Loading...
  • genes
  • A potential use of stem cells genetically matched to a patient would be to create cell lines that have genes linked to a patient's particular disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, if a person with Parkinson's disease donated his or her somatic cells, the stem cells resulting from SCNT would have genes that contribute to Parkinson's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The iPSC technology was pioneered by Shinya Yamanaka's lab in Kyoto, Japan, who showed in 2006 that the introduction of four specific genes encoding transcription factors could convert adult cells into pluripotent stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • iPSCs are typically derived by introducing products of specific sets of pluripotency-associated genes, or "reprogramming factors", into a given cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon introduction of reprogramming factors, cells begin to form colonies that resemble pluripotent stem cells, which can be isolated based on their morphology, conditions that select for their growth, or through expression of surface markers or reporter genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • They hypothesized that genes important to embryonic stem cell (ESC) function might be able to induce an embryonic state in adult cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing adult tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cells can now be artificially grown and transformed (differentiated) into specialized cell types with characteristics consistent with cells of various tissues such as muscles or nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells are deemed to have a pluripotent potential because they have the ability to give rise to all of the tissues found in an adult organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another application of SCNT stem cell research is using the patient specific stem cell lines to generate tissues or even organs for transplant into the specific patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • totipotency
  • Potency is also described as the gene activation potential within a cell which like a continuum begins with totipotency to designate a cell with the most differentiation potential, pluripotency, multipotency, oligopotency and finally unipotency. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the spectrum of cell potency, totipotency represents the cell with the greatest differentiation potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is possible for a fully differentiated cell to return to a state of totipotency. (wikipedia.org)
  • In September 2013, a team from the Spanish national Cancer Research Centre was able for the first time to make adult cells from mice retreat to the characteristics of embryonic stem cells, thereby achieving totipotency. (wikipedia.org)
  • primitive
  • Initiated by signals from the underlying hypoblast, formation of the primitive streak is predicated on epiblast cell migration, mediated by Nodal, from the lateral-posterior regions of the epiblast to the center midline. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primitive knot is situated at the anterior end of the primitive streak and serves as the organizer for gastrulation, determining epiblast cell fate by inducing the differentiation of migrating epiblast cells during gastrulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • germ
  • A mitochondrial mechanism is involved in apoptosis of Robertsonian mouse male germ cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Primordial germ cells originate in yolk sac, then migrate along the embryo's midline longitudinal axis to the gonadal ridge. (wikibooks.org)
  • Migration can go awry, and may lead to germ cell tumors (eg, teratomas), which are frequently midline. (wikibooks.org)
  • The presence of embryonic and foetal cells from all germ layers in the amniotic fluid was gradually determined since the 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • This is the first report on the successful isolation of human ICM cells and their continued culture for at least two passages in vitro. (nus.edu.sg)
  • The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION. (slicksurface.com)
  • citation needed] The use of blastocysts in in-vitro fertilization (IVF) involves culturing a fertilized egg for five days before implanting it into the uterus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other potential uses of embryonic stem cells include investigation of early human development, study of genetic disease and as in vitro systems for toxicology testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • autologous
  • Autologous cartilage is the gold standard for cartilage seed cells in regenerative medicine [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Of all stem cell types, autologous harvesting involves the least risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • By definition, autologous cells are obtained from one's own body, just as one may bank his or her own blood for elective surgical procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • These unlimited supplies of autologous cells could be used to generate transplants without the risk of immune rejection. (wikipedia.org)
  • ectoderm
  • Show both an increase in programmed cell death and a decrease in mitotic index, especially in the region of the distal tip of the embryonic ectoderm. (uniprot.org)
  • self-renewal
  • Chambers I, Smith A (2004) Self-renewal of teratocarcinoma and embryonic stem cells. (springer.com)
  • At the same time, expression data were collected for positive and negative controls, as well as for 21 mRNAs corresponding to transcripts recognized by the stem cell community for their association with ESC differentiation and self-renewal. (thermofisher.com)
  • Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults. (slicksurface.com)
  • The classical definition of a stem cell requires that it possesses two properties: Self-renewal: the ability to go through numerous cycles of cell division while maintaining the undifferentiated state. (wikipedia.org)
  • gastrulation
  • After about 1 day (5-6 days post-fertilization), which is the time usually required to reach the uterus, the blastocyst begins to embed itself into the endometrium of the uterine wall where it will undergo later developmental processes, including gastrulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic stem
  • Cardinal Alfonso López Trujillo, as head of the Pontifical Council for the Family, has argued that canon 1398 should also be interpreted in a sense that applies to embryonic stem cell researchers, given that the deliberate termination of embryonic cell reproduction is included as a form of abortion in official Church documents such as Donum Vitae, Evangelium Vitae and Dignitas Personae. (wikipedia.org)
  • progenitor
  • In all vertebrates, these progenitor cells differentiate into all adult tissues and organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regarding spontaneous or natural monozygotic twinning, a recent theory proposes that monozygotic twins are formed after a blastocyst essentially collapses, splitting the progenitor cells (those that contain the body's fundamental genetic material) in half, leaving the same genetic material divided in two on opposite sides of the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • cDNA
  • The consensus sequence amplified from blastocyst cDNA produced significant alignments with genes of the Bola complex, which is part of the bovine MHC class I. The alignment between the consensus sequence and the previously published Q7 and HLA-G sequences demonstrated little nucleotide variations among the sequences. (usp.br)
  • endometrium
  • as the blastocyst is imbedded within the endometrium, the extravillous trophoblasts will invade the maternal spiral arteries for stability and the transfer of essential life-sustaining elements via the maternal and fetal circulatory systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetically
  • These cells genetically matched the donor organism from which they came.This gives them the ability to create patient specific pluripotent cells, which could then be used in therapies or disease research. (wikipedia.org)
  • A potential use of stem cells genetically matched to a patient would be to create cell lines that have genes linked to a patient's particular disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting cells would be genetically identical to the somatic cell donor, thus avoiding any complications from immune system rejection. (wikipedia.org)
  • reproductive
  • Cell surface glycans, such as ABO and related antigens have special relevance in reproductive biology and could modulate specific cell interactions as those associated with the pathogenesis of placental malaria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The egg cell, or ovum (plural ova), is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The team from the Vincent Center for Reproductive Biology, Massachusetts, Boston showed that oocyte formation takes place in ovaries of reproductive-age women. (wikipedia.org)
  • develops
  • After a short period of laboratory culture, during which the aggregate develops into a single large blastocyst, the embryo is returned to a hormone-primed foster mother. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The vegetal mass is composed of the blastocoel floor and primarily develops into endodermal tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells migrating inward along the archenteron form the inner layer of the gastrula, which develops into the endoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gametophyte cell closest to the micropyle opening of the ovule develops into the egg cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • For cells that do not naturally contain melanin, melanin production can be induced by introducing the gene for tyrosinase, the primary enzyme responsible for expression of melanin in melanogenic cells. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • The germ plasm effectively turns off gene expression to render the genome of the cell inert. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes an integral membrane glycoprotein found on the cell surface, although secreted isoforms may exist. (wikipedia.org)
  • blastula
  • The study of the blastula and of cell specification has many implications on the field of stem cell research as well as the continued improvement of fertility treatments. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many organisms including Xenopus and Drosophila, the mid-blastula transition usually occurs after a particular number of cell divisions for a given species, and is defined by the ending of the synchronous cell division cycles of the early blastula development, and the lengthening of the cell cycles by the addition of the G1 and G2 phases. (wikipedia.org)
  • inward
  • During gastrulation, some of the cells migrating inward contribute to the mesoderm, an additional layer between the endoderm and the ectoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • early
  • Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA are thought to be of separate evolutionary origin, with the mtDNA being derived from the circular genomes of the bacteria that were engulfed by the early ancestors of today's eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It results in the developmental fate of the cells being set early in the embryo development. (wikipedia.org)
  • divisions
  • The addition of the two growth phases into the cell cycle allows for the cells to increase in size, as up to this point the blastomeres undergo reductive divisions in which the overall size of the embryo does not increase, but more cells are created. (wikipedia.org)
  • sperm cells
  • The egg cell is typically not capable of active movement, and it is much larger (visible to the naked eye) than the motile sperm cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon maturation, the neck opens to allow sperm cells to swim into the archegonium and fertilize the egg. (wikipedia.org)
  • When two eggs are independently fertilized by two different sperm cells, fraternal twins result. (wikipedia.org)
  • yolk
  • Ooplasm (also: oöplasm) is the yolk of the ovum, a cell substance at its center, which contains its nucleus, named the germinal vesicle, and the nucleolus, called the germinal spot. (wikipedia.org)
  • The thought of how the yolk sac membranes are formed begins with an increase in production of hypoblast cells, succeeded by different patterns of migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • On day 8, the first portion of hypoblast cells begin their migration and make what is known as the primary yolk sac, or Heuser's membrane (exocoelomic membrane). (wikipedia.org)
  • By day 12, the primary yolk sac has been disestablished by a new batch of migrating hypoblast cells that now contribute to the definitive yolk sac. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitosis
  • The egg cell's cytoplasm and mitochondria are the sole means the egg is able to reproduce by mitosis and eventually form a blastocyst after fertilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • The female gametophyte produces structures called archegonia, and the egg cells form within them via mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • germ cell
  • These genes play a role in germ line development to localize nanos mRNA to the posterior and localize germ cell determinants. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genes Oskar, nanos and germ cell-less (gcl) have important roles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Between 1850 and 1855, Robert Remak had further refined the germ cell layer concept, and introduced into English were the terms "mesoderm" by Huxley in 1871 and "ectoderm" and "endoderm" by Lankester in 1873. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular matrix
  • When overexpressed, the disorganization of mucins may reduce adhesion to other cells as well as the extracellular matrix, promoting cancer cell migration and metastasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Perlecan is a large multidomain (five domains, labeled I-V) proteoglycan that binds to and cross-links many extracellular matrix (ECM) components and cell-surface molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Perlecan is synthesized by both vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells and deposited in the extracellular matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells can modify their extracellular matrix and basement membranes in response to signals or stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • It is a technique for cloning in which the nucleus of a somatic cell is transferred to the cytoplasm of an enucleated egg. (wikipedia.org)
  • This cytoplasm, pole plasm, contains specialized materials called polar granules and the pole cells are the precursors to primordial germ cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This means that with each successive subdivision, there is roughly half the cytoplasm in each daughter cell than before that division, and thus the ratio of nuclear to cytoplasmic material increases. (wikipedia.org)