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  • Cytokines
  • Early studies on E's role in bone metabolism focused on the role of the proinflammatory cytokines - IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), and prostaglandin-E 2 (PGE 2 ). (jci.org)
  • regulation
  • First, the regulation of bone metabolism varies widely among rodents of different ages, strains, and species, and varies even more between rodents and humans, raising serious questions about the generality of the findings. (jci.org)
  • intake
  • It follows that an increase in vitamin D3 intake should lead to a decrease in bone resorption - it has been shown that oral administration of vitamin D does not linearly correlate to increased serum levels of calcifediol, the precursor to calcitriol. (wikipedia.org)
  • High sodium chloride intake exacerbates immobilization-induced bone resorption and protein losses. (nih.gov)
  • High NaCl intake during immobilization exacerbates disuse-induced bone and muscle loss by causing further protein wasting and an increase in bone resorption. (nih.gov)
  • The intake of A. longa roots is detrimental for kidney function and resulted in high bone resorption, maybe due to the reduction in renal function caused by the aristolochic acids contained in the roots. (hindawi.com)
  • estrogen
  • Bone resorption rates are much higher in post-menopausal older women due to estrogen deficiency related with menopause. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hormone replacement therapy (eg, estrogen, estrogen analogs) does not have a role in pediatric therapy unless the low bone mass is attributable to hypogonadism. (medscape.com)
  • loss
  • These authors show that ovariectomy-induced bone loss can be prevented by administering either E, TNF-α binding protein, or an inactivating antibody specific for TNF-α, and that bone loss does not occur in OVX, T cell-deficient animals. (jci.org)
  • They conclude that while M-CSF and RANKL are essential for physiologic OC renewal, TNF-α plays a key causal role in the bone loss associated with E deficiency. (jci.org)
  • Did you realize that bone loss actually begins around the age of thirty-five? (journal-advocate.com)
  • Loss of height indicates that the bones and teeth are losing valuable minerals that are stored in them. (journal-advocate.com)
  • The view shows multiple irregular small areas of bone loss, particularly in the pubis on both sides of the pelvis. (orthopaedicweblinks.com)
  • These agents decrease bone resorption and prevent bone loss from diminishing bone mass on an ongoing basis. (medscape.com)
  • Ethnic differences in BMI, and corresponding ethnic differences in bone resorption, appear to account for much of the ethnic variation in perimenopausal bone loss. (menopause.org.au)
  • symptoms
  • In those with symptoms the most common is kidney stones with other potential symptoms including weakness, depression, bone pains, confusion, and increased urination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Control
  • In this way, bone participates in the control of calcium levels in the blood and tissues ( 1 ) to mediate numerous cellular functions, including contraction of skeletal and cardiac muscles ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • primary
  • The results indicate that bone is primary site of action of thyrocalcitonin. (sciencemag.org)
  • The aim of this case report was to present a child with CAH, premature exfoliation of primary teeth and accelerated eruption of his permanent teeth related to bone resorption. (aappublications.org)
  • menopause
  • Sowers and colleagues have investigated potential associations between changes in bone resorption during the menopause transition and reproductive hormones, body mass index (BMI) and ethnicity . (menopause.org.au)
  • mass
  • Bone mass is maintained constant in vertebrates through bone remodeling (BR). (pnas.org)
  • There may not be a correlation between increased BMI and bone resorption, because it is excess fat mass rather than total body weight that defines obesity. (menopause.org.au)