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  • free blacks
  • Many did not believe that free Africans had a place in America and thought the very existence of free blacks undermined the system of slavery and encouraged slaves to revolt. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, shortly after the foundation of the American Colonization Society, 3,000 free blacks gathered in a church in Philadelphia and issued forth a declaration stating that they "will never separate ourselves voluntarily from the slave population of the country. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unofficial figures indicate that up to 50,000 free blacks emigrated to Paris from Louisiana in the decades after Napoleon sold the territory to the United States in 1803. (wikipedia.org)
  • 19th century
  • Beginning in the 19th century, scholars generally classified the Hamitic race as a subgroup of the Caucasian race, along with the Semitic race - thus grouping the non-Semitic populations native to North Africa and the Horn of Africa, including the Ancient Egyptians. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the mid-19th century, the term Hamitic acquired a new anthropological meaning, as scholars asserted that they could discern a "Hamitic race" that was distinct from the "Negroid" populations of Sub-Saharan Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Back-to-Africa movement, also known as the Colonization movement or Black Zionism, originated in the United States in the 19th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the enslaved population of America was mostly Muslim or practiced indigenous African religions, it was easy for them to justify slavery on Christian evangelical grounds, but in the 19th century, many religious Americans found it difficult to continue supporting the enslavement of their brothers in Christ, especially the Quakers. (wikipedia.org)
  • 20th
  • This exhibition also considers the challenges faced by African Americans - challenges compounded with experiences of class, gender, and immigration - as they continue to fight for racial equity and social justice, issues as relevant to the 21st century as to the 20th. (si.edu)
  • African Americans entered the last quarter of the 20th century with some cautious optimism given the progress made over the previous generation. (si.edu)
  • Africa in the 20th Century (3 s.h. (temple.edu)
  • In the early 20th centiry some states, not only in the South, adopted racial registration policies and implemented laws against the mixing of black and white people. (conservapedia.com)
  • Latinos
  • Despite growing up in Harlem, Alafia admitted she once embraced her Latina side more-" It made me samba even harder" she explained to Michel Martin of NPR's Tell Me More -but a study abroad trip to the Dominican Republic when she was 16 opened her eyes to the "self-hate" (her words) prevalent among many Afro-Latinos. (clutchmagonline.com)
  • Cuba
  • An introductory course in the understanding, reading, and speaking of Yoruba, an African language which has had a major impact on the African cultures of Brazil, Haiti, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, and the United States. (temple.edu)
  • struggle
  • The struggle for African American liberation took on new dimensions, recognizing that simply ending Jim Crow segregation would not achieve equality and justice. (si.edu)
  • racial
  • Noah's curse on Canaan as described in Genesis began to be misinterpreted by some scholars in Europe as having caused visible racial characteristics in all of Ham's offspring, notably black skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an era when African Americans prominently influenced American cultural and political affairs, racial equity and social justice remained sought-after goals rather than accomplishments. (si.edu)
  • anthropology
  • His conclusions would establish the foundation for the American School of anthropology, and would also influence proponents of polygenism. (wikipedia.org)
  • context
  • Encourage visitors to think about ways they can help make America a more just and equitable place by providing historical context for honest discussions about race and social justice. (si.edu)
  • culture
  • You said 'Black culture has become increasingly irrelevant from both a social and economic perspective as they are dominated by violence, corruption and incompetence. (topix.com)
  • Simultaneously, institutions founded and operated by African Americans collected, preserved, and displayed to the public material evidence of African American culture and accomplishments. (si.edu)
  • It was during this time that jazz was introduced to the French and black culture was born in Paris. (wikipedia.org)
  • segregation
  • Continue the chronological exploration of African American activism and the quest for justice and equality begun in the exhibitions on slavery and segregation. (si.edu)
  • Paris
  • Paris saw the beginnings of an African-American community in the aftermath of World War I when about 200,000 were brought over to fight. (wikipedia.org)
  • The German Nazi invasion of Paris in June 1940 meant suppression of the "corrupt" influence of jazz in the French capital and danger of imprisonment for African Americans choosing to remain in the city. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most Americans, black as well as white, left Paris at this time. (wikipedia.org)
  • population
  • The distinction made by government agencies for those within the population of any official race category, including "African American", is between those who report Hispanic backgrounds and all others who do not. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1791, Thomas Peters, an African American who had served in the Black Pioneers, went to England to report the grievances of the black population in Nova Scotia. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the 2012 Census, 82% of Grenada's population is Black, 13% is mixed Black and European (Mulatto) and 2% is of Indian origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The back-to-Africa movement was seen as the solution to these problems by both groups, but more so with the white population than the blacks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Islam
  • This movement would eventually inspire other movements ranging from the Nation of Islam to the Rastafari movement and proved to be popular among African-Americans. (wikipedia.org)
  • political
  • In 1831, even though slavery was still in force in the island, the Brown´s Act of privileges conferred political and social rights to free African-Dominicans, and the following year, three coloured men (coloured, not black) were elected members of the House Dominican legislative Assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • An examination of the significant role the Black church has played in creating an African-American response to social, political, and economic obstacles and barriers in America. (temple.edu)
  • A summary of the major political, economic, social, and cultural developments in Africa since 1900. (temple.edu)
  • colonization
  • Politics of Colonization: An Introduction to the Politics of the Black World (3 s.h. (temple.edu)
  • In Virginia, for example, one proponent of the Colonization movement, Solomon Parker of Hampshire County, was quoted as having said: "I am not willing that the Man or any of my Blacks shall ever be freed to remain in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blacks often viewed the project with suspicion, especially among the middle-class, and worried that the Colonization movement was a ploy to deport freed African-Americans to keep them from making efforts against slavery. (wikipedia.org)
  • These wealthy Christians who felt morally obligated to finance such voyages were indeed an important aspect of the colonization movement, and without them far fewer African Americans could have made the expensive journey back to the homeland of their ancestors, as it was much harder for a free black to achieve financial success in that time. (wikipedia.org)
  • The American Colonization Society (ACS) was an early advocate of the idea of resettling American-born blacks in Africa. (wikipedia.org)