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  • lesions
  • A bone study was negative for blastic and lytic lesions. (hindawi.com)
  • It is typically diagnosed as a result of evaluations for anemia, renal failure, and/or bone lytic lesions. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • Clinical and laboratory studies, such as M-protein levels, hemoglobin, creatinine, calcium, and beta-2 microglobulin levels, as well as imaging studies to evaluate the number of bone lesions, have been used in different staging systems for the disease. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • No evidence of bone lesions, anemia, hypercalcemia, or renal insufficiency related to the paraprotein, and No evidence of another B-cell proliferative disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • PEST stands for Papilledema, evidence of Extravascular volume overload (ascites, pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, and lower extremity edema), Sclerotic bone lesions, and Thrombocytosis/erythrocytosis (i.e. increased in blood platelets and red blood cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Bisphosphonates and radiation therapy are sometimes used to reduce pain from bone lesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • A mnemonic sometimes used to remember some of the common symptoms of multiple myeloma is CRAB: C = calcium (elevated), R = renal failure, A = anemia, B = bone lesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resultant bone lesions are lytic (cause breakdown) in nature, and are best seen in plain radiographs, which may show "punched-out" resorptive lesions (including the "raindrop" appearance of the skull on radiography). (wikipedia.org)
  • malignancy
  • Multiple myeloma is a clonal plasma cell malignancy that accounts for slightly more than 10% of all hematologic cancers. (bloodjournal.org)
  • While posttransplantation relapse of disease resulting from a failure to eradicate the patient's original leukemia could occur, patients may also rarely develop a secondary malignancy or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) of donor origin termed donor cell leukemia (DCL). (hindawi.com)
  • However, patients may also rarely develop a secondary malignancy or myelodysplastic syndrome of donor origin termed donor cell leukemia (DCL) [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • At the other end of this spectrum, detection of the myeloid protein indicates the presence of a hematological malignancy, i.e. multiple myeloma, Waldenstr├Âm's macroglobulinemia, or other B cell-associated neoplasm, that derives stepwise from its MGUS precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the cited gene changes can go awry in plasma cells by, for example, placing a gene that ordinarily controls cell growth adjacent to the normally highly active antibody gene promotor thereby creating a cancer-causing oncogene or, more commonly, by forming extra chromosomes (see trisomy) or chromosomes that have deleted or repetitive sections, any of which such changes may promote malignancy in more complex and less well understood ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apheresis
  • In the years after the act was passed, a new procedure (apheresis) made it possible to harvest bone marrow cells through a non-surgical procedure similar to blood donation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The automated red blood cell collection procedure for donating erythrocytes is referred to as 'Double Reds' or 'Double Red Cell Apheresis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plateletpheresis is the collection of platelets by apheresis while returning the RBCs, WBCs, and component plasma. (wikipedia.org)
  • dyscrasia
  • This is especially useful in cases of oligosecretory plasma-cell dyscrasia or for following cases of light-chain amyloidosis. (cigna.com)
  • The name POEMS is an acronym for some of the disease's major signs and symptoms (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, myeloma protein, and skin changes), as is PEP (polyneuropathy, endocrinopathy, plasma cell dyscrasia). (wikipedia.org)
  • platelets
  • These marrow components can be divided into plasma, red blood cells, platelets, and nucleated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CFU-GEMM cell is capable of differentiating into white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets, all of which are normally found in circulating blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • The end product in most cases is the classic sedimented blood sample with the RBC's at the bottom, the buffy coat of platelets and WBC's (lymphocytes/granulocytes, PMN's, basophils, eosinophils/monocytes) in the middle and the plasma on top. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • LAG-3 may be a better checkpoint inhibitor target than CTLA-4 or PD-1 since antibodies to these two checkpoints only activate effector T cells, and do not inhibit Treg activity, whereas an antagonist LAG-3 antibody can both activate T effector cells (by downregulating the LAG-3 inhibiting signal into pre-activated LAG-3+ cells) and inhibit induced (i.e. antigen-specific) Treg suppressive activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The phenotype of LAG-3 knockout mice, as established by the INSERM Strasbourg group in 1996, demonstrated that LAG-3 was vital for the proper functioning of natural killer cells but in 1998 Triebel, working with LAG-3 antibodies and soluble protein, found that LAG-3 did not define a specific mode of natural killing. (wikipedia.org)
  • MGUS resembles multiple myeloma and similar diseases, but the levels of antibody are lower, the number of plasma cells (white blood cells that secrete antibodies) in the bone marrow is lower, and it has no symptoms or major problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • While these antibodies have a variety of specificities, their main mechanism of immunosuppression is through depletion of T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • As an rATG, thymoglobulin consists of polyclonal antibodies, which, unlike monoclonal antibodies, target a large variety of immune cell surface proteins, including B and T lymphocyte, natural killer cell, and plasma cell surface antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Commercial uses aside from FFP for this procedure include immunoglobulin products, plasma derivatives, and collection of rare WBC and RBC antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple myeloma, also known as plasma cell myeloma, is a cancer of plasma cells, a type of white blood cell normally responsible for producing antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The underlying mechanism involves abnormal plasma cells producing abnormal antibodies which can cause kidney problems and overly thick blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the total immunoglobulin level is typically elevated in multiple myeloma, the majority of the antibodies are ineffective monoclonal antibodies from the clonal plasma cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • urine
  • Solly thought that the disease was an inflammatory process and that it began with a "morbid action" of the blood vessels in which the "earthy matter of the bone is absorbed and thrown out by the kidneys in the urine. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Lubricin, as MSF, was detected in the urine of patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation during a period of acute thrombocytopenia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The overproduced Ig's, termed myeloma proteins, commonly circulate in blood, may accumulate in urine, and are the hallmarks of plasma cell dyscrasias including their most malignant forms viz. (wikipedia.org)
  • examination
  • Histologic examination of the bone marrow revealed round or oval cells that were one-half to twice as large as an average blood cell and contained one or 2 nuclei and a bright-colored nucleolus. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Conventional karyotyping is routinely performed as part of the bone marrow examination and detects abnormalities in approximately one-third of cases, depending on the presence of plasma cells in the sample. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • differentiation
  • LAG3, which was discovered in 1990 and was designated CD223 (cluster of differentiation 223) after the Seventh Human Leucocyte Differentiation Antigen Workshop in 2000, is a cell surface molecule with diverse biologic effects on T cell function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the adult bone marrow consists of blood cells in various stages of differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The common myeloid progenitor (CMP) and the common lymphoid progenitor (CLP) are the first branch of cell differentiation in hematopoiesis after the hemocytoblast (hematopoietic stem cell). (wikipedia.org)
  • They often promote cell differentiation and maturation, which varies between growth factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, bone morphogenetic proteins stimulate bone cell differentiation, while fibroblast growth factors and vascular endothelial growth factors stimulate blood vessel differentiation (angiogenesis). (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-5 - Induces differentiation of activated B cells and eosinophils. (wikipedia.org)
  • lytic bone
  • If clinically warranted, take needle aspirates of a solitary lytic bone lesion, extramedullary tumor(s), or enlarged lymph node(s) to determine whether these are plasmacytomas. (cigna.com)
  • malignancies
  • IL-7 promotes hematological malignancies (acute lymphoblastic leukemia, T cell lymphoma). (wikipedia.org)
  • Hematologists may specialize further or have special interests, for example, in: treating bleeding disorders such as hemophilia and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura treating hematological malignancies such as lymphoma and leukemia (cancers) treating hemoglobinopathies the science of blood transfusion and the work of a blood bank bone marrow and stem cell transplantation Starting hematologists complete a four-year medical degree followed by three or four more years in residency or internship programs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphoma
  • IgM monoclonal gammopathy is usually associated with a B-cell lymphoma, most commonly lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, but other B-cell lymphomas, such as marginal zone lymphoma or chronic lymphocyte leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL), are possibilities. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • It is approved in the U.S. and Europe for treating relapsed multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • synovial
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a approximately 345 kDa specifically synthesized by chondrocytes located at the surface of articular cartilage, and also by synovial lining cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer
  • In 1999 Triebel showed that LAG-3 could be used as a cancer vaccine, through cancer cell lines transfected with LAG-3. (wikipedia.org)
  • A human study of IL-7 in patients with cancer demonstrated that administration of this cytokine can transiently disrupt the homeostasis of both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells with a commensurate decrease in the percentage of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T regulatory cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signs and symptoms of a cancer causing a paraneoplastic syndrome result from the release of humoral factors such as hormones, cytokines, or immunoglobulins by the syndrome's neoplastic cells and/or the response of the immune system to the neoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some cancers, the proteins that normally kill cancer cells are broken down too quickly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bortezomib interrupts this process and lets those proteins kill the cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The much greater sensitivity of myeloma cell lines and mantle cell lines to proteasome inhibition compared with normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells and most other cancer cell lines is poorly understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • engraftment
  • Evaluate the rapidity of engraftment and CD4 count recovery post-transplantation in this patient population. (knowcancer.com)
  • Once these MSCs are ready for re-implanation, they are usually transferred with growth factors to allow for continued cell growth and engraftment to the damaged tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • hematological
  • Their routine work mainly includes the care and treatment of patients with hematological diseases, although some may also work at the hematology laboratory viewing blood films and bone marrow slides under the microscope, interpreting various hematological test results and blood clotting test results. (wikipedia.org)
  • progenitor cells
  • This study revealed that IL-1 plays an important role in the regulation of the production of stimulatory factors that influence the progenitor cells of hematopoiesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Sometimes the transplanted cells can make an immune response against the body's normal tissues. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • GVHD is a condition in which immune cells within the graft attack host cells and cause tissue damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is advantageous opposed to synthetic polymers and collagen gels when cost, inflammation, immune response, toxicity and cell adhesion are concerned. (wikipedia.org)
  • Historically, cytokines were associated with hematopoietic (blood and lymph forming) cells and immune system cells (e.g., lymphocytes and tissue cells from spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, as different lines of research converged, it became clear that some of the same signaling proteins which the hematopoietic and immune systems use were also being used by all sorts of other cells and tissues, during development and in the mature organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasma cells are key effector elements of the adaptive immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1998
  • The Triebel group in 1998 established that LAG-3 expression on activated human T cells is upregulated by IL-2, IL-7 and IL-12 and also showed that expression of LAG-3 may be controlled by some CD4 regulatory elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • It is suggested that various other cytokines produced by the clonal plasma cells, perhaps working in concert with each other as well as with VEGF and the myeloma proteins, mediate many of the features of POEMS syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Membranes for artificial cells be made of simple polymers, crosslinked proteins, lipid membranes or polymer-lipid complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell membrane is composed of proteins and lipids, and this structure provides properties essential for physiological cell function such as deformability and stability while traversing the circulatory system and specifically the capillary network. (wikipedia.org)
  • Having oxygen-carrying proteins inside specialized cells (as opposed to oxygen carriers being dissolved in body fluid) was an important step in the evolution of vertebrates as it allows for less viscous blood, higher concentrations of oxygen, and better diffusion of oxygen from the blood to the tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells are characterized by expressing the cell surface markers CD33, CD34 and HLA-DR. These surface markers are proteins on the surface that are unique to specific cells and certain maturation periods, allowing researchers to differentiate between two different cells as well as what stage the cell is found in its developmental progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common cause of kidney failure in multiple myeloma is due to proteins secreted by the malignant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biological
  • An artificial cell or minimal cell is an engineered particle that mimics one or many functions of a biological cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term does not refer to a specific physical entity, but rather to the idea that certain functions or structures of biological cells can be replaced or supplemented with a synthetic entity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Often, artificial cells are biological or polymeric membranes which enclose biologically active materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • When they are no longer able to perform their purpose, interference of new cells and biological cues is provided by a scaffold material. (wikipedia.org)