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  • regulatory
  • To understand the structural basis of ZIP4 dysfunction caused by the AE-causing mutations and to facilitate drug discovery of ZIP4 inhibitors, we previously solved the crystal structure of the extracellular domain (ECD) of a mammalian ZIP4 ( 10 ), demonstrating that ZIP4-ECD is a crucial regulatory domain for optimal zinc transport. (sciencemag.org)
  • The untranslated region (UTR) at the 30 end of a mammalian mRNA is typically rich with regulatory motifs that influence the stability, localization, translation and other properties of the message. (mit.edu)
  • mechanisms
  • To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms, a novel in vitro co-culture model system was established, in which medium spiny GABAergic neurons, a highly homogenous population of neurons isolated from the embryonic striatum, were cultured with stably transfected HEK293 cell lines that express different GABA A R subtypes. (jove.com)
  • Reactive astrogliosis is a remarkable pathogenetic hallmark of the brains of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, but its progressive fate and regulation mechanisms are poorly understood. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the first chapter, "Early embryonic cell fate decisions in the mouse", Amy Ralson and Yojiro Yamanaka describe the mechanisms that support early developmental decisions in the mouse pre-implantation embryo and the current understanding of the source of the most immature stem cell types, which includes ES cells, trophoblast stem (TS) cells and extraembryonic endoderm stem (XEN) cells. (springer.com)
  • transcription
  • However, TDG was also found to interact with transcription factors, histone acetyltransferases and de novo DNA methyltransferases, and it has been associated with DNA demethylation in gene promoters following activation of transcription, altogether implicating an engagement in gene regulation rather than DNA repair. (uzh.ch)
  • oxidative
  • They are involved in a variety of cellular pathways, from electrochemical gradient generation to enzyme active site formation, DNA replication, oxygen transport, and oxidative/nitrosative stress regulation. (frontiersin.org)
  • molecular
  • Investigation of the regenerative process through live imaging and molecular studies revealed how this happens: the cardiomyocytes "de-differentiate" - that is, they revert to an earlier form, something between an embryonic and an adult cell, which can then divide and differentiate into new heart cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • lineage
  • With embryonic stem (ES) cells that can generate each cell type in the mammalian body and adult stem cells that are able to give rise to the cells within a given lineage, basic questions at different developmental stages can be addressed. (springer.com)
  • regulators
  • The complexity of miRNA-mediated regulation, its potential impact on the expression of a large number of proteins and its control over the output from the transcriptome have drawn increased attention to these tiny regulators. (biologists.org)
  • human
  • Novel Determinants of Mammalian Primary microRNA Processing Revealed by Systematic Evaluation of Hairpin-containing Transcripts and Human Genetic Variation. (yale.edu)
  • study
  • This study demonstrated that the up-regulation of inducible Gas1 contributed to the apoptosis of reactive astrocytes in the injured nigra. (biomedcentral.com)