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  • fracture
  • The use of 'fracture mechanics' from materials engineering provides elegant relations for quantifying critical bite forces in terms of characteristic tooth size and enamel thickness. (nih.gov)
  • muscles
  • There exists an argument that there could be two chief elements that avert subjects from producing complete maximum bite forces when biting on solid surfaces using full potential of their jaw occlusion muscles. (medicaljb.com)
  • 11 ] suggested that inaccurate estimation of maximum muscle forces (e.g. owing to inaccurate values of muscle fibre length, muscle strength or the failure to consider the effects of pennation in highly pennate muscles) might explain the mismatch they found between predicted and measured bite forces. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Getting into the usual gym-based exercise is not always the best way to engage G-force because the exercises are often geared to strengthen mobilising muscles, capable of force, and not stabilising muscles (your core). (bitethesun.org)
  • To test the bite force of Didelphodon , Abby Vander Linden, a former University of Washington biology research technician at the Burke Museum, CT-scanned the fossils and compared the gaps in reconstructed skulls where jaw muscles would go to present-day mammals with known bite forces. (futurity.org)
  • Using that information, they came up with an idea of how the jaw muscles in the T. rex were arranged, then calculated the bite force. (nytimes.com)
  • Since a powerful killing bite entails large, powerful jaw muscles, this imposes strict limits on skull shape, suggesting that big cats simply need more elongated skulls with large muscle crests in order to maintain the ability to deliver a very powerful killing bite. (redorbit.com)
  • The black piranha's bite is so powerful in part because of its massive jaw muscles and rope-like tendons that together account for 2 percent of the fish's overall weight, the scientists found. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Triceratops
  • Dr. Erickson became curious with figuring out the bite force of the T. rex as a graduate student in the mid-1990s when a colleague showed him a fossilized triceratops pelvis riddled with about 80 bite marks. (nytimes.com)
  • By looking at the bite marks on Triceratops fossils, a group of paleontologists have pieced together the steps, and created an illustrated guide . (slashdot.org)
  • bone
  • T he bone-crunching bite of Tyrannosaurus Rex was like no other, according to a study released on Wednesday that solidifies the fabled carnivore's reputation as the most fearsome of dinosaurs. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Despite this, if the patient's maximum bite force is recorded in the planning stages, it's possible to control these forces by combining the right number and type of implants, the right positioning to minimise impact, and the right density of bone. (mimetikoss.com)
  • It's well-documented that a patient with a low bite force will often manage a successful implant, in spite of any eating habits or para-functions, and, even on some occasions, with poor anatomical bone structure. (mimetikoss.com)
  • In addition to the bite force, Didelphodon's canines were similar to living felines and hyenas-suggesting they could handle biting into bone, biting deep, and killing prey. (futurity.org)
  • If you could bite through bone, you can get nutrients from within the bone itself," said Paul M. Gignac , a paleobiologist at Oklahoma State University and the lead author on the paper. (nytimes.com)
  • It appeared that a large, toothy creature had bitten off the tyrannosaur's flesh, pulling it in the direction perpendicular to the bone - much like a person eats a piece of fried chicken. (csmonitor.com)
  • If our calculations are correct, Megapiranha was probably a bone-crushing predator taking bites of anything and everything," she said. (bio-medicine.org)
  • prey capture
  • The most powerful evolutionary selective driving factor behind skull shape in modern cats appears to have been the need to administer a powerful, precise killing-bite, irrespective of body size "" this is a very important part of prey capture and killing in all cats. (redorbit.com)
  • mammals
  • We propose that observations of such cracking can be used as a diagnostic tool for predicting bite force and inferring tooth function in living and fossil mammals. (nih.gov)
  • As a result, biting kinematics would be congruent with biting behavior reported for their terrestrial ancestors, thus providing additional evidence that raptorial biting is a conserved behavior even in recently aquatic mammals. (biologists.org)
  • piranha
  • Based on the 2 pound piranha and other specimens tested in the wild, the scientists calculate that Megapiranha paranensis , which weighed approximately 22 pounds, could have had a bite force anywhere from 1,240 to 4,750 newtons or 280 to 1,070 pounds and possibly more. (bio-medicine.org)
  • As the paper says, "While anecdotes of piranha-infested waters skeletonizing hapless victims are generally hyperbole, the effectiveness of their bite is not. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Just how does one measure the bite force of a piranha living in the wild? (bio-medicine.org)
  • wherein
  • The argument that the bite of H. sapiens is relatively weak is based primarily on two-dimensional lever mechanics, wherein muscle forces are reduced to single vectors for each major muscle group. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • ability to bite
  • Stephen Brusatte , a paleontologist from the University of Edinburgh who reviewed the paper, said the ability to bite through bones made tyrannosaurs unique. (nytimes.com)
  • underestimate
  • There are a number of reasons why a computer model may underestimate bite force as the results of MDA depend on several input variables such as model geometry, mass properties, joint mobility or muscle force magnitudes and directions. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • generate
  • This is backed up by the fact that studies in the past have indicated that most patients needing implant restorations were able to generate a bite force somewhere in the range of 50 - 900N. (mimetikoss.com)
  • crocodile
  • Their work involved lassoing, say, a 17-foot crocodile and getting it to bite on a glorified bathroom scale. (wuwm.com)
  • But those studies either did not use a model that had been tested on live animals or made estimates that simply extrapolated what a crocodile bite would do if delivered by a large dinosaur's body. (nytimes.com)
  • Chew
  • Weintraub, A Pack of Wild Dogs: Chew v. Gates and Police Canine Excessive Force (2001) 34 Loy. (dogexpert.com)
  • In Smith v. City of Hemet and in Chew v. Gates the Ninth Circuit reversed the District Court's summary judgment on the basis that genuine issues of material fact raised triable issues for a jury to decide whether excessive force was delivered by the K-9. (dogexpert.com)
  • Children and the developmentally disabled frequently chew and bite these anesthetized oral soft tissues causing lacerations and mutilation of tissues which may lead to permanent disfigurement. (google.es)
  • estimate
  • François Therrien , a paleoecologist at the Royal Tyrrell Museum in Canada, says over the years there's been plenty of attempts to estimate the bite force of T. rex. (wuwm.com)
  • gape
  • Sea otters consistently used a durophagous raptorial biting mode characterized by large gapes, large gape angles and lack of lateral gape occlusion. (biologists.org)
  • anatomical
  • This method is further limited in that it cannot shed light on stress-strain distributions, and is therefore ill suited to evaluating the ability of anatomical structures to sustain predicted forces. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • canines
  • It is outside the scope of this article to make a legal analysis of appellate rulings on excessive force claims involving canines against municipalities. (dogexpert.com)
  • power
  • Florida's fearsome lord of the swamps, the American alligator, ranks sixth in the world in the power of its bite. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • excessive
  • Specifically, Title 42 of the United States Code, Section 1983 makes it unlawful for the police to use unreasonable or excessive force in the apprehension and arrest of a suspect. (dogexpert.com)
  • The court ruled that resisting arrest did not bar the appellant's claim of excessive force against the County. (dogexpert.com)
  • 2016). The plaintiff sued the city on the bases that the police department's policy of utilizing dogs trained in the bite and hold technique was unreasonable and excessive and the cause of her injury. (dogexpert.com)
  • Consider the patient who has a chronic popcorn habit - even though their bite force alone might not be perceived as excessive, when you combine this with their habit of continually crunching on any hard un-popped kernels, it might be sufficient to cause untold damage. (mimetikoss.com)
  • Again, they mightn't have an overly-excessive bite force, but add this to their likening for hard fingernails and it may be sufficient enough to eventually cause an implant to fail. (mimetikoss.com)
  • In another lawsuit, the city of Pittsburgh (CA.) settled a case for $145,000 because of the plaintiff's claim that excessive force was used by a police K-9 in his apprehension. (dogexpert.com)
  • Skeletal
  • Speculation as to dinosaur predation has ranged from inferences based on skeletal morphology, ichnofossils such as bite marks, coprolites, stomach contents, and trackways and, by more rarely, direct predator-prey skeletal associations ( 3 , 4 , 18 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 23 ). (pnas.org)
  • apprehension
  • Graham specified four principal factors in determining whether a particular kind of force was justified: the threat the suspect posed to the officer, the nature of the crime, whether the suspect was resisting arrest, and whether the officer could have used a lesser force to make the arrest given the totality of circumstances present at the time of the apprehension. (dogexpert.com)
  • for search and rescue, tracking, identification lineups, drug and bomb detection and the apprehension of criminal suspects using the bite and hold technique . (dogexpert.com)
  • And there are many substantiated instances in which K-9 handlers used their police dog to attack and bite a suspect rather than using a less violent means for apprehension. (dogexpert.com)
  • attempts
  • Several oral devices have been tried in attempts to prevent further oral trauma in patients who have bitten themselves. (google.es)
  • Therefore
  • Secondly, the possible negative modulation initiation of jaw occlusal muscle movement and hence biting forces stimulated by sensory receptors activation inside the periodontium, and the probable deterrence of a major +ive modulation of jaw occlusal muscle movement and therefore chewing forces also activated by such receptors [12, 13, (medicaljb.com)
  • found
  • A bite force measurement was taken and surprisingly, the result was found to be somewhere closer to 1200N. (mimetikoss.com)
  • To figure out the bite force of a long-extinct T. rex, the team created a digital T. rex jaw based off muscle features found on close modern-day relatives to dinosaurs, like birds and crocodilians. (nytimes.com)
  • animals
  • They weren't really based or grounded in the modern world by comparison with some living animals for which we knew the bite force. (wuwm.com)
  • Thus
  • Thus it is reasonable to assume the food resources available to Megapiranha would likely have required jaw forces and dental weaponry capable of capturing and processing very large prey," the paper says. (bio-medicine.org)