• Biological warfare (BW), also known as germ warfare , is the deliberate use of disease -causing biological agents such as protozoa , fungi , bacteria , protists , or viruses , to kill or incapacitate humans, other animals or plants. (princeton.edu)
  • Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, insects, and fungi with the intent to kill, harm or incapacitate humans, animals or plants as an act of war. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccinate everyone, to crush the germ warfare of American imperialism! (wikipedia.org)
  • Biological warfare (BW), also known as a germ warfare , biological weapons , and bioweapons , is the use of any pathogen ( bacterium , virus or other disease-causing organism) as a weapon of war. (bionity.com)
  • Biological warfare (BW), commonly called germ warfare is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents (bacteria, viruses, and fungi) to ill or incapacitate people directky or the animals and plants on which people depend. (histclo.com)
  • Biological warfare (or germ warfare ) is when pathogens are used as a weapon . (wikipedia.org)
  • Sometimes known as 'germ warfare,' biological weapons involve the use of toxins or infectious agents that are biological in origin. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • 1943 - In response to Japan's full-scale germ warfare program, the U.S. begins research on biological weapons at Fort Detrick, MD. (scribd.com)
  • Britain produced five million anthrax cakes at the UK Chemical and Biological Defense Establishment at Porton Down with the intent of dropping them on Germany to infect the food chain. (faqs.org)
  • RICHARDSON, Texas (Oct. 22, 2001) - The University of Texas at Dallas (UTD) will host a symposium about biological warfare and bioterrorism - particularly focusing on the recent anthrax outbreaks - Friday, Oct. 26, from 10 to 11:30 a.m. in Room JO 4.614 of the Jonsson Building on the UTD campus. (utdallas.edu)
  • But biological warfare, as commonly understood, has always involved introducing some sort of pathogen-ancient poisons, diseased corpses, plague-infested fleas, anthrax-into a population. (thebulletin.org)
  • As the 2001 anthrax attacks amply demonstrated, the threat posed by a biological weapons' incident may be closer to home than any of us care to think. (wordpress.com)
  • It contains events related to the event October 2, 2001: Letter Calling Muslim Scientist Potential Biological Warfare Terrorist Arrives Days before First Signs of Anthrax Attacks . (historycommons.org)
  • Today, pathogens for diseases like anthrax or smallpox could be used as agents for biological weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was also believed to have an active program developing biological weapons (in particular, anthrax and botulinum toxin). (health.mil)
  • Anthrax spores have been used as a weapon in biological warfare. (teara.govt.nz)
  • Six pathogens, throughout the history of biological warfare, have been considered the most deadly and therefore the most suitable as weapons: anthrax, botulinium, plague, smallpox, tularaemia and viral hemorrhagic fever(s), of these, only smallpox has no other known host, but humans. (blogspot.com)
  • In contrast to bioterrorism, biological warfare is defined as the 'statesanctioned' use of biological weapons on an opposing military force or civilian population. (faqs.org)
  • For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism . (bionity.com)
  • Accurately detecting and identifying biological warfare agents (BWAs) is the focal point for countering bioterrorism. (cdc.gov)
  • The threat of bioterrorism has stimulated renewed interest in the "Blue Book," a pocket-sized manual published by the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Md. The fourth edition of the manual, entitled "Medical Management of Biological Casualties Handbook" (February 2001), includes a summary of medical agents from which this table is adapted. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Biological warfare and bioterrorism. (ox.ac.uk)
  • May, 1951: This committee reports as "Committee on Information Concerning Civil Defense against Biological Warfare. (asm.org)
  • Home / Journal of Civil Defense / Journal of Civil Defense 2019, Volume 53, Issue 2, "Biological Warfare, Can you Survive? (tacda.org)
  • I would like to start with two definitions defining chemical warfare and biological warfare from a civil defense point of view. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Challenges to this task include minimizing the labor, equipment, and time for identifying biological and chemical agents. (faqs.org)
  • The second method involves the development of a wearable, non-invasive diagnostic device that detects a broad-spectrum of biological and chemical agents. (faqs.org)
  • Therefore, the use of biological agents in armed conflict is a war crime. (wikipedia.org)
  • Accordingly, biological agents are potentially useful as strategic deterrents, in addition to their utility as offensive weapons on the battlefield. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some biological agents (smallpox, pneumonic plague) have the capability of person-to-person transmission via aerosolized respiratory droplets. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Dorset Biological Warfare Experiments were a series of experiments conducted between 1953 and 1975 to determine the extent to which a single ship or aircraft could dispense biological warfare agents over the United Kingdom. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Senate subcommittee hearings in 1977, the US Army revealed: Between 1949 and 1969 open-air tests of biological agents were conducted 239 times. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a strategic weapon, BW is again militarily problematic, although with a possible exception with the Soviets, the weaponized biological agents did not spread from person to person. (bionity.com)
  • Restrictions on use of human subjects for testing of chemical or biological agents. (house.gov)
  • directed Secretary of Defense to submit an annual report to Congress on expenditures for research, development, test, and evaluation of all lethal and nonlethal chemical and biological agents. (house.gov)
  • Over 20 days, curriculum students at Fort Detrick, Maryland, get quite close to one of the deadliest and most difficult threats to detect - biological agents. (army-technology.com)
  • As participants in the "field identification of biological warfare (BW) agents" course for training in technologies for confirmation and identification of BW agents, the students learn how to set-up, maintain and operate a deployable confirmatory laboratory under field conditions. (army-technology.com)
  • Unlike chemical agents, biological agents have an incubation period that can take days to develop symptoms. (army-technology.com)
  • For purposes of the Phase I endeavor, models that mimic common biological warfare agents (BWA) will be used to test the system. (sbir.gov)
  • Reflecting the critical threat posed by biological warfare and terrorism in a post 9-11 world, Medical Aspects of Biological Warfare (an update of Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare published in 1997) addresses the weaponization of biological agents, categorizing potential agents as food, waterborne, or agricultural agents or toxins, and discusses their respective epidemiology. (gpo.gov)
  • I define biological warfare as use of agents of disease for hostile purposes. (cdc.gov)
  • S. Department of the Army Staff is the author of 'Military Biology and Biological Warfare Agents', published 2003 under ISBN 9781410206992 and ISBN 1410206998. (valorebooks.com)
  • We developed a fiber-optic, microsphere-based, high-density array composed of 18 species-specific probe microsensors to identify biological warfare agents. (cdc.gov)
  • We simultaneously identified multiple biological warfare agents in environmental samples by looking at specific probe responses after hybridization and response patterns of the multiplexed array. (cdc.gov)
  • to develop biological agents that have no justification for peaceful purposes," she says. (opb.org)
  • We are not developing biological warfare agents," he says. (opb.org)
  • Vaccines, Therapeutics, and Prophylaxis for Selected Biological Warfare Agents. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • It was not until the 1970s when South Africa started producing more destructive agents, even though South Africa signed the Biological Warfare Convention (BWC) in 1972 and ratified it in November of 1975(Boston). (brightkite.com)
  • South Africa increased their production of more aggressive biological and chemical agents so that they may prevent the Communist onslaught from the Soviet Union and Cuban-backed regimes, which had made threats to takeover Mozambique and Angola during the mid to late 1970s (Boston). (brightkite.com)
  • The new fungal agents were dubbed Agent Green by the Sunshine Project, a non-governmental organization opposed to the use of biological weapons, and were developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and by two other facilities using U.S. government funding--a private company in Montana, and a former Soviet biological weapons facility in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. (panna.org)
  • In-depth definitions of biological agents, biological weapons, and biological warfare (BW) are included, as well as an appendix of further reading on the subject. (gpo.gov)
  • Ironically, when Senator Riegle first approached officials at the Department of Defense about veterans' possible exposures to chemical and biological warfare agents in the Persian Gulf, he was told by Walter Reed Army Medical Center commander Major General Ronald Blank that the issue was not even explored because "military intelligence maintained that such exposures never occurred. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • patent (6,569,353) for a gel-based formulation capable of decontaminating both chemical and biological warfare agents. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Smiths Detection provides systems to detect chemical and biological warfare agents, explosives and drugs to the military, transportation and facility security markets. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The focus of the grants was aimed at developing an ultrasensitive hand-held biochip system for detecting the deployment of chemical and biological warfare agents. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Maclellan notes that under Project 112 and SHAD, weapons with sarin, VX and other chemical and biological agents were tested in Hawai'i, Panama, and the Marshall Islands in the 1960s. (nautilus.org)
  • Project 112 included tests on land while Project SHAD encompassed tests at sea designed to identify U.S. warships' vulnerabilities to attacks with chemical or biological warfare agents and to develop procedures to respond to such attacks while maintaining a war-fighting capability. (nautilus.org)
  • Pentagon documents released in 2002 show the US Defense Department sprayed live nerve and biological agents on ships and sailors, and sprayed a germ toxin on Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands. (nautilus.org)
  • The Japanese also had an active program and actually used both biological and chemical agents in china, primarily in China. (histclo.com)
  • And akthough chemicl warfare was very limited suring the War, WMD were largely unknown to the public was the huge advances that he Germans and made in CW during the War creating deadly nerve agents and the massive BW progrm launched by the Soviet Union after the War. (histclo.com)
  • One could say that cigarettes and all their chemicals are weapons of mass destruction, filled with agents of biological warfare that slowly destroy human cells and end life early for millions of people that become "hooked" on them. (naturalnews.com)
  • Chemical and biological warfare agents are threats to the military and civilians alike in both terrorist and conventional warfare scenarios. (labmate-online.com)
  • It begins with a section on the background of decontamination, which includes a chronological history of military research, an overview of the US Department of Defense decontamination principles and requirements and a chapter that acts as a primer on chemical and biological warfare agents. (labmate-online.com)
  • Types of Pathogens that are used in Biological Agents. (brainscape.com)
  • More recently, however, the possibility has been recognized that there might have been other types of releases of chemical or biological agents, most plausibly during bombing of Iraqi munitions bunkers or production facilities. (health.mil)
  • This section summarizes an analysis, drawn from information collected predominantly from U.S. sources, but with corroboration from British sources, of evidence relevant to possible exposures of U.S. forces to biological and chemical agents. (health.mil)
  • Biological agents are easily recognized through their effects on a target population. (health.mil)
  • Attention has also focused on chemical weapons, and the possibility that troops were targeted by these weapons, or were exposed to low levels of chemical warfare agents. (health.mil)
  • As a result, the concentration of chemical warfare agents in the air is reduced to an insignificant level very rapidly as a function of distance and time. (health.mil)
  • Biological Warfare Agents" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (childrensmercy.org)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Biological Warfare Agents" by people in this website by year, and whether "Biological Warfare Agents" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (childrensmercy.org)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Biological Warfare Agents" by people in Profiles. (childrensmercy.org)
  • On Sept. 11, Russian media reported that the Richard Lugar Center for Public Health Research laboratory, a research facility for high-level biohazard agents located near Tbilisi, Georgia, has used human beings for conducting biological experiments. (batr.net)
  • To address the DHS need for a novel technology platform that is non-destructive to common environmental surfaces but capable of destroying a range of biological agents, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a Biological Warfare Agents Remediation (BIFAR) system based on photocatalytic ionization of hydrogen peroxide inside porous microcarriers. (sbir.gov)
  • The Dorset Biological Warfare Experiments 1963-75 Jim Carlton,Of Microbes and Mock Attacks: Years Ago, The Military Sprayed Germs on U.S. Cities, The Wall Street Journal, (October 22, 2001). (wikipedia.org)
  • Innovative Design of Experiments (DOE) methods are used to significantly reduce the number of simulations required to model biological warfare (BW) attacks. (jmp.com)
  • In this context, the recruitment of top German and Japanese scientists who had conducted grisly "medical" experiments whilst waging biological war against China and the Soviet Union would be free of any moralizing or political wavering. (wordpress.com)
  • These Cold War-era experiments to test the Navy's vulnerability to toxic warfare involved about 4,300 US military personnel, mostly from the Navy. (nautilus.org)
  • 1942 - Chemical Warfare Services begins mustard gas experiments on approximately 4,000 servicemen. (scribd.com)
  • The fleas were specially raised to carry germs at the infamous Unit 731 laboratory in Northern China that the Japanese military set up to create and test biological warfare experiments. (sylviayufriedman.com)
  • When indexed to weapon mass and cost of development and storage, biological weapons possess destructive potential and loss of life far in excess of nuclear, chemical or conventional weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a tactical weapon for military use, a significant problem with biological warfare is that it would take days to be effective, and therefore might not immediately stop an opposing force. (wikipedia.org)
  • Smallpox was used as a biological weapon several times during the colonization of the Americas. (faqs.org)
  • Between 1918 and 1945, the Japanese government conducted extensive biological weapon research at Unit 731 in occupied Manchuria, China. (faqs.org)
  • A biological weapon may be intended to kill, incapacitate or seriously impede an adversary. (bionity.com)
  • It is a biological weapon facility. (hltv.org)
  • Dr. Lederberg is cochair of a study on biological weapon threats and defensive measures tasked by the Defense Science Board and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency. (cdc.gov)
  • President Nixon's abjuration of biological warfare as a U.S. military weapon in 1969 set in motion the most important diplomatic and legal steps towards its eradication globally, laying the groundwork for the Biological Weapons Convention treaty. (cdc.gov)
  • He provides a brief history of biological warfare, including a link to a Nova slideshow on the topic, and writes that a flu strain has never been used as a weapon "for good reason" - "Influenza in general is an equal-opportunity menace" that would "put at great risk anyone trying to assemble a pandemic H5N1 to launch at 'target' populations. (kff.org)
  • According to the current declassified literature, the T-2 mycotoxin is the only mycotoxin known to have been used as a biological weapon. (mold-help.org)
  • The report of "yellow rain" in remote sections of jungle in Laos (1975-81), which resulted in more than 6,378 deaths, has been viewed as use of T-2 mycotoxin as a biological weapon. (mold-help.org)
  • Other reported uses of T-2 mycotoxin as a biological weapon concern Kampuchea (1979-81) with 1,034 deaths and Afghanistan (1979-81) with 3,042 deaths. (mold-help.org)
  • This is called a biological weapon . (wikipedia.org)
  • At that time insider information indicated that SARS was a biological weapon. (reuters.com)
  • https://www.aircrap.org/2018/01/16/chemtrail-flu-biological-warfare. (12160.info)
  • Pursuant to Sections 306(a), 307(a), and 307(d) of the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare Elimination Act of 1991, as amended (22 U.S.C. Section 5604(a) and Section 5605(a)), on August 6, 2018, the Deputy Secretary of State determined that the Government of the Russian Federation has used chemical weapons in violation of international law or lethal chemical weapons against its own nationals. (federalregister.gov)
  • Join us on The Truth Perspective this Sunday, 4 February 2018, from 12-2pm EST / 5-7pm UTC / 6-8pm CET as Dilyana shares the results of her in-depth investigations and her most recent work on the Pentagon's Bio-warfare labs. (sott.net)
  • 2018. Medical Aspects of Biological Warfare, Textbooks of military medicine: Office of the Surgeon General, Borden Institute, US Army Medical Department Center and School, Health Readiness Center of Excellence. (netecweb.org)
  • Biological weapons (often referred to as bioweapons ) are living organisms or replicating entities ( virus ) that reproduce or replicate within their host victims. (princeton.edu)
  • There is an overlap between biological warfare and chemical warfare , as the use of toxins produced by living organisms is considered under the provisions of both the Biological Weapons Convention and the Chemical Weapons Convention . (princeton.edu)
  • Biological warfare and chemical warfare overlap to an extent, as the use of toxins produced by some living organisms is considered under the provisions of both the BWC and the Chemical Weapons Convention. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using nonliving toxic products, even if produced by living organisms (e.g., toxins), is considered Chemical warfare under the provisions of the Chemical Weapons Convention . (bionity.com)
  • Living organisms or their toxic products that are used to cause disease or death of humans during WARFARE. (childrensmercy.org)
  • Because living organisms can be unpredictable and incredibly resilient, biological weapons are difficult to control, potentially devastating on a global scale, and prohibited globally under numerous treaties. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Biological warfare is the intentional use of living organisms or their toxic products to produce death, disability, or damage to man, animals, or crops. (jamanetwork.com)
  • The creation and stockpiling of biological weapons ("offensive BW") was outlawed by the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention (BWC), signed by over 100 countries. (bionity.com)
  • This declaration was followed by the negotiation, ratification, and coming into force (in 1975) of the Biological Weapons Convention, a categorical ban on the development, production, and use of biological weapons. (cdc.gov)
  • Were it not for the Biological Weapons Convention, a gradually escalating technology race would have amplified even further this threat to human existence. (cdc.gov)
  • Her specialty is international law, including the Biological Weapons Convention, which the United States ratified in 1975. (opb.org)
  • A description of the chemical warfare defense preparations that have been and are being undertaken by the Department of Defense to address needs which may arise under article X of the Chemical Weapons Convention. (cornell.edu)
  • The U.S. plan to spray Fusarium oxysporum would violate the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC), which prohibits international transfers of bioweapons and equipment. (panna.org)
  • The production, and stockpiling of such weapons was forbidden in the Biological Weapons Convention of 1972. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several cases are known of researchers becoming infected and dying of Ebola, which they had been working with in the lab (though nobody else was infected in those cases) - while there is no evidence that their work was directed towards biological warfare, it demonstrates the potential for accidental infection even of careful researchers fully aware of the dangers. (wikipedia.org)
  • They include South Africa's Chemical and Biological Warfare Program and the beginning of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and the Ebola virus. (brightkite.com)
  • In this report I will discuss the South Africa's Chemical and Biological Warfare Program and bits of the AIDS theories and the Ebola virus. (brightkite.com)
  • Biological warfare is distinct from warfare involving other types of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), including nuclear warfare, chemical warfare, and radiological warfare. (wikipedia.org)
  • On 30 June 1950, soon after the outbreak of the Korean War, the US Defense Secretary George Marshall received the Report of the Committee on Chemical, Biological and Radiological Warfare and Recommendations , which advocated urgent development of a biological weapons program. (wikipedia.org)
  • The report said that some terrorists saw chemical, biological and radiological materials as low-cost, high-impact options for achieving their goals and that in September 2006 Abu Ayyub al Masri, al-Qaeda-in-Iraq's leader, publicly called upon scientists for help to develop such weapons. (army-technology.com)
  • Define Radiological Warfare. (brainscape.com)
  • What is Radiological Warfare? (cram.com)
  • South Africa's Chemical and Biological Warfare program has been ongoing since World War I. Even after the Geneva Convention of 1925 was established South Africa did not entirely cease production and research of their Chemical and Biological Warfare program (Boston). (brightkite.com)
  • In fact, during World War II, South Africa sidestepped the convention protocol and began planning a more extensive Chemical and Biological Warfare program, to protect the country from the threat of the Nazi regime. (brightkite.com)
  • Estimates are that over 3,000 prisoners died as a result of infection by these biological pathogens or execution following such infections. (faqs.org)
  • Biological weapons may be employed in various ways to gain a strategic or tactical advantage over the enemy, either by threats or by actual deployments. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is not surprising so much effort is being put into counteracting biological threats, especially in the US. (army-technology.com)
  • U.S. legislators are making new threats to use biological weapons in Colombia's civil war. (panna.org)
  • Nuclear warfare -- Safety measures. (powells.com)
  • Since the media has decided to scare everyone with predictions of chemical, biological, or nuclear warfare on our turf I decided to write a paper and keep things in their proper perspective. (angelfire.com)
  • Biological weapons include pathogenic viruses, bacteria, and biological toxins. (faqs.org)
  • The only reference to BW is in a report from Oct. 1943: "On the basis of recommendations made by members of the Committee and by other members of the Society, a program of activities was drawn up to cover the following fields:… 9) [of 9] Bacteriological warfare and the effect of warfare upon essential bacterial processes (gas warfare and soil bacteria). (asm.org)
  • On the other hand, a group of Yemeni doctors identified the source of the spread of the epidemic, they confirmed the theory that Saudi Arabia used biological weapons, and one of the doctors participating in the campaign that they have examined the sources of water in different areas, where they found in the water a type of bacteria used in biological weapons. (iuvmpress.com)
  • Biological warfare in Yemen is not limited to the spread of disease bacteria, but includes the use of other biological weapons, as evidenced by the strange burns suffered by Yemenis wounded by the Saudi bombing, which eventually kill them. (iuvmpress.com)
  • 1950 - In an experiment to determine how susceptible an American city would be to biological attack, the U.S. Navy sprays a cloud of bacteria from ships over San Franciso. (scribd.com)
  • Human rights activists describe what is happening in Yemen in biological warfare, while analysts believe that America bears a large part of the responsibility because it supports Saudi Arabia in the war on Yemen since 2015. (iuvmpress.com)
  • [4] The biological weapons research facility at Fort Detrick in Maryland was expanded, and a new one in Pine Bluff, Arkansas , was developed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The United States government's biological warfare facility was headquartered at Fort Detrick in Maryland beginning in 1942. (faqs.org)
  • The use of this generalist and highly persistent fungal pathogen would legitimize biological warfare, and provide a major threat to the health and environment within Colombia. (panna.org)
  • The proficiency of a biological warfare agent like pathogen to transfer through an artificial route in the United States. (criticalpast.com)
  • The proficiency of a biological warfare agent like pathogen to transfer through a artificial route shows U.S. soldiers having food and water. (criticalpast.com)
  • Intelligence estimates indicate that up to a dozen countries may have developed biological weapons. (cdc.gov)
  • Biological warfare: Microorganisms as drivers of host-parasite interactions. (stonybrook.edu)
  • In a story for Foreign Policy , the doctor and global public health expert Annie Sparrow advances a more unusual argument: That Syria's embattled dictator Bashar Al-Assad, by deliberately degrading healthcare to encourage disease and death, is also conducting a form of biological warfare. (thebulletin.org)
  • But both despots deploy this alternative form of biological warfare at their peril-at everybody's peril, really. (thebulletin.org)
  • The first form of biological warfare may have been when the plague hit the Mongols . (wikipedia.org)
  • Rudimentary forms of biological warfare have been practiced since antiquity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Fourth International Congress for Microbiology joins the International Society of Cell Biology in condemning in the strongest possible terms all forms of biological warfare. (asm.org)
  • Britain has secret contingency plans to cope with a deliberate release of chemical or biological weapons in populated areas. (sott.net)
  • According to congressional testimony by Dr. Alan M. Pearson, Director of the Biological and Chemical Weapons Control Program at the Washington D.C.-based Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation , with very little in the way of effective oversight or accountability, tens of billions of dollars "have been appropriated for bioweapons-related research and development activities. (wordpress.com)
  • Biological warfare, as defined by the United Nations, is the use of any living organism (e.g. bacterium, virus) or an infective component (e.g., toxin), to cause disease or death in humans, animals, or plants. (faqs.org)
  • During World War I, Germany developed a biological warfare program based on the bacterium Bacillus anthracis and a strain of Pseudomonas known as Burkholderia mallei , which causes glanders disease in cattle. (faqs.org)
  • Dr. Orient warned of the imminent danger of serious disease and virus epidemics, using the terms "collusion" and "biological weapons attack" in reference to the health crisis. (americanfreepress.net)
  • Biological warfare is defined as "the use of harmful living things (such as germs that cause disease) as weapons in a war" (Merriam-Webster Dictionary). (brightkite.com)
  • And in two of the three written records we have of these events, the victims interpreted the stench resulting from biological aggression as the cause of subsequent disease. (heavengames.com)
  • While limited use of chemicals and disease in warfare dates from ancient times, the origins of modern chemical and biological weapons systems date from the era of the two world wars. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Japanese biological warfare research on humans: a case study of microbiology and ethics. (nih.gov)
  • RMSF is transmitted to humans by tick bites, the only way I know of (short of biological warfare). (911blogger.com)
  • Careful analysis by the Coalition forces following Desert Storm led to the conclusion that there was no intentional, tactical use of either biological or chemical weapons by Iraq during the war. (health.mil)
  • Chemical warfare is the intentional use of toxic chemicals to kill or confuse man. (jamanetwork.com)
  • The Conventions outlaw acts such as the intentional targeting of civilian populations and the creation and stockpiling of biological weapons. (heitordepaola.online)
  • Is The Pentagon Modifying Viruses To Save Crops - Or To Wage Biological Warfare? (opb.org)
  • In the 1960s, South Africa realized that they needed to update their Chemical and Biological Warfare program after the Egyptians starting using chemicals in Yemen during the mid 60s. (brightkite.com)
  • Chemical Warfare (CW) uses chemicals, commonly called poison gas, to kill. (histclo.com)
  • Offensive biological warfare is prohibited under customary international humanitarian law and several international treaties. (wikipedia.org)
  • During 1951, as the war turned against the United States, the Chinese and North Koreans made vague allegations of biological warfare, but these were not pursued. (wikipedia.org)
  • [7] Schwable disclosed in his press statement that B-29s flew biological warfare missions to Korea from airfields in American-occupied Okinawa starting in November 1951. (wikipedia.org)
  • April, 1951: Ad Hoc Committee on Biological Warfare formed. (asm.org)
  • The group is gathering at UTD to work on a book funded by NATO that will address the history of biological weapons from World War II to the present. (utdallas.edu)
  • The Chemical and Biological Defence Programme (CBDP) 2009 annual report to US Congress stated that antagonist nations, terrorist organisations and other non-state actors continued to possess or seek weapons with the capacity to inflict catastrophic damage (physical, economic, or psychological). (army-technology.com)
  • Atomic Biological and Chemical Warfare Home Defence! (angelfire.com)
  • Dr.Jill Bellamy is an internationally recognized expert on biological warfare and defence. (blogspot.com)
  • At least since the 2002 publication of "Unrestricted Warfare," a book by two People's Liberation Army (PLA) colonels, Chinese military thinking has extended the concept of a battlefield to every aspect of military and civilian existence. (heitordepaola.online)
  • Wheelis is an expert on biological weapons and the history of biological warfare. (utdallas.edu)
  • He has acted as a lobbyist and technical expert on biological weapons control and can provide insight into how terrorists or hostile governments might mount a biological attack and how it could be detected. (utdallas.edu)
  • Inspections in the post-war period by UN biological weapons teams found no weaponized stores of toxins, spores or organisms (although this finding does not answer the question of the size and scope of the Iraqi program in biological weapons, since the evidence has almost certainly been hidden or may have been destroyed in the period immediately after the ground war). (health.mil)
  • A biological attack could conceivably result in large numbers of civilian casualties and cause severe disruption to economic and societal infrastructure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rationale behind the agreement is to avoid the devastating impact of a successful biological attack which could conceivably result in millions, possibly even billions, of deaths and cause severe disruptions to societies and economies. (bionity.com)
  • Until the end of World War II, Japan operated a covert biological and chemical warfare research and development unit called Unit 731 in Harbin . (wikipedia.org)
  • Meanwhile, U.S. strategic planners and their British partners advocated the tactical, strategic, and covert possibilities of biological weapons as well as their potential as weapons of mass destruction. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Background: Bubonic plague is amongst the diseases with the highest potential for being used in biological warfare attacks today. (eurekaselect.com)
  • It was the Japanese who made the most use of biological weapons during World War II, as among other terrifyingly indiscriminate attacks, the Japanese Army Air Force dropped ceramic bombs full of fleas carrying the bubonic plague on Ningbo, China. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The quantities, characteristics, and capabilities of fielded chemical and biological defense equipment to meet wartime and peacetime requirements for support of the Armed Forces, including individual protective items. (cornell.edu)
  • The status of research and development programs, and acquisition programs, for required improvements in chemical and biological defense equipment and medical treatment, including an assessment of the ability of the Department of Defense and the industrial base to meet those requirements. (cornell.edu)
  • Measures taken to ensure the integration of requirements for chemical and biological defense equipment and material among the Armed Forces. (cornell.edu)
  • Inventory of chemical/biological defense equipment & supplies is conducted. (cram.com)
  • In 1950 the U.S. government, concurrent with the growing tensions of the early Cold War, and especially the outbreak of the Korean War , secretly launched a heavily funded and far-ranging crash program in biological warfare. (encyclopedia.com)
  • So in this series we will discuss fundamentals of biological warfare to outline some preventative preparations you can take in order to safeguard yourselves. (readynutrition.com)
  • Driven by reports of Japanese and German programs to develop biological weapons, the Allies embarked on vigorous efforts to develop their own biological weapons during World War II. (faqs.org)
  • In contrast, defensive biological research for prophylactic, protective or other peaceful purposes is not prohibited by the BWC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. John Ellis van Courtland Moon , retired professor of history, Fitchburg State College, Fitchburg, Mass. Moon is an expert on the history of biological warfare and edited Biological and Toxin Weapons: Research, Development and Use from the Middle Ages to 1945 . (utdallas.edu)
  • The strength of the project rests on the collaboration of Materials and Electrochemical Research (MER) Corporation, with extensive nanotechnology experience and Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI), which is highly respected for its biological testing expertise and facilities. (sbir.gov)
  • So the research could be perceived, at least, as a as a violation of the Biological Weapons Treaty. (opb.org)
  • Throughout my research in many different books, reports on Biological warfare in Africa during the 1960's and 1970's, I have found a number of things. (brightkite.com)
  • Following World War II, the South African Defense Force continued to research Chemical and Biological Warfare but more for riot control. (brightkite.com)
  • The United States government, although declaring a self-imposed moratorium on actively pursuing biological weapons back in the 1970's has plenty of Bio-Level 4 facilities with weapons research and testing. (readynutrition.com)
  • This book is a comprehensive overview of the scientific research and development that has been done in chemical and biological agent decontamination technology in the US military. (labmate-online.com)
  • Currently, the United States Army is conducting 90% of their biological warfare research in T-2 mycotoxins, according to Dr. William Deagle, in a recent telephone interview. (mold-help.org)
  • Recently declassified Government files reveal the events that led to research on biological weapons. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Researchers in industry, government and academia are applying microfluidic technologies for use in food process controls, protein separation, drug development, diagnostics, environmental monitoring and chemical and biological warfare agent detection. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The recently formed division includes Graseby, with its chemical and biological warfare agent detection capability, Barringer Instruments (now Smiths Detection Warren) with their expertise in trace explosive and narcotics detection and Environmental Technologies Group (Now Smiths Detection Edgewood) with their expertise in artillery meteorology and biological warfare agent detection. (thefreedictionary.com)