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  • mice
  • Complete bone marrow was isolated from wild-kind mice and seeded at 1.86105 cells/cm2 in the existence or absence of Flt-3L (a hundred ng/ml), PTH (10 nM), a mixture of both, or motor vehicle only, (A) Circulation cytometric analyses of Annexin V+ Propidium Iodide- (early apoptosis) cells executed on non-adherent cells. (c14-demethylase.com)
  • solid
  • Frequently, a trephine biopsy is also obtained, which yields a narrow, cylindrically shaped solid piece of bone marrow, 2mm wide and 2 cm long (80 μL), which is examined microscopically (sometimes with the aid of immunohistochemistry) for cellularity and infiltrative processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The needle is then advanced with a twisting motion and rotated to obtain a solid piece of bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • In vitro T cell depletion in paediatric patients is usually reserved for those with transplants from partially matched family donors or unrelated volunteers. (unipv.it)
  • Because CTCs are present not only in patients with metastatic disease but also in those at stage I to III cancer, these cells may represent an undetected spread of the tumor and serve also as a prognostic marker ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • These findings demonstrate that young thalassemic patients treated with chemotherapy for bone marrow transplantation should be followed-up for a long period of time to determine their need for hormone replacement therapy. (readabstracts.com)
  • Increase
  • Additionally, when IL-six signaling was blocked in the non-adherent cell populace by cucurbitacin (a STAT-3 inhibitor), there was a reduce in the capacity of PTH to increase cell numbers in the existence of Flt-3L (Figure 6E). (c14-demethylase.com)
  • cancer
  • Early metastasis in node-negative breast cancer indicates that breast cancer cells obviously can bypass the lymph nodes and disseminate directly hematogenous to distant organs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • study
  • A letter to the editor is presented about a study on hematologic cancers following allogeneic blood-cell transplantation or bone marrow transplantation. (ebscohost.com)
  • represent
  • Aspiration does not always represent all cells since some such as lymphoma stick to the trabecula, and would thus be missed by a simple aspiration. (wikipedia.org)
  • lower
  • B) Graph of the fold induction for proportion of Annexin V+ cells, (lower right quadrant from histograms represented in A) p,.05 as opposed to Flt-3L, p,.01 for vehicle and PTH compared to Flt-3L. (c14-demethylase.com)
  • Graph of the share of Annexin V+ cells, p,.05 vs . automobile.establish if IL-6 mediates the PTH capability to lower cell apoptosis in 17628524 vivo, movement cytometric analyses for Annexin V+ cells was carried out. (c14-demethylase.com)
  • cerebellar Purkinje cells
  • A gain of channel function, resulting from a point mutation in mouse GRID2, is associated with the phenotype named 'lurcher', which in the heterozygous state leads to ataxia and motor coordination deficits resulting from selective, cell-autonomous apoptosis of cerebellar Purkinje cells during postnatal development. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian cells
  • They differ biochemically from thymidine kinase from mammalian cells and are inhibited by specific inhibitors that do not influence the activity of mammalian thymidine kinases. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammalian cells, urea is the chief end-product of nitrogen catabolism and plays an important role in the urinary concentration mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists
  • Scientists at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute (SBP) have made a major advance in understanding how the cells of an organism, which all contain the same genetic information, come to be so diverse. (phys.org)
  • Scientists have long assumed that once the inflammatory response concludes, the white blood cells mostly either then die or go into circulation in the bloodstream. (innovations-report.com)
  • fibroblasts
  • A study published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine found that cells found in breast cancer tumors can strengthen themselves by pulling in non-cancerous fibroblasts originally formed in bone marrow called mesenchymal stromal cells, or MSCs. (upi.com)
  • Our study shows that the recruitment of bone marrow-derived fibroblasts is important for promoting tumor growth, likely by enhancing blood vessel formation," Neta Erez, researcher at Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, said in a press release. (upi.com)
  • Breast cancer tumors with these bone marrow-associated fibroblasts can therefore grow more blood vessels that allow them to develop more quickly than tumors without fibroblast interactions. (upi.com)
  • Erez and her colleagues observed that human breast cancer tumors also have fibroblasts without PDGFRα, meaning human tumors may also pull in bone marrow cells. (upi.com)
  • Understanding the function of these cancer-associated fibroblasts could form the basis of developing novel therapeutic manipulations that co-target bone marrow-derived fibroblasts as well as the cancer cells themselves," Erez said. (upi.com)
  • The mortar which surrounds the bricks is known as the extracellular matrix, produced by supporting cells known as fibroblasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • donor
  • So, to create an environment where two bone marrow systems exist and function in one person , a team led by Suzanne Ildstad the University of Louisville looked to bioengineered versions of cells from donor bone marrow. (zdnet.com)
  • At the same time, the FDNY participates with NYBC in the "Be The Match Program" operated by the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP). (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Human cells shed exosomes. (infowars.com)
  • It is involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body, especially affecting DNA synthesis, fatty acid and amino acid metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells are some of the largest neurons in the human brain (Betz cells being the largest), with an intricately elaborate dendritic arbor, characterized by a large number of dendritic spines. (wikipedia.org)
  • hematopoietic stem
  • In 2014, the New York Blood Center's National Cord Blood Program (NCBP) at the Howard P. Milstein Cord Blood Center received the Prix Galien USA "Best Biotechnology Product" distinction for the development of HEMACORD, an innovative hematopoietic stem cell product and the first of its kind to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • 7-Aminoactinomycin D used e.g. in flowcytometric studies of hematopoietic stem cell viability. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • MarrowMAX™ medium far outperforms commercially available formulations supplemented with giant cell tumor (GCT) conditioned media (Figure 1), providing consistent lot-to-lot performance (Figure 2) with a higher mitotic index and superior chromosome morphology. (thermofisher.com)
  • The enzyme suggested as a tumor marker in malignant disease is the cytosolic cell cycle dependent TK1 that is present during cell division in quantities much larger than TK2 and is therefore set free to the circulation in quantities that completely dominate the activity of thymidine kinase in blood and other body fluids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor cells release enzyme to the circulation, probably in connection with the disruption of dead or dying tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • findings
  • These findings have been challenged by a study suggesting that such toggling by climbing-fiber inputs occurs predominantly in anaesthetized animals and that Purkinje cells in awake behaving animals, in general, operate almost continuously in the upstate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Findings have suggested that Purkinje cell dendrites release endocannabinoids that can transiently downregulate both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • GluD2-containing receptors are selectively/predominantly expressed in Purkinje cells in the cerebellum where they play a key role in synaptogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and motor coordination. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • With blood cells, however, we need both red and white in order to stay healthy and function well. (phys.org)
  • The seal is formed with the help of cells that circulate in your blood all the time and are on the spot immediately. (innovations-report.com)
  • The body also has an inflammatory response: signals direct white blood cells to the area of the wound. (innovations-report.com)
  • The white blood cells arrive to fight off foreign bacteria and infection. (innovations-report.com)
  • People have known for awhile that there are a few white blood cells in the skin - that's how people come down with contact dermatitis. (innovations-report.com)
  • However, the white blood cells involved in contact dermatitis express a certain protein, CD45. (innovations-report.com)
  • It was known that blockade of a chemokine receptor called CXCR4 mediates mobilization of bone marrow progenitor cells into the blood circulation and contributes to repair of heart muscle after heart attacks. (infowars.com)
  • Leucopenia / Leukopenia is a decrease in the number of total white blood cells found in blood. (medindia.net)
  • The PreciseType HEA test screens blood donors for sickle cell trait (SCT), an inherited blood disorder that affects 1 million to 3 million Americans, including 8-10% of African Americans. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the same way that the walls of a house contain electrical wires and plumbing, cardiac muscle also contains specialised cells for conducting electrical signals rapidly (the cardiac conduction system), and blood vessels to bring nutrients to the muscle cells and take away waste products (the coronary arteries, veins and capillary network). (wikipedia.org)
  • Each cardiomyocyte needs to contract in coordination with its neighbouring cells to efficiently pump blood from the heart, and if this coordination breaks down then - despite individual cells contracting - the heart may not pump at all, such as may occur during abnormal heart rhythms such as ventricular fibrillation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that has a key role in the normal functioning of the brain and nervous system via the synthesis of myelin (myelinogenesis), and the formation of red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, as a single fertilized egg cell - the zygote - continues to divide, the resulting daughter cells change into all the different cell types in an organism, including neurons, muscle cells, epithelium, endothelium of blood vessels, etc., by activating some genes while inhibiting the expression of others. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic development
  • Epigenesis in the context of the biology of that period referred to the differentiation of cells from their initial totipotent state in embryonic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • Keating, director of the Cell Therapy Program at the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre and University Health Network (UHN), said he hopes to begin clinical trials of the HUCPVC cells on patients within the next 12 to 18 months. (healthcanal.com)
  • Understanding how the protein HMGB1 works as a distress signal to summon these particular bone marrow cells is expected to have significant implications for clinical medicine, and could potentially revolutionise the management of wound healing. (thaindian.com)
  • neurons
  • In pursuing that finding, he and his colleagues found that the bone marrow cells that produced insulin adversely affected nerve cells or neurons. (innovations-report.com)
  • In our latest studies, we were surprised to discover that insulin-producing cells originating from bone marrow caused premature cell death and dysfunction when they merged with neurons, resulting in neuropathy," said Chan. (innovations-report.com)
  • Purkinje cells, or Purkinje neurons (/pərˈkɪndʒiː/ pər-KIN-jee), are a class of GABAergic neurons located in the cerebellum. (wikipedia.org)
  • PCP4 accelerates both the association and dissociation of calcium (Ca2+) with calmodulin (CaM) in the cytoplasm of Purkinje cells, and its absence impairs the physiology of these neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toggle
  • We now know that activation of the Purkinje cell by climbing fibers can shift its activity from a quiet state to a spontaneously active state and vice versa, serving as a kind of toggle switch. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • Thus, overall, the injured heart is signaling to mobilize the bone marrow progenitor cells. (infowars.com)
  • While in supravital staining the living cells take up the stain, in "vital staining" - the most accepted but apparently paradoxical meaning of this term, the living cells exclude the stain i.e. stain negatively and only the dead cells stain positively and thus viability can be assessed by counting the percentage of total cells that stain negatively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the plasma membrane of erythrocytes and some renal epithelial cells exhibit an elevated urea permeability that is mediated by highly selective urea transporters. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • Chromatid and chromosome aberrations were investigated in 100 metaphase cells per animal and percent micronuclei frequencies were investigated in 1,000 metaphase cells per animal. (mdpi.com)
  • mitochondria
  • In the cells of higher organisms, organelles such as the nucleus or mitochondria perform a range of complex functions necessary for life. (innovations-report.com)
  • Soon it was shown that TK1 is present in the cytoplasm only in anticipation of cell division (cell cycle-dependent) whereas TK2 which is located in mitochondria is cell cycle-independent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiac muscle cells contain many mitochondria which provide the energy needed for the cell in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), making them highly resistant to fatigue. (wikipedia.org)
  • normal
  • The normal total white cell count is 5000-10000 per cubic millimeter. (medindia.net)
  • After cell division is completed, TK1 is degraded intracellularly, so that it does not pass to body fluids after normal cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second route is used by the cell under normal conditions, and it is sufficient to supply thymidine monophosphate for DNA repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eosin dye exclusion Propidium iodide, DNA stain that can differentiate necrotic, apoptotic and normal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Previously, Chan and members of his laboratory had found that bone marrow cells were among a group of cells in organs other than the pancreas that unexpectedly produced small amounts of insulin. (innovations-report.com)
  • Purkinje cells are found within the Purkinje layer in the cerebellum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both basket and stellate cells (found in the cerebellar molecular layer) provide inhibitory (GABAergic) input to the Purkinje cell, with basket cells synapsing on the Purkinje cell axon initial segment and stellate cells onto the dendrites. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • Since supravital and intravital nature of the staining depends on the dye, a combination of supravital and vital dyes can also be used in a sophisticated way to better classify cells into distinct subsets (e.g. viable, dead, dying etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Purkinje cells show two distinct forms of electrophysiological activity: Simple spikes occur at rates of 17 - 150 Hz (Raman and Bean, 1999), either spontaneously or when Purkinje cells are activated synaptically by the parallel fibers, the axons of the granule cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collagen
  • Myocardium is composed of individual heart muscle cells (cardiomyocytes) joined together by intercalated disks, encased by collagen fibres and other substances forming the extracellular matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • cerebellum
  • The Purkinje layer of the cerebellum, which contains the cell bodies of the Purkinje cells and Bergmann glia, express a large number of unique genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular
  • They are continuous with the cell membrane, are composed of the same phospholipid bilayer, and are open at the cell surface to the fluid that surrounds the cell (the extracellular fluid). (wikipedia.org)
  • CXCR5
  • Neuroinvasion velocity correlated exclusively with the relative locations of FDCs and nerves: transfer of CXCR5-/- bone marrow to wild-type mice induced perineural FDCs and enhanced neuroinvasion, whereas reciprocal transfer to CXCR5-/- mice abolished them and restored normal efficiency of neuroinvasion. (uzh.ch)
  • B cells lacking CXCR5, the receptor for CXCL13, still enter the white pulp, but are mislocalized and disorganized. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stimulation of CXCR5 on B cells upregulates LT production, which leads to FDCs activation and stimulates further CXCL13 secretion, thus generating a positive feed-forward loop. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • The research team compared the bone health and metabolism of rats across different diet and exercise conditions, zeroing in on messenger molecules that signal the activity of genes in bone marrow. (membs.org)
  • Sox9 blocked osteochondroprogenitor cells were found to express osteoblast marker genes, reprogramming the cells into the osteoblastic lineage. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • In order to define the complex behavior of a tumor cell population associated with these complex gene expressions, we have chosen to define entropies of apoptosis, cellular differentiation and survival or growth inhibition. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These phenotypes include the set of transformed states associated with aberrant gene expression, the set of differentiated states that have been defined as a result of stochastic gene expression and the distribution of cells between living and dead or growth inhibited. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Some cases are inherited, and these cases are often caused by mutations in the CDH1 gene, which encodes the important cell-cell adhesion glycoprotein E-cadherin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hematopoietic progenitor cell antigen CD34 also known as CD34 antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD34 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a 166 amino acid protein produced by E. coli bacteria into which a gene has been inserted for soluble human stem cell factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • The THP-1 monocytic cell line which displays macrophage like differentiation in response to phorbol esters was used as a model system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This results in the formation of GC, where antigen-activated B cells are trapped to undergo somatic mutation, positive and negative selection, isotype switching, and differentiation into high-affinity plasma cells and memory B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-catenin of the canonical Wnt signalling pathway plays a role in cell fate determination, as it is critical for osteoblastogenesis, and the differentiation of chondrocytes into osteoblasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conditional inactivation of TGF-βr2 of osteochondroprogenitor cells in the cranial neural crest resulted in faster osteoprogenitor differentiation and disorganised chondrogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • macrophages
  • J Immunol 140:1123-1131 (1987) Hemopoietic lineage conversion: v-raf oncogene converts Eμ-myc transgenic B cells into macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • progression
  • Cdc42 in turn regulates signaling pathways that control diverse cellular functions including morphology, migration, endocytosis and cell cycle progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • precursors
  • Interaction between FDCs precursors and lymphoid cells mediated by TNF-a and lymphotoxin (LT) is crucial for normal FDC development and maintenance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, recent data suggest CD34 may also play a more selective role in chemokine-dependent migration of eosinophils and dendritic cell precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergo clonal
  • In normal lymphoid tissue recirculating resting B cells migrate through the FDC networks, whereas antigen-activated B cells are intercepted and undergo clonal expansion within the FDC networks, generating germinal centers (GC). (wikipedia.org)
  • B cells demonstrating high affinity for self cells can undergo clonal deletion within the bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • T cells also have the opportunity to undergo clonal deletion within the thymic medulla if they express high affinity for self MHC/peptide complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because most autoresponsive cells undergo clonal deletion, this allows microorganisms with epitopes similar to host antigen to escape recognition and detection by T and B lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • FDCs
  • They form a stable network due to intercellular connections between FDCs processes and intimate interaction with follicular B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • FDCs are among main producers of the chemokine CXCL13 which attracts and organises lymphoid cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • To become selected as a future memory cell, GC B cells must bind the antigen presented on FDCs, otherwise they enter apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • By secreting the bridging factor MFGE8, which crosslinks apoptotic cells and phagocytes, FDCs promote selective debris removal from the GC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Noncognate[clarification needed] B cells play a significant role as an antigen transporter to FDCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • FDCs, in turn, attract B cells with chemoattractant CXCL13. (wikipedia.org)
  • To generate follicular structures, FDCs need to be stimulated by lymphotoxin (LT), a mediator produced by B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adhesion between FDCs and B cells is mediated by ICAM-1 (CD54)-LFA-1 (CD11a) and VCAM-VLA-4 molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specificity
  • Each of these lymphocytes express specificity to a particular epitope, or the part of an antigen to which B cell and T cell receptors recognize and bind. (wikipedia.org)
  • adhesion
  • in a cell surface glycoprotein and functions as a cell-cell adhesion factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD34 is also an important adhesion molecule and is required for T cells to enter lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely, under other circumstances CD34 has been shown to act as molecular "Teflon" and block mast cell, eosinophil and dendritic cell precursor adhesion, and to facilitate opening of vascular lumina. (wikipedia.org)
  • Breast
  • Primary SRCC tumors are most often found in the glandular cells of the stomach (SRCC originates in the stomach in 90 percent of patients), and less frequently in the breast, gallbladder, urinary bladder, and pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cases of gastric carcinomas metastasizing to the breast and forming signet-ring cells have also been reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • Embryonic stem-cell research, which involves the destruction of a unique human being in an attempt to cure different diseases, has proven not only destructive and costly, but has not produced a cure. (ncregister.com)
  • arise
  • We hypothesize that a cell's phenotypic entropy is determined as a function of the survival fraction or proliferation rate of a tumor ;and also, the number of transformed and differentiated states that arise within a particular cell population. (biomedcentral.com)
  • structures
  • Osteoprogenitor cells can be identified by their associations with existing bone or cartilage structures, or their placement in the embryo, as the sites for osteogenesis and chondrogenesis are now known. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic
  • In a statement released Aug. 20, the archdiocese voiced concerns over the ALS Association's support of embryonic stem-cell research, which requires the destruction of a human life. (ncregister.com)
  • metabolism
  • Bone metabolism strongly influences energy metabolism in the body, and metabolism -- what you do with energy from diet -- is the central crux of why some children and adults become obese. (membs.org)
  • specialist
  • With rising rates of overweight and obesity in children, it is important to understand the effects of these conditions on bone health, says Professor Vickers, an obesity specialist. (membs.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Both immune cells and nerves are involved in pathogenesis, but the mechanisms of prion transfer from the immune to the nervous system are unknown. (uzh.ch)
  • antigen
  • Supposedly, this separation from the sites of earliest antigen processing and capture provide a protected environment in which opsonized antigens can be displayed for a long time without being proteolyzed or removed by phagocytic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • B and T cells are presented with self antigen after developing receptors while they are still in the primary lymphoid organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Those cells that demonstrate a high affinity for this self antigen are often subsequently deleted so they cannot create progeny, which helps protect the host against autoimmunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • body's
  • Exercise also altered the way the rats' bones metabolised energy from food, changing energy pathways that disrupt the body's response to a high-calorie diet. (membs.org)
  • Sometimes the transplanted cells from a donor can also make an immune response against the body's normal cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • follicular
  • Follicular DCs network typically forms the center of the follicle and does not extend from the follicle to the interfollicular regions or T- cell zone. (wikipedia.org)
  • eosinophils
  • The granulocytes, also called polymorphonuclear leukocytes because of their multilobed nuclei, are three short lived cell types including eosinophils, basophils, and neutrophils. (wikipedia.org)
  • serum
  • Components and strategies Cell lifestyle MCF-7 cells had been grown up in DMEM moderate filled with 10% fetal leg serum and 1% penicillin/streptomycin serum as defined (9). (cancercurehere.com)
  • The heterodimer also stimulated cAMP production and thymidine incorporation by cultured thyroid cells and increased serum thyroxine levels in TSH-suppressed rats in vivo. (jci.org)
  • Lymphomas
  • Unlike most non-Hodgkin lymphomas (which are generally B cell related), CTCL is caused by a mutation of T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A point-based algorithm for the diagnosis for early forms of cutaneous T cell lymphoma was proposed by The International Society for Cutaneous Lymphomas in 2005. (wikipedia.org)
  • biochemistry
  • citation needed] Klinken was Regional Editor of the International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology (1994-2004) and was a member of the Editorial Board of Experimental Haematology (2000-2004). (wikipedia.org)
  • Colon
  • however, it has been found that a colon carcinoma cell known as HCC2998 causes an increase in differentiated tumor production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the colon and rectum (PSRCCR) is rare, with a reported incidence of less than 1 percent. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial
  • Epithelial cells are responsible for clonal deletion within the medulla. (wikipedia.org)
  • These medullary epithelial cells express an autoimmune regulator (AIRE) which allows these cells to present proteins specific to other parts of the body to T lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their distance in relation to the nearest epithelial surface will determine the cell lineage. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example osteoblastic condensations are closer to epithelial surfaces so they will be exposed to more biophysical and biochemical stimuli due to the proximity and increased cell-epithelial interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primary
  • Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is extremely rare and patient survival is very poor and occurs mainly in men ages 38 to 83. (wikipedia.org)
  • Joint pain and bone pain The causes can be distinguished between primary cases (hereditary or genetically determined) and less frequent secondary cases (acquired during life). (wikipedia.org)