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  • acetyl-CoA carboxy
  • D-(+)-Biotin is a cofactor responsible for carbon dioxide transfer in several carboxylase enzymes: Acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha Acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase Propionyl-CoA carboxylase Pyruvate carboxylase Biotin is important in fatty acid synthesis, branched-chain amino acid catabolism, and gluconeogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme is also called biotin carboxylase (component of acetyl CoA carboxylase). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Biotin Carboxyl Carrier Protein is part of the enzyme Acetyl-CoA carboxylase and serves as a carrier protein for biotin and carboxybiotin throughout the ATP-dependent carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to form malonyl-CoA in the first committed and rate regulating step of fatty acid biosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • micrograms
  • A study published in the December 2006 issue of the journal 'Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics' found that doses of 2 milligrams per day of biotin and 600 micrograms per day of chromium picolinate for four weeks significantly improved results of glucose tolerance tests for 43 diabetic study volunteers. (livestrong.com)
  • A study from 1985 reported that infants with rash, dermatitis, or alopecia experienced improvements in symptoms after taking 100 micrograms (mcg) to 10 milligrams (mg) of biotin per day. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The most reliable and commonly used methods for determining biotin status in the body are: excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid and biotin in urine activity of propionyl-CoA carboxylase in lymphocytes In the United States, biotin supplements are readily available without a prescription in amounts ranging from 1,000 to 10,000 micrograms (30 micrograms is identified as Adequate Intake). (wikipedia.org)
  • levels of biotin
  • In their book The Yeast Syndrome , John Parks Trowbridge and Morton Walker describe how adequate levels of biotin can prevent Candida albicans from developing from its yeast-like state into fungal form, in which it sends out mycelium that further invade body organs. (encyclopedia.com)
  • effects of biotin
  • Further research on the effects of biotin on blood sugar maintenance and diabetes in humans is warranted. (livestrong.com)
  • In this article, we look at the effects of biotin on psoriasis, and we list some other ways to treat this chronic skin condition. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • There is little evidence that biotin can benefit skin and hair problems, and no studies have specifically looked at the effects of biotin supplements on psoriasis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • supplementation
  • Supplementation ranges from 100 - 600 mcg per day, and can be obtained in the form of brewer's yeast, which contains biotin as part of the B complex, or as an individual biotin supplement. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Selenium-based shampoos, topical applications of flax oil and/or olive oil, and biotin supplementation are among the therapies recommended for seborrheic dermatitis. (yourdictionary.com)
  • However, no significant change in glucose, insulin, triglycerides or cholesterol occurred from biotin supplementation in either group. (livestrong.com)
  • Researchers concluded that biotin and chromium picolinate supplementation shows potential for managing blood sugar and lipids in diabetic patients. (livestrong.com)
  • Similarly, a 2005 case report of a single infant with low biotin levels indicated that daily supplementation with 1 mg of biotin improved both dermatitis symptoms and hair growth. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • citation needed] In all cases - dietary, genetic, or otherwise - supplementation with biotin is the primary method of treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The child's neurologic symptoms abated following biotin supplementation and antiepileptic drug therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • supplements
  • Biotin supplements will also effectively treat weak, splitting nails. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Biotin supplements have been studied as a treatment for a number of conditions. (webmd.com)
  • However, most people don't need biotin supplements . (webmd.com)
  • If you take any drugs regularly, talk to your doctor before you start using biotin supplements. (webmd.com)
  • Also look for biotin supplements as biotin is an essential component of the hair growth process and will sometimes be combined with B vitamins to specifically target hair growth issues. (yourdictionary.com)
  • Biotin supplements may help lower high blood pressure. (livestrong.com)
  • A healthy diet and exercise, along with certain medications and supplements such as biotin may help regulate the blood pressure and prevent the complications associated with it. (livestrong.com)
  • In case of a deficiency, your doctor may recommend biotin supplements that are available as capsules, tablets and syrups. (livestrong.com)
  • Biotin supplements are generally safe and well-tolerated when used at recommended doses. (livestrong.com)
  • Although you do not require a prescription to buy biotin supplements in the United States, you must talk to a doctor before using them to lower your blood pressure. (livestrong.com)
  • Some people use biotin supplements to manage symptoms of psoriasis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Many people believe that biotin supplements can reduce psoriasis symptoms, which can include a scaly, red rash and thinning hair. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • That said, getting extra biotin from food or supplements is generally safe, so some people may wish to try it. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • supplemental biotin
  • In 2002, an investigation outlined the need for supplemental biotin during pregnancy. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Evidence suggests that these anticonvulsants accelerate biotin catabolism, which means that it's necessary for people to take supplemental biotin, in addition to the usual minimum daily requirements, if they're treated with anticonvulsant medication(s) that have been linked to biotin deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Biotinidase itself is known to be able to biotinylate histone proteins, but little biotin is found naturally attached to chromatin. (wikipedia.org)
  • folic acid
  • Another study in the January 2003 issue of the "Journal of Human Hypertension" reveals that reduced intake of B vitamins such as biotin and folic acid increased the risk of hypertension South African children. (livestrong.com)
  • yeast
  • Biotin can be a valuable tool to combat yeast infections , which are notoriously difficult to fight. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Naturally occurring biotin is found partly in the free state (fruit, milk, vegetables) and partly in the form bound to protein in animal tissues, plant seeds and yeast. (dsm.com)
  • chromium
  • In 2002, one company started clinical trials testing a combination of chromium picolinate and biotin for treatment of type 2 diabetes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A combination supplement that contains chromium picolinate and biotin may reduce health care costs by improving blood sugar management in people with Type 2 diabetes, according to a study published in the August 2005 issue of the journal 'Disease Management. (livestrong.com)
  • A clinical trial in the in Spring 2007 edition of the "Journal of Cardiometabolic Syndrome" points out that biotin along with chromium can help lower the blood cholesterol levels, which may in turn reduce the risk of high blood pressure and other cardiovascular diseases. (livestrong.com)
  • intestinal
  • Gastrointestinal proteases and peptidases break down the protein-bound forms of ingested biotin into biocytin and biotin-oligopeptides, which undergo further processing by biotinidase, an enzyme, in the intestinal lumen to release free biotin [ 6 ]. (nih.gov)
  • Biotinidase, present in pancreatic juice and the intestinal mucosa, releases biotin from biocytin (bound form of biotin) during the luminal phase of proteolysis. (dsm.com)
  • In most species that have been investigated, physiological concentrations of biotin are absorbed from the intestinal tract by a sodium-dependent active transport process, which is inhibited by dethiobiotin and biocytin (Said and Derweesh, 1991). (dsm.com)
  • Some anticonvulsants inhibit biotin transport across the intestinal mucosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alterations in the intestinal flora caused by the prolonged administration of antibiotics are presumed to be the basis for biotin deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitamins
  • Seborrheic dermatitis , or Leiner's disease, which is a non-itchy, red scaling rash affecting infants during the first three months of life, is also treated with biotin and other B complex vitamins. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Biotin is available in supplement form alone, in combination with other B vitamins , or as part of a multivitamin supplement. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • fatty
  • Although this research hasn't been followed up in more modern settings, we think that nursing moms could consider focusing on foods high in both biotin and omega-3 fatty acids , including salmon and eggs from pasture-raised chickens . (whfoods.com)
  • whites
  • Biotin first came to the attention of researchers for what is still its most famous characteristic-that raw egg whites can interfere with biotin nutrition. (whfoods.com)
  • Eating raw egg whites on a regular basis can also lower biotin levels in the body. (webmd.com)
  • absorption
  • Some epilepsy drugs may decrease biotin absorption from food. (webmd.com)
  • Absorption of biotin by a Na+-dependent process was noted to be higher in the duodenum than the jejunum, which was in turn higher than that in the ileum, and it was concluded that the proximal part of the human small intestine was the site of maximum transport of biotin (Said et al. (dsm.com)
  • excretion
  • Abnormally low urinary excretion of biotin is an indicator of biotin deficiency, as is abnormally high excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid (higher than 3.3 mmol/mol creatinine) or 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine (higher than 0.06 mmol/mol creatinine) resulting from reduced activity of MCC [ 2 , 7 , 8 ]. (nih.gov)
  • this is accompanied by more than a four-fold increase of plasma biotin concentration and more than a six-fold increase of urinary biotin excretion (Barth et al. (dsm.com)
  • synthase
  • Biotin synthase reductively cleaves SAM into a deoxyadenosyl radical-a first radical formed on dethiobiotin is trapped by the sulfur donor, which was found to be the iron-sulfur (Fe-S) center contained in the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • small intestine
  • The free biotin is then absorbed in the small intestine, and most biotin is stored in the liver [ 1 , 3 , 6 ]. (nih.gov)
  • 1988). Biotin is absorbed intact in the first third to half of the small intestine (Bonjour, 1991). (dsm.com)
  • biocytin
  • Biotin appears to circulate in the bloodstream both free and bound to a serum glycoprotein, which also has biotinidase activity, catalyzing the hydrolysis of biocytin. (dsm.com)
  • almonds
  • While we are still learning about how rich many of the World's Healthiest Foods are as biotin sources, we already know that we have tomatoes as an excellent source of biotin, and almonds as a very good source. (whfoods.com)
  • bacteria
  • The body obtains biotin from food and can also synthesize this nutrient from bacteria in the gut. (encyclopedia.com)
  • 1990) suggested that under basal conditions 1.7% to 17% of the swine requirement for biotin is provided by colonic bacteria. (dsm.com)
  • supplement
  • Those taking antibiotics should supplement their diets with biotin. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The benefits of the biotin-containing supplement enhanced the benefits of diabetes medications. (livestrong.com)
  • Biotin is often recommended as a dietary supplement for strengthening hair and nails, though scientific data supporting this outcome are weak. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • A prominent nutrient-drug interaction is that biotin-dependent enzymes are reduced with the epilepsy drug carbamazepine (Rathman et al. (dsm.com)
  • Intracellular distribution of biotin corresponds to known locations of biotin-dependent enzymes (carboxylases). (dsm.com)
  • In the study, participants took 6 micro-moles per deciliter of biotin per day for 28 days and showed increased activity of several enzymes that regulate blood sugar in both the diabetic and non-diabetic participants. (livestrong.com)
  • Mild
  • Mild oxidation converts biotin to the sulfoxide, and strong oxidation converts it to sulfone. (dsm.com)