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  • dual energy x-ray a
  • BMI and waist/hip circumference were measured and body composition was determined using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. (mdpi.com)
  • Forty patients with early RA who failed treatment with methotrexate up to 20 mg/week for 3 months were randomised to addition of sulphasalazine and hydroxychloroquine (treatment A) or addition of infliximab (treatment B). At 3, 12 and 24 months, body composition and BMD were assessed by total-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Body composition measurement with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is used increasingly for a variety of clinical and research applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lean body mass has 3 formulas to work it out Instead of mathematical estimation the actual value of LBM may be calculated using various technologies such as Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). (wikipedia.org)
  • obese
  • A synthesis table describes the distribution of design factors, including type of comparison condition (inactive vs. active) and baseline body composition status (whether or not overweight/obese). (springer.com)
  • The BMI is an attempt to quantify the amount of tissue mass (muscle, fat, and bone) in an individual, and then categorize that person as underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese based on that value. (wikipedia.org)
  • People are generally considered obese when their body mass index (BMI), a measurement obtained by dividing a person's weight by the square of the person's height, is over 7002294199500000000♠30 kg/m2, with the range 7002245166250000000♠25-30 kg/m2 defined as overweight. (wikipedia.org)
  • On average, obese people have a greater energy expenditure than their normal counterparts due to the energy required to maintain an increased body mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • weight
  • Body mass index (BMI) was calculated by the weight kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This paper investigates the extent to which the racial composition of schools influences the weight of children by race and gender. (rwjf.org)
  • The BMI and centile BMI results were the parameters of the highest value in the diagnosis and monitoring of excessive body weight in children. (termedia.pl)
  • This is estimated in several ways: by hydrodensitometry, by calculating the ratio of weight in kilograms to height in meters squared (Quetelet index), and more recently, by estimating bioelectrical impedance of the body. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • While he's lost weight, his triglycerides (fat stored in the body), cholesterol, and blood pressure have all risen. (cafemom.com)
  • 2. Dr Amy O'Higgins completed her prospective longitudinal observation study on the relationship between gestational weight gain and both maternal and neonatal outcomes, including birth weight and neonatal body composition. (ucd.ie)
  • 6. Ms Laura Mullaney has completed recruitment to a prospective observational study examining the relationship between maternal nutrition and both weight and body composition trajectories between early pregnancy and nine months postpartum. (ucd.ie)
  • Because muscular tissue takes up less space in our body than fat tissue, our body composition, as well as our weight, determines leanness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two people of the same sex and body weight may look completely different because they have a different body composition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Body volume is combined with body weight (mass) in order to determine body density. (wikipedia.org)
  • The body fat percentage is a measure of fitness level, since it is the only body measurement which directly calculates a person's relative body composition without regard to height or weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most modern body composition laboratories today use the value of 1.1 kilograms per litre for the density of the "fat free mass", a theoretical tissue composed of 72% water (density = 0.993), 21% protein (density = 1.340) and 7% mineral (density = 3.000) by weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • With a well engineered weighing system, body density can be determined with great accuracy by completely submerging a person in water and calculating the volume of the displaced water from the weight of the displaced water. (wikipedia.org)
  • If there were no errors whatsoever in measuring body density, the uncertainty in fat estimation would be about ± 3.8% of the body weight, primarily because of normal variability in body constituents. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, BMI does not account for whether the excess weight is fat or muscle, and is not a measure of body composition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increasing body weight is also thought to be linked to the development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many other ways of reducing body fat including modifying diet or administrating diet pills, increasing energy expenditure, or surgically removing abdominal fat/surgical fitting of a gastric band in order to subside excess abdominal weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • Birth weight is the body weight of a baby at its birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The body mass index (BMI) or Quetelet index is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of an individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • The modern term "body mass index" (BMI) for the ratio of human body weight to squared height was coined in a paper published in the July 1972 edition of the Journal of Chronic Diseases by Ancel Keys and others. (wikipedia.org)
  • B M I = mass kg height m 2 = mass lb height in 2 × 703 {\displaystyle \mathrm {BMI} ={\frac {{\text{mass}}_{\text{kg}}}{{\text{height}}_{\text{m}}^{2}}}={\frac {{\text{mass}}_{\text{lb}}}{{\text{height}}_{\text{in}}^{2}}}\times 703} BMI provides a simple numeric measure of a person's thickness or thinness, allowing health professionals to discuss weight problems more objectively with their patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • For both measurements, the individual should stand with feet close together, arms at the side and body weight evenly distributed, and should wear little clothing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research shows that people with "apple-shaped" bodies (with more weight around the waist) face more health risks than those with "pear-shaped" bodies who carry more weight around the hips. (wikipedia.org)
  • The body fat percentage is considered to be an even more accurate measure of relative weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following formula may be used: For men: LBM = (0.32810 × W) + (0.33929 × H) − 29.5336 For women: LBM = (0.29569 × W) + (0.41813 × H) − 43.2933 where W is body weight in kilograms and H is body height in centimeters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Excessive body weight is associated with various diseases and conditions, particularly cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus type 2, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, osteoarthritis and asthma. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • However, BMI does not account for the wide variation in body fat distribution, and may not correspond to the same degree of fatness or associated health risk in different individuals and populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • People of Asian descent have different associations between BMI, percentage of body fat, and health risks than those of European descent, with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease at BMIs lower than the WHO cut-off point for overweight, 25 kg/m2, although the cutoff for observed risk varies among different Asian populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • BMI was designed to be used as a simple means of classifying average sedentary (physically inactive) populations, with an average body composition. (wikipedia.org)
  • DEXA
  • A DEXA scan requires medical supervision by a radiologist and some consider it to be the new "Gold Standard" in body composition testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Total body scans using DEXA give accurate and precise measurements of body composition, including bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), lean tissue mass, fat tissue mass, and fractional contribution of fat. (wikipedia.org)
  • DEXA measurements are highly reproducible if the same type of machine is used (citation needed), making them excellent for monitoring pharmaceutical therapy, nutritional or exercise intervention, sports training and or other body composition altering programs. (wikipedia.org)
  • DEXA exams provide both total body and up to 14 regional (trunk, individual arms & legs, android, gynoid, etc.) results. (wikipedia.org)
  • muscular
  • normal people, who don't have so great a muscular mass, should stay into the fitness range in the table to be healthier. (wikipedia.org)
  • The United States Air Force Physical Fitness Assessment (PFA) is designed to test the body composition, muscular strength/endurance, and cardiovascular respiratory fitness of airmen in the United States Air Force. (wikipedia.org)
  • fatness
  • The estimation of body fatness from body density (by means of underwater weighing) was accepted as the "gold standard" for many decades. (wikipedia.org)
  • socioeconomic
  • Multivariate methods were used to predict levels of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in plasma from characteristics that included age, diet, race, reproductive history, socioeconomic status, and reported body mass index (BMI) at several decades of life before blood collection. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Estimation
  • The most accurate estimation of body composition is derived from body density by means of the equation of fractional densities which states that the overall density of a mixture containing more than one substance (each with a different density) can be calculated if the proportion and density of each component substance is known. (wikipedia.org)
  • A reasonably accurate estimation of body fat can be obtained by means of a "two compartment model" of the human body which is based upon two simplifying assumptions: 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two compartment model allows for an estimation of the proportions of fat and lean components of the body to be made from the overall body density. (wikipedia.org)
  • kilograms
  • The BMI is defined as the body mass divided by the square of the body height, and is universally expressed in units of kg/m2, resulting from mass in kilograms and height in metres. (wikipedia.org)
  • insulin resistance
  • In all subjects the insulin secretion/insulin resistance index (ΔI/ΔG÷IR) was calculated as the ratio of the increment in plasma insulin to the increment in plasma glucose during the OGTT divided by insulin resistance, as measured during the clamp. (springer.com)
  • Body mass index and fat mass are the primary correlates of insulin resistance in nondiabetic stage 3-4 chronic kidney disease patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • predicts
  • This pattern is consistent with a pharmacokinetic model that predicts higher body burdens during windows of highest uptake, faster elimination of organochlorine compounds in leaner women, and lowered levels accompanying BMI-gain. (aacrjournals.org)
  • analyzer
  • In 2005, Stayhealthy unveiled the Fitness Expert product, a fusion of the Body Composition Analyzer and the Calorie Tracker, which was to be sold via multi-level marketing company Quixtar. (wikipedia.org)
  • assessment
  • Maximum component points are: Aerobic-60 Body Composition-20 Push-ups-10 Crunches-10 Airmen who are medically recommended not to run may be cleared to participate in an alternative aerobic fitness assessment. (wikipedia.org)
  • intake
  • As a result, lifetime intake for specific organochlorine compound may lead to different plasma levels dependent on changes in body size, absolute intensity of intake, and whether exposure is ongoing (i.e. (aacrjournals.org)
  • changes in body
  • In the late 1990s, reports of unusual changes in body fat distribution named 'lipodystrophy' (LD) began to appear in HIV patients mitigating the enormous enthusiasm about improvement of survival and quality of life provided by the combinations of antiretroviral (ARV) drug classes, the so-called highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which had just become available at that time. (springer.com)
  • A search was conducted for randomized controlled trials testing one or both of two forms of MM, Tai Chi and Qigong, reporting effects on changes in body composition. (springer.com)
  • ratio
  • Some athletes (e.g. gymnasts, basketball and soccer players) have a high muscle to fat ratio and may have a BMI that is misleadingly high relative to their body fat percentage. (wikipedia.org)
  • individuals
  • The widely used body mass index (BMI) provides a measure that allows the comparison of the adiposity of individuals of different heights and weights. (wikipedia.org)
  • for example, individuals with greater muscle mass or larger bones will have higher BMIs. (wikipedia.org)
  • density
  • The lean (non-fat) components of the human body have an overall density of 1.1 grams/ml. (wikipedia.org)
  • And, as explained above, the overall body density (Db) is easily calculated from body mass and body volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rearranging the equation of fractional densities to solve for the proportion of fat (f) will yield the following equation: f = 495 / D b − 450 {\displaystyle f=495/Db-450} The density of human fat is remarkably constant across all sub-groups studied but variations have been reported in the density of the fat free mass (i.e. lean or non-fat components). (wikipedia.org)
  • But these claims are somewhat dubious since the scanning algorithms are validated against body composition assessments based on fractional density from underwater weighing. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • The proportions of water, protein and mineral in the body are found by various chemical and radiometric tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • When defining the range of normal LV mass, individual body size and composition must be taken into consideration because metabolic demand and perfusion needs vary with stature and determine the physiological adaptation of heart size. (biomedcentral.com)