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  • receptors
  • In molecular recognition force microscopy, interaction forces between tip-bound ligands and membrane-embedded receptors can be studied under well-controlled buffer conditions and effector's concentrations. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • of up to 12 million receptors per cell. (epfl.ch)
  • This was possible by using 5HT3 receptor-specific fluorescent ligands with high binding affinity and low off-rate to pulse label receptors at any time after appearance on the cell surface, and label subsequently those receptors expressed later by another, spectrally distinguishable, high-affinity fluorescent ligand. (epfl.ch)
  • The clusters were constantly delivered from a pool of freshly expressed receptors isotropically distributed within the basolateral region of the cell membrane. (epfl.ch)
  • lipids
  • However, limited information is available on the molecular identity of lipids with putative biological activities in Drosophila. (jove.com)
  • A fatty acid analysis method should provide sufficient cell disruption to liberate all acyl lipids and the extraction procedure used should be able to extract all acyl lipid classes. (jove.com)
  • Mammalian cells store excess fatty acids as neutral lipids in specialised organelles called lipid droplets (LDs). (jove.com)
  • Bioactive lipids are extracted from cell lysate or media using liquid-liquid (l-l) extraction. (jove.com)
  • Gas chromatography (GC) is a highly sensitive method used to identify and quantify the fatty acid content of lipids from tissues, cells, and plasma/serum, yielding results with high accuracy and high reproducibility. (jove.com)
  • Enzymes
  • The cell must provide necessary substrates to support biosynthesis and coordinately express the transferred genetic cluster to produce active enzymes. (jove.com)
  • One important technique to examine cell central metabolism and discover new enzymes is 13 C-assisted metabolism analysis 1. (jove.com)
  • The capacity for carbon fixation and reduction is lost if the outer membrane of the chloroplast is broken, allowing the stroma enzymes to leak out. (britannica.com)
  • pathways
  • Furthermore, normal and malignant keratinocytes were found to create different transcripts upon serum excitement and subsequent starvation, suggesting that specific CD44 isoforms are involved in tumorigenesis via buy CID 2011756 different CD44-mediated biological pathways. (cancer-basics.com)
  • Drosophila, as a simpler genetic organism, allows the multiple biological functions and various evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways to be examined at the whole organism level and it is a useful model for investigating genetics and physiology. (jove.com)
  • We have developed a simple screening method for the cellular activities of terpene synthases by scoring their substrate consumption based on the color loss of the cell harboring carotenoid pathways. (jove.com)
  • processes
  • In normal kidney, the foot processes of podocytes are maintained wide open to facilitate passage of the glomerular filtrate, and they are held together by the specialized cell-cell contact named slit diaphragms. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The aim of this project was to standardize the use of 90nm nano-gold particles as a non-toxic means to detect immuno-liposomes on the membrane of living cells to elucidate internalization processes and binding efficiency on Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells (HCAEC) using AFM. (nsti.org)
  • Glycosphingolipids (GSL's) belong to the glycoconjugate class of biomacromolecules, which bear structural information for significant biological processes such as embryonic development, signal transduction, and immune receptor recognition 1-2 . (jove.com)
  • High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HRMAS) proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) is a novel non-destructive technique that improves spectral line-widths and allows high-resolution spectra to be obtained from extracts, intact cells, cell cultures, and more importantly intact tissue to investigate relationships between metabolites and cellular processes. (jove.com)
  • Metabolomics is an emerging field which enables profiling of samples from living organisms in order to obtain insight into biological processes. (jove.com)
  • Their uptake by recruited macrophages leads to endolysosomal phospholipidosis or foam cell formation, respectively, each of which is preceded by highly differential lipid restructuring processes. (jove.com)
  • Polyunsaturated fatty acids may modulate the physical properties of biological membranes via alteration of membrane lipid composition affecting numerous physiological processes, e.g. in the immune system. (jove.com)
  • Physiological
  • Atomic force microscopy (AFM) enables high resolution topographic imaging of biological samples under near-physiological conditions. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Th2 cytokines promote physiological changes in the intestinal microenvironment including rapid turnover of IECs, goblet cell differentiation, recruitment and changes in epithelial permeability and smooth muscle contraction, all of which have been implicated in worm expulsion 7-15 . (jove.com)
  • Receptor
  • The ionotropic 5HT3 receptor was expressed in transiently transfected mammalian cells, yielding an unprecedented high concn. (epfl.ch)
  • Receptor traffic in the plasma membrane of live cells was obsd. (epfl.ch)
  • Since the engagement of the T cell receptor (TCR) by CD1d-antigen complexes is a fundamental requirement of NKT cell activation, antigen: CD1d-Ig complexes provide a reliable method to isolate, activate, and expand effector NKT cell populations. (jove.com)
  • murine
  • In fact, murine DC rather than autologous APC have been used to test the function of NKT cells from CML patients 11 . (jove.com)
  • However, this system can only be used for in vitro testing since NKT cells cannot be expanded by murine DC and then used for adoptive immunotherapy. (jove.com)
  • In this systematic study we present fatty acid and peptide profiles of cell membrane and membrane rafts of murine macrophages that have been supplemented with saturated fatty acids as well as PUFAs from the n-3, the n-6 and the n-9 family. (jove.com)
  • antigen-prese
  • Fibroblasts and antigen-presenting cells in the renal interstitium of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats on a high cholesterol diet'Arch Histol Cytol. (nii.ac.jp)
  • However, NKT cell based-immunotherapy has been limited by the use of autologous antigen presenting cells and the quantity and quality of these stimulator cells can vary substantially. (jove.com)
  • Thus, a standardized system that relies on artificial Antigen Presenting Cells (aAPC) could produce the stimulating effects of DC without the pitfalls of allo- or xenogeneic cells 12, 13 . (jove.com)
  • undergo
  • At the same time, the growing leaf contains cells at different stages of development, with the cells furthest from the petiole being the first to stop expanding and undergo senescence 1 . (jove.com)
  • neutral
  • We show here that interfering with membrane trafficking events and simple neutral glycosphingolipid synthesis will affect the expression of GLTP. (jove.com)
  • proliferation
  • We characterized the de-epithelialized human amniotic membrane (HAM), and compared cell attachment and proliferation efficiencies. (arvojournals.org)
  • An alpha-galactosyl ceramide (alpha-GalCer) 2 was synthesized and evaluated for its ability to stimulate iNKT-cell proliferation and elicit T-helper cytokines, IL-4 and IFNgamma. (jove.com)
  • After initiation of the leaf primordium, biomass accumulation is controlled mainly by cell proliferation and expansion in the leaves 1 . (jove.com)
  • boundaries
  • Cell membranes define the boundaries of living cells and work to shield it from changes in its environment. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • From a single cell to multicellular plants and animals, glycerolipids, such as phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylethanolamine, form bilayer membranes which act as both boundaries and interfaces for chemical exchange between cells and their surroundings. (jove.com)
  • polarity
  • Similar isomerization kinetics of MC540 in lipid vesicles could then also be monitored, and the influence of lipid polarity, membrane curvature, and cholesterol content was investigated. (diva-portal.org)
  • While no influence of membrane curvature and lipid polarity could be observed, a clear decrease in the isomerization rates could be observed with increasing cholesterol contents in the vesicle membranes. (diva-portal.org)
  • function
  • Its function is to regulate the movement of substances into and out of the cell. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • Its function is to support plant cells. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • Its function is to control the cells activities. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • Its function is to digest invading cells and break down worn out cell components. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • Its function is to transport substances in and out of the cell, and between organisms. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • Importantly, these cells retained their original phenotype, secreted cytokines, and displayed cytotoxic function against tumor cell lines. (jove.com)
  • In another example, it has been demonstrated that modification of the ceramide part of alpha-galactosylceramide, a potent agonist ligand for invariant NKT cells, changes their cytokine secretion profiles and function in animal models of cancer and auto-immune diseases 5 . (jove.com)
  • Which of the following biological macromolecules is incorrectly paired with its function in animal cells? (varsitytutors.com)
  • Lamellar membranes can function as electrical insulating material and permit a charge, or potential difference, to develop across the membrane. (britannica.com)
  • molecular
  • This book is also an attempt to analyze the molecular basis for the movement of chloride across a cell membrane. (springer.com)
  • Previous methods used to prevent photobleaching were not very effective, and in addition, they were usually toxic to living cells, like totally removing molecular oxygen. (oist.jp)
  • metabolites
  • Using a fluorescent fatty acid analogue we found that heterofibrin A1 significantly reduces the intracellular accumulation of fatty acids and results in the formation of distinct fatty acid metabolites in both cultured cells and in embryos of the zebrafish Danio rerio. (jove.com)
  • Many of these oxidized metabolites have biological activity and have been implicated in various diseases including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, asthma, and cancer 3-7 . (jove.com)
  • fatty
  • The method is based on a sequence of mechanical cell disruption, solvent based lipid extraction, transesterification of fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), and quantification and identification of FAMEs using gas chromatography (GC-FID). (jove.com)
  • permit
  • The AMP would permit us to control the permeabilization of the membrane by controlling their hydrophobicity via the radiation exposure wavelength. (duhnnae.com)
  • leaf
  • Confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis of Nicotiana tabacum leaf cells expressing AtPQL4-GFP or AtPQL6-GFP showed fluorescence patterns typical for ER. (gla.ac.uk)
  • This makes genomic study of the leaf challenging: for example when analyzing expression data from whole leaves, signals from genetic networks operating in distinct cellular response zones or cell types will be confounded, resulting in an inaccurate profile being generated. (jove.com)
  • Extracts
  • In summary, in-cell NMRS represents a unique lipidomics tool to investigate structural changes within the mobile lipid pool following atherogenic triggers that can be not detected by the analysis of lipid extracts by MS or NMRS. (jove.com)
  • live
  • Finally, procedures to spatially map photoinduced and thermal isomerization rates on live cells by transient state (TRAST) imaging were established. (diva-portal.org)
  • On the basis of these procedures, MC540 isomerization was studied on live MCF7 cells, and TRAST images of the cells at different temperatures were found to reliably detect differences in the isomerization parameters. (diva-portal.org)
  • Our studies indicate that trans-cis isomerization is a useful parameter for probing membrane dynamics and that the TRAST imaging technique can provide spatial maps of photoinduced isomerization as well as both photoinduced and thermal back-isomerization, resolving differences in local membrane microviscosity in live cells. (diva-portal.org)
  • some cells live in highly extreme environments. (varsitytutors.com)
  • invariant
  • NKT cells express an invariant TCRα chain rearrangement: Vα14Jα18 in mice and Vα24Jα18 in humans, which is associated with Vβ chains of limited diversity 3-6 , and are referred to as canonical or invariant NKT ( i NKT) cells. (jove.com)
  • studies
  • Recent studies suggested that CD44 is definitely a malignancy come cell marker [5, (cancer-basics.com)
  • FACS has been successfully used for a number of studies, including showing that the cell identity and distance from the root tip had a significant effect on the expression profiles of a large number of genes 3,7 . (jove.com)
  • Method
  • We established a potential method to track biological materials. (nsti.org)
  • Here, we present a visualized version of a method for relatively simple, rapid, and sensitive analysis of glycosphingolipid profiles in immune cells 7-9 . (jove.com)
  • This method requires 50 million immune cells for a complete analysis. (jove.com)
  • vivo
  • Thus, ex vivo expanded NKT cells remain functional and can be used for adoptive immunotherapy. (jove.com)
  • complex
  • During glomerular development, the junctional complex containing tight junctions between immature podocytes migrates from the apex to the base of the cells, eventually disappeared, and the junctions are replaced by slit diaphragms suggesting that the slit diaphragm is a modified cell-cell junction. (nii.ac.jp)
  • found
  • Compound 2 combines the acyl chain of the potent, Th2 biasing alpha-GalCer 1 with a sphingoid base of the same length as that found in OCH, which also exhibits Th2 skewing, Such complementation may enhance cytokine bias, which is thought to be important for therapeutic applications of iNKT cell stimulation. (jove.com)