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  • Drosophila
  • Here we elucidate the developmental mechanism through which JH regulates body size in developing Drosophila larvae by genetically ablating the JH-producing organ, the corpora allata (CA). We found that larvae that lack CA pupariated at smaller sizes than control larvae due to a reduced larval growth rate. (pnas.org)
  • Levins first used the term when describing patterns of body size across an altitudinal gradient in populations of Drosophila, and since then many other instances of countergradient variation have been discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • dispersal
  • Explanations in the literature suggest the rates of speciation and/or dispersal ability vary with size and could lead to more small bodied organisms (May, 1978). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is important to note that the 3 sub-mechanisms: dispersal, competition and energetic restraints must in some manner feed back into either speciation or extinction rates as these are the only ultimate processes (see Tinbergen's four questions) governing the number of species on earth and hence the body size-species richness pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • emphasize
  • My results emphasize the importance of body size to the reproductive biology of zebrafish and suggest that protecting large fish might be important to maintain the reproductive potential of exploited fish stocks. (hu-berlin.de)
  • 44% of 376 verbal reports in the third pilot emphasize body size and proportions, of these reports 61 % were conducted post to CB manipulation. (lu.se)
  • organisms
  • Remember, while there are fewer individuals in the largest size classes, energy availability is equal across all classes of interacting organisms (i.e. they share the same energy pool and are thus part of the same ecosystem) (energetic equivalence) (May, 1988). (wikipedia.org)
  • Understanding how organisms regulate their body size is a fundamental problem in biology. (pnas.org)
  • This theory stated that organisms age over time due to the accumulation of damage from free radicals in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homo
  • A new analysis of the body size of early humans and our relatives suggests that the first members of the genus Homo -which includes Homo sapiens -were not larger than earlier hominin species. (amnh.org)
  • Using the largest sample of individual early hominin fossils available-220 specimens-the team showed that early hominins were generally smaller than previously thought, and that the earliest Homo species did not differ significantly in size from their immediate ancestors. (amnh.org)
  • The new results challenge the evolutionary model that argues that body size increased from Australopithecus individuals to early Homo species. (amnh.org)
  • Within later Homo , stature and body mass evolution follow different trajectories: average modern stature is maintained from ca 1.6 Ma, while consistently higher body masses are not established until the Middle Pleistocene at ca 0.5-0.4 Ma, likely caused by directional selection related to colonizing higher latitudes. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • less than 140 cm) after 1.4 Ma is associated with a decrease in relative size variability in later Homo species compared with earlier Homo and australopithecines. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • At the end of the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, body size in Homo sapiens declines on average, but also extends to lower limits not seen in comparable frequency since early Homo . (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • insulin
  • Our studies reveal an intimate link between the three, whereby juvenile hormone controls body size by regulating ecdysone synthesis, which in turn modifies insulin signaling. (pnas.org)
  • measurements
  • While most of the people fall somewhere in the middle, there are some of us who fall in between sizes, or our measurements simply vary across the chart, for example our waist could be a size 38, but our bust is size 40, etc. (scribd.com)
  • To refer sizing or to take accurate measurements, consult the attached diagram on the following page. (scribd.com)
  • Some jewelry makers or sellers who express the size of their jewelry in millimeters, may also list the nearest approximate gauge-and-inches measurements for each item. (wikipedia.org)
  • genus
  • One of our major results is that we found no evidence that the earliest members of our genus differed in body mass from earlier australopiths," said Grabowski. (amnh.org)
  • lifespan
  • The findings indicate that both body size and physical activity are related to lifespan, but that these associations seem to differ between men and women," Brandts said. (webmd.com)
  • mammals
  • Additionally, the terrestrial mammals of the islands of Madagascar, New Guinea and Australia do not show a right skewed body size-species richness distribution (Maurer et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • If it were possible to randomly sample a subset of the known continental species pool for mammals, one would expect the body size-species richness distribution of this sample to roughly mirror that of the entire continent. (wikipedia.org)
  • We analyse the effects of three abiotic factors-oxygen, temperature and land area-on maximum size of Permian-Jurassic archosauromorphs and therapsids, and Cenozoic mammals, using time series generalized least-squares regression models. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • All combinations of environmental variables were tested as predictors of maximum size (for Permian-Jurassic therapsids and archosauromorphs and for Cenozoic mammals) and mean size (for Permian-Jurassic data). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In a 2007 analysis it was shown that, when modern statistical methods for correcting for the effects of body size and phylogeny are employed, metabolic rate does not correlate with longevity in mammals or birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • The study, published in the Journal of Human Evolution , challenges the long-standing notion that the origins of early humans coincided with, or were driven by, an increase in body mass. (amnh.org)
  • Richmond worked with lead author Mark Grabowski, an assistant research professor at George Washington University and soon-to-be James Arthur Postdoctoral Fellow in the Museum's Anthropology Division, and other colleagues to build the most comprehensive set of body mass estimates, species averages, and species averages by sex for fossil humans and their close relatives to date. (amnh.org)
  • Fairyflies are some of the most common chalcid wasps, but are rarely noticed by humans because of their extremely small sizes. (wikipedia.org)
  • estimates
  • They investigated as to how the children estimated their body size and compared this to how their estimates changed from age 6 to 8 and age 8 to 10 by showing them seven pictures of girls and boys with known body mass index. (newkerala.com)
  • The findings indicated that children more often underestimated than overestimated the size of their body, although the majority made accurate estimates. (newkerala.com)
  • Here, we analyse 254 body mass and 204 stature estimates from a total of 311 hominin specimens dating from 4.4 Ma to the Holocene using multi-level chronological and taxonomic analytical categories. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • variation
  • Environmental factors analysed may still have imposed an upper limit on tetrapod body size, but any environmentally imposed limit did not vary substantially during the intervals examined despite variation in these environmental factors. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The extent to which variation in reproductive success is explained by parental body size is an important research topic because size-selective fishing usually reduces the average size of reproducing adults in a population. (hu-berlin.de)
  • metabolic
  • In 1932 he came to the conclusion that the ¾ power of body weight was the most reliable basis for predicting the basal metabolic rate (BMR) of animals and for comparing nutrient requirements among animals of different size. (wikipedia.org)
  • Colloquially called the "mouse-to-elephant" curve, Kleiber's conclusion was that basal metabolic rate could accurately be predicted by taking 3/4 the power of body weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tiny
  • The study, published online May 25 in PLoS ONE , found that when people believed they had a tiny body, they overestimated the size of certain objects and their distance from them. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Tiny bodies perceive the world as huge, and vice versa," study leader Henrik Ehrsson said in a journal news release. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Biology
  • Similarly, male body size can affect offspring quality and early life-history traits but the importance of these effects to the reproductive biology of fish is poorly studied. (hu-berlin.de)
  • individuals
  • The maternal- and paternal-size effects ultimately led to elevated reproductive success of experimental spawning stocks consisting of large or random-sized individuals compared to spawning stocks consisting of small individuals. (hu-berlin.de)
  • diet
  • An animal's body size is directly related to how it interacts with the natural world, influencing factors such as energy requirements, brain size, growth rates, diet, locomotion, and more," said Brian Richmond, a co-author on the new work and the Museum's curator of human origins. (amnh.org)
  • mass
  • If a typical cat is taken to be 60 cm (24 in) long with a weight of 3.3 kg (7.3 lb), then the brain would be at 0.91% of its total body mass, compared to 2.33% of total body mass in the average human. (wikipedia.org)
  • findings
  • Researchers pointed out their findings might contribute to certain practical applications, such as swapping human bodies with artificial ones. (bio-medicine.org)
  • females
  • Large females were found to have higher reproductive success compared to small females and a significant effect of male body size on early life-history traits was documented. (hu-berlin.de)
  • regardless
  • Even though the gauge system was originally meant for wire, it is now used regardless of whether an item of body jewelry is an actual wire, or is instead a wooden plug, a plastic ring, or any other material. (wikipedia.org)
  • evolution
  • But the last major analysis of body size in the evolution of our own family took place more than 20 years ago. (amnh.org)
  • While these studies provide deeper insights into particular taxa or temporal contexts, there has been no systematic and long-term overview of the evolution of body size within the hominin lineage. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • First, body size is central to discussions of human evolution throughout its entire temporal and geographical span [ 22 , 24 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Examples
  • Number 8 wire, a term used in the New Zealand vernacular SteelNavel.com Body Piercing Jewelry Size Reference - illustrating the different ways that size is measured on different kinds of jewelry As supporting examples for the claim about just-gauge, metric-and-gauge, and just-metric: Just in gauge-inches: an example item at Tribalectic Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. (wikipedia.org)
  • rarely
  • The article American Wire Gauge system, section "Nomenclature and abbreviations in electrical distribution" shows other notations for gauge, but most are rarely used for expressing body jewelry sizes, except "ga." as in "12 ga.", which is used occasionally. (wikipedia.org)
  • higher
  • We also found that the higher the children's BMI, the more they underestimated their size over time," Steinsbekk noted. (newkerala.com)
  • gender
  • TUESDAY, Jan. 22, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Here's a new study finding that's bound to make tall, thin women happy: Their body size and their gender make it more likely they will reach the milestone age of 90 than either men or shorter, heavier women. (webmd.com)
  • effects
  • I also studied the effects of size-selective harvesting on body size, maturation and reproductive output. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Larvae that lacked the CA had elevated levels of FOXO activity, whereas a loss-of-function mutation of FOXO rescued the effects of CA ablation on final body size. (pnas.org)
  • brain
  • The largest brains in the cat kingdom are those of the tigers in Java and Bali, of which the largest relative brain size within the pantera is the tigris. (wikipedia.org)
  • accurate
  • These are the standard sizes that piercers usually use within the UK to pierce specific locations, and are not totally accurate. (wikipedia.org)
  • suggests
  • FRIDAY, May 27 (HealthDay News) -- Your size may influence how you perceive the world around you, a new study suggests. (bio-medicine.org)
  • growth
  • Body size regulation involves the careful integration of mechanisms that control growth rate with those that control growth duration. (pnas.org)
  • take
  • A study has recently found that overweight children, especially boys, are more likely to underestimate their body size, which can make it difficult to address the issue and to take necessary steps to attain a healthier body. (newkerala.com)