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  • genes
  • Here it is argued that when all TRGs are considered, it is apparent that TRGs are fundamental to biology and evolution and likely play many complementary roles to the better understood toolkit genes. (frontiersin.org)
  • A consensus from this work might be that although a toolkit of conserved genes is central to biology, many cases of evolutionary novelty are associated with TRGs. (frontiersin.org)
  • We then introduce the main thesis of the paper, which is that although every organism shares a conserved toolkit of genes, each also has an equally fundamental, and large set of lineage specific genes that underlie the many lineage specific traits that are central to their biology. (frontiersin.org)
  • traits
  • Essentially, although basic cell biology has a highly conserved genetic basis across the tree of life, most major clades also have lineage specific traits central to their biology and these traits are often based on TRGs. (frontiersin.org)
  • Combining this account with work by David Hull and examples from contemporary biology, I demonstrate that even broad or heterogeneous traits (including multiple sub-traits) can qualify as valid and useful. (springer.com)
  • evolution
  • Wells (2000) notes that homology as now defined can no longer be used as evidence for evolution because of circular reasoning. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • We essentially broaden the current discussion of toolkits and recent TRGs (primarily orphans) to include these fundamental TRGs to better show the central role of TRGs in evolution and biology. (frontiersin.org)
  • Furthermore, increased knowledge about the genetic and molecular basis of life has revealed many major exceptions and contradictions to the theory which, as a result, have largely negated homology as a proof of evolution. (answersingenesis.org)
  • Homology is not merely a minor proof of evolution, but instead has been widely cited by evolutionists as one of the most compelling lines of evidence for their theory. (answersingenesis.org)
  • A survey by the author of 45 widely used recent college textbooks and 28 high school texts revealed that all of those that discussed evolution (except one) employed homology as a major proof for Darwinism. (answersingenesis.org)
  • indicates
  • The phylogeny of the catalytic subunits indicates that they underwent two major duplications during their evolutionary history: the most ancient arose in the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor (LECA) and led to the emergence of class III and class I/II, while the second - that led to the separation between class I and II - occurred later, in the ancestor of Unikonta ( i.e. , the clade grouping Amoebozoa, Fungi, and Metazoa). (beds.ac.uk)
  • A review of the literature on homology indicates that the theory does not provide evidence for evolutionary naturalism, and that the common examples of homology can be better explained by Creation. (answersingenesis.org)
  • general
  • In the present review, it is argued that this consensus is too conservative and that TRGs are fundamental to biology in general. (frontiersin.org)
  • sequences
  • For two naturally occurring sequences, percent identity is a factual measurement, whereas homology is a hypothesis supported by evidence. (wikidoc.org)
  • One can, however, refer to partial homology where a fraction of the sequences compared (are presumed to) share descent, while the rest does not. (wikidoc.org)
  • result
  • If, however, the mutation affects the function of an important protein, that mutation may result in an evolutionary dead end, because it is less likely to be passed on to a future generation. (encyclopedia.com)
  • various
  • One of the key innovations that contributes to their evolutionary success is the integration of different appendages, together with the associated segments, into the head region, often to facilitate sensory (e.g. the antenna(e) of Mandibulata) and feeding activities (e.g. the chelicerae and pedipalps of most chelicerates, the maxillae and mandibles of Mandibulata, the forcipules of centipedes and maxillipeds of various crustaceans). (biomedcentral.com)
  • present
  • Absence of class II regulatory subunits and the recent origin of class I regulatory subunits is puzzling given that the class I/II catalytic subunit was present in LECA and has been conserved in most present-day eukaryotic lineages. (beds.ac.uk)