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  • vitro
  • Deletion of integrin alpha6 receptor or inhibition by a function-blocking antibody inhibited FL LSK cell adhesion to its extracellular ligands, laminins-411 and -511 in vitro, and significantly reduced homing of HPCs to BM. (ox.ac.uk)
  • When cells that expanded in vitro were transplanted into recipient animals, they morphologically and functionally differentiated into hepatocytes and cholangiocytes with reconstitution of hepatocyte and bile duct structures. (rupress.org)
  • Altogether our results indicate that OBs are able to affect HPSCs on 2 different levels: on one side, they increase the immature progenitor pool in vitro, on the other side, they favor the expansion of the mono/macrophage precursors at the expense of the erythroid lineage. (jove.com)
  • In vitro, B-cell progenitor clonogenic potential was reduced in Cdx4-deficient animals but no significant alteration of mature B cells was detected in vivo. (haematologica.org)
  • An ability to isolate osteoclasts in high numbers in vitro has allowed for significant advances in the understanding of the bone remodeling cycle and has paved the way for the discovery of novel therapeutic strategies that combat these diseases. (jove.com)
  • Similarly, in vitro culturing protocols for producing osteoclasts from human precursor cells in the presence of specific cytokines enables scientists to study osteoclastogenesis in human cells for translational applications. (jove.com)
  • The isolated cells are suitable for a wide range of functional and molecular studies, which include in vitro culture and T-cell stimulation assays as well as transcriptome, proteome or secretome analyses 3, 4 . (jove.com)
  • These properties can be illustrated with relative ease in vitro, using methods such as clonogenic assays, where the progeny of a single cell is characterized. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it is known that in vitro cell culture conditions can alter the behavior of cells, proving that a particular subpopulation of cells possesses stem cell properties in vivo is challenging, and so considerable debate exists as to whether some proposed stem cell populations in the adult are indeed stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can be induced by modifying the growth medium when stem cells are cultured in vitro or transplanting them to an organ of the body different from the one they were originally isolated from. (wikipedia.org)
  • SCF also increases the survival of various hematopoietic progenitor cells, such as megakaryocyte progenitors, in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hematopoietic progenitor cells have also been shown to migrate towards a higher concentration gradient of SCF in vitro, which suggests that SCF is involved in chemotaxis for these cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • They showed that opposing gradients of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Nodal, two transforming growth factor family members that act as morphogens, are sufficient to induce molecular and cellular mechanisms required to organize, in vivo or in vitro, uncommitted cells of the zebrafish blastula animal pole into a well-developed embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells are then grown under controlled in vitro conditions in a lab, so that they can multiply and same time mature( also referred to as differentiated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Attempts to create organs in vitro started with one of the first dissociation-reaggregation experiment where Henry Van Peters Wilson demonstrated that mechanically dissociated sponge cells can reaggregate and self-organize to generate a whole organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the advent of the field of stem cell biology, the potential of stem cells to form organs in vitro was realized early on with the observation that when stem cells form teratomas or embryoid body, the differentiated cells can organize into different structures resembling those found in multiple tissue types. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2009 the Laboratory of Hans Clevers at Hubrecht Institute and University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands showed that single LGR5 stem cells build crypt-villus structures in vitro without a mesenchymal niche. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2010, Mathieu Unbekandt & Jamie A. Davies demonstrated the production of renal organoids from murine fetus-derived renogenic stem cells: subsequent reports showed significant physiological function of these organoids in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word 'niche' can be in reference to the in vivo or in vitro stem-cell microenvironment. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells are phenotypically similar to endothelial cells and have been shown to create vessel-like structures in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hemangioblasts (or their in vitro counterpart, blast - colony forming cells) are cells believed to give rise to both the endothelial and hematopoietic systems during early development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of such cells are CFUs (Colony-forming units - referred to as such because of their ability to form colonies in vitro in artificial media) such as CFU-T. In mice, transplantation of a single pHSC cell can reconstitute a sub-lethally irradiated host (i.e. a mouse that has been irradiated so that all leukocytes are killed) with all these lineages of cells, including all types of lymphocytes via CLPs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Murine
  • citation needed] CD34 is expressed in roughly 20% of murine hematopoietic stem cells, and can be stimulated and reversed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The heterogeneity within the CD34 + CD38 − compartment of human cells is reminiscent of the functional heterogeneity as outlined above for murine cells with a Thy-1.1 lo Sca1 hi Lin −/lo phenotype. (rupress.org)
  • To evaluate the potential of BM to generate mature neurons in adult C57BL/6 mice, we transferred the enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene into BM cells using a murine stem cell virus-based retroviral vector. (rupress.org)
  • However, we believe the use of primary murine AECII allows a better understanding of the role of this cell type in complex processes like infection or autoimmune inflammation. (jove.com)
  • Our protocol for the isolation of primary murine AECII is based on enzymatic digestion of the mouse lung followed by labeling of the resulting cell suspension with antibodies specific for CD11c, CD11b, F4/80, CD19, CD45 and CD16/CD32. (jove.com)
  • Note- CD44 expression is usually used to distinguish murine naive from memory T cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • We hypothesized that analysis of the changes in the molecular and electrophysiological properties of EHT upon test cell injection could provide insight into the potential (or limitations) of different test cell populations and conditions for cardiac cell therapy. (pnas.org)
  • This work focuses on understanding the factors controlling the migration and expansion of bone marrow-derived and blood-forming (hematopoietic) stem cells in mice, as well as developing methods for the isolation and manipulation of distinct stem and progenitor cell populations from adult mouse skeletal muscle. (harvard.edu)
  • In healthy adult laboratory animals, progenitor cells migrate within the brain and function primarily to maintain neuron populations for olfaction (the sense of smell). (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular genetic analysis of early outgrowth putative EPC populations suggests they do indeed have monocyte-like expression patterns, and support the existence of a separate population of progenitors, the late outgrowth, or endothelial colony forming cell (ECFC). (wikipedia.org)
  • By method of isolation and cell function, three main populations of putative adult EPCs have been described. (wikipedia.org)
  • Development and regeneration involves the coordination and organization of populations cells into a blastema, which is "a mound of stem cells from which regeneration begins. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • Various chemomkines and receptors are involved in the homing of hematopoietic stem cells. (jove.com)
  • Progenitor epithelial cells expressed sialic acid receptors utilized by avian and mammalian influenza viruses and were targets for influenza virus replication. (jove.com)
  • It is believed that the molecular distinction between symmetric and asymmetric divisions lies in differential segregation of cell membrane proteins (such as receptors) between the daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specialized gamma delta T cells, (a small minority of T cells in the human body, more frequent in ruminants), have invariant T-cell receptors with limited diversity, that can effectively present antigens to other T cells and are considered to be part of the innate immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Ash1l deficiency also decreased expression of multiple Hox genes in hematopoietic progenitors. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Stem cell markers are genes and their protein products used by scientists to isolate and identify stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The expression 'pattern' of genes related to pluripotency in Muse cells was almost the same as that in ES and iPS cells, while the expression 'level' was much higher in ES and iPS cells and that in Muse cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, genes related to cell cycle progression and tumorigenicity in Muse cells were at the same level as those in somatic cells, while the same genes were very high in ES and iPS cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells in the primordia of zebrafish fins, for example, express four genes from the homeobox msx family during development and regeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial cells
  • Previously, we demonstrated that nonhematopoietic BM cells are the primary source of BM-derived lung epithelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • We directly compared the level of BM-derived epithelial cells after transplantation of VSELs, hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, or other nonhematopoietic cells. (nih.gov)
  • VSELs clearly had the highest rate of forming epithelial cells in the lung. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, these cells differentiated into pancreatic ductal and acinar cells or intestinal epithelial cells when transplanted into pancreas or duodenal wall. (rupress.org)
  • In this study, we isolated and characterized progenitor epithelial cells from the bone marrow of 4- to 5-week old germ-free pigs. (jove.com)
  • When cultured in epithelial cell growth medium, the progenitor epithelial cells expressed type I and type II pneumocyte markers. (jove.com)
  • Our data indicate that we have identified a unique population of progenitor epithelial cells in the bone marrow that might have airway reconstitution potential and may be a useful model for cell-based therapies for infectious and non-infectious lung diseases. (jove.com)
  • Throughout the last years, the contribution of alveolar type II epithelial cells (AECII) to various aspects of immune regulation in the lung has been increasingly recognized. (jove.com)
  • However, our understanding of the detailed immunologic functions served by alveolar type II epithelial cells in the healthy lung as well as in inflammation remains fragmentary. (jove.com)
  • In comparison to alternative methods of isolating primary epithelial cells from mouse lungs, our protocol for flow cytometric isolation of AECII by negative selection yields untouched, highly viable and pure AECII in relatively short time. (jove.com)
  • These are concentric, layered whorls of epithelial cells that increase in number throughout life. (wikipedia.org)
  • isolation
  • Sorting strategy for isolation of VSELs and non-hematopoietic non-VSEL-cells, experimental approach and expression of Oct4 and Nanog in VSELs isolated from BM. (nih.gov)
  • Additionally, and in contrast to conventional methods of isolation by panning and depletion of lymphocytes via binding of antibody-coupled magnetic beads 14, 15 , flow cytometric cell-sorting allows discrimination by means of cell size and granularity. (jove.com)
  • Cell isolation by SSEA-3 cell sorting can be done using SSEA-3 antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • A variety of techniques has been developed for the isolation and culturing of amniotic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapies
  • Furthermore, the large experimental matrix generated by testing different cell types cultured with different survival and integration molecules, creates a barrier to the rapid development of candidate therapies. (pnas.org)
  • Stem cells have the potential to be used for cell replacement therapies. (ucmerced.edu)
  • Manipulation of hepatic stem cells may provide new insight into therapies for diseases of the digestive system. (rupress.org)
  • She is interested in increasing our basic science understanding of these interactions and also developing new novel therapies that stem from this work to expand treatment options for a wide variety of pediatric and adult diseases. (stanford.edu)
  • Adult stem cells are frequently used in various medical therapies (e.g., bone marrow transplantation). (wikipedia.org)
  • The paracrine soluble factors produced by stem cells, known as the stem cell secretome, has been found to be the predominant mechanism by which stem cell-based therapies mediate their effects in degenerative, auto-immune and inflammatory diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • isolate
  • Additionally, it now appears possible to identify and isolate specific ESC-derived cardiac progenitors (ESC-CPs) ( 9 - 11 ), opening the possibility of using progenitor cells for cardiac cell therapy, as has been explored using pancreatic endoderm progenitors for the generation of insulin responsive islet-like cells ( 12 , 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • Here, we describe a protocol to isolate and cultivate osteoclasts from mouse bone marrow that will yield large numbers of osteoclasts. (jove.com)
  • niche
  • Though several components of the stem cell niche have been identified, the regulatory mechanisms through which such components regulate the stem cell fate are still unknown. (jove.com)
  • The stem cells and niche may induce each other during development and reciprocally signal to maintain each other during adulthood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yet the niche may also induce pathologies by imposing aberrant function on stem cells or other targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • The simple location of stem cells is not sufficient to define a niche. (wikipedia.org)
  • This bi-compartmental structure of stem cell niche has been mathematically modeled to obtain the optimal architecture that leads to the maximum delay in double-hit mutant production. (wikipedia.org)
  • flow cytometric
  • Given that instrumentation for flow cytometric cell sorting is available, the described procedure can be applied at relatively low costs. (jove.com)
  • regeneration
  • Myocardial regeneration is perhaps the most widely studied and debated example of stem cell plasticity. (ahajournals.org)
  • To further understand the role of stem cells in regeneration, it is incumbent on us to develop instrumentation and technologies to monitor myocardial repair over time in large animal models. (ahajournals.org)
  • However, it remains unclear how the liver is regenerated and what cells are involved in such regeneration. (rupress.org)
  • Of major importance in understanding proliferative processes in the liver is to recognize that fully differentiated hepatocytes themselves possess great growth potential and that stem cells may not be required for liver regeneration ( Michalopoulos and DeFrances, 1997 ). (rupress.org)
  • The bone marrow contains heterogeneous population of cells that are involved in the regeneration and repair of diseased organs, including the lungs. (jove.com)
  • One example is the transformation of iris cells to lens cells in the process of maturation and transformation of retinal pigment epithelium cells into the neural retina during regeneration in adult newt eyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells also have potential medical applications, especially in organ regeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • In biology, regeneration is the process of renewal, restoration, and growth that makes genomes, cells, organisms, and ecosystems resilient to natural fluctuations or events that cause disturbance or damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Limited regeneration of limbs occurs in most fishes and salamanders, and tail regeneration takes place in larval frogs and toads (but not adults). (wikipedia.org)