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  • 1997
  • On February 24, 1997, President Bill Clinton gave the NBAC 90 days to advise him on ethical issues concerning the cloning of human beings (Eiseman). (scribd.com)
  • The longest a human has ever been proven to live is 122 years, the case of Jeanne Calment who was born in 1875 and died in 1997, whereas the maximum lifespan of a wildtype mouse , commonly used as a model in research on aging, is about three years. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryos for research
  • To [the list of world injustices] we must add irresponsible practices of genetic engineering, such as the cloning and use of human embryos for research, which are justified by an illegitimate appeal to freedom, to cultural progress, to the advancement of mankind. (vatican.va)
  • beings
  • The Holy See opposes the cloning of human embryos for the purpose of destroying them in order to harvest their stem cells, even for a noble purpose, because it is inconsistent with the ground and motive of human biomedical research, that is, respect for the dignity of human beings. (vatican.va)
  • However, the Holy See applauds and encourages research using adult stem cells, because it is completely compatible with respect for the dignity of human beings. (vatican.va)
  • Yes, because of the potential physical dangers and the profound ethical dilemmas it poses, the cloning of human beings should be prohibited. (encyclopedia.com)
  • No, the cloning of human beings should not be prohibited because the potential for medical accidents or malfeasance is grossly overstated, and the ethical questions raised by detractors are not unique to cloning-indeed, ethical questions attend every scientific advancement. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The emotional nature of the debate, and the lack of understanding of the scientific aspects of the subject, is epitomized by House Majority Whip Tom Delay (R-Texas) who declared: "Human beings should not be cloned to stock a medical junkyard of spare parts. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cloning human beings for reproductive purposes is, in the view of nearly everybody, something we shouldn't want to do. (sciencemag.org)
  • Since embryonic cloning generates a new human life geared not for a future of human flourishing but for a future destined to servitude and certain destruction, it is a process that cannot be justified on the grounds that it may be able to assist other human beings . (vatican.va)
  • Here there is a risk of a new form of racism, for the development of these techniques could lead to the creation of a 'sub-category of human beings', destined basically for the convenience of certain others. (vatican.va)
  • The successful cloning of human beings-whether for research or birth-is momentous: Even if the technique is used only in pursuit of biological knowledge and medical treatments, those will come at the very high ethical price of manufacturing human life for the purpose of harvesting it like a corn crop-that is, for the purpose of destroying it. (lifelegaldefensefoundation.org)
  • surrogate
  • On the other side of the screen were six reasons against human cloning, including the need for large numbers of eggs, large numbers of women willing to be surrogate mothers, high embryo and fetal loss, and low survival of offspring. (uml.edu)
  • Genetics
  • I Division of Human Genetics, Department of Clinical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town. (scielo.org.za)
  • The reason we care so much about the new genetics is that we sense that this area of science will touch on the deepest matters of human life - such as how we have children, how we experience freedom, and how we face sickness and death. (thenewatlantis.com)
  • Like no other area of modern science and technology, genetics inspires both dreams and nightmares about the human future with equal passion: the dream of perfect babies, the nightmare of genetic tyranny. (thenewatlantis.com)
  • In an age of rapid advances in human genetics, cloning and stem cell research, what seemed impossible just a few years ago is now a reality. (regnery.com)
  • Brave New W
  • Perhaps the first step will be the production of a clone from a single fertilized egg, as in Brave New World . (wikipedia.org)
  • Undeniable , the sixth Nolan Kilkenny thriller from international bestselling author Tom Grace, takes Nolan into the brave new world of reproductive technology, where the building blocks of life are manipulated in a Petri dish, women lease their wombs like rental properties, and money trumps morality. (regnery.com)
  • moral
  • Even for reproductive cloning, the moral horizon may not be as clear as it now seems. (sciencemag.org)
  • Based on the biological and anthropological status of the human embryo and on the fundamental moral and civil rule, it is illicit to kill an innocent even to bring about a good for society. (vatican.va)
  • As important as it is to consider questions of the extent of moral respect due to the human pre-embryo, proponents of non-reproductive cloning claim that the potential benefits of stem cell technologies make it equally important to consider the cost of not using embryonic cells,' the report says. (wired.com)
  • Our technological advances - including those that require overriding existing moral boundaries - quickly seem insufficient, because the human desire for perfect control and perfect happiness is insatiable. (thenewatlantis.com)
  • Reuters) - The Vatican on Friday spelled out Roman Catholic moral teaching on a wide variety of scientific and medical procedures dealing with human reproduction. (reuters.com)
  • 2000
  • California has been the leader in the debate on cloning since it became the first state in the union to publicly address the subject of human cloning in January 2000 when the panel had its first meeting . (wired.com)
  • research
  • In his hourlong seminar yesterday, Robl opened wide the minds of biology students who were present, many of whom are interested in pursuing cloning research. (uml.edu)
  • This respect demands that any research that is inconsistent with the dignity of the human being is morally excluded. (vatican.va)
  • This would enable individuals to opt out of sensitive areas such as gamete formation, reproductive research, commercialisation and genetic manipulation. (scielo.org.za)
  • The decoding of the Human Genome, the biological modification of human, animal and plant life, and advances in reproductive technology, cloning and stem cell research, have opened up a Pandora's Box. (wagner.edu)
  • Years earlier, in October of 1995, Clinton had established the National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC) in light of bioethical concerns over research on humans. (scribd.com)
  • As stated in Executive Order 12975 by which the NBAC was organized, the purpose of this Commission was to recommend regulations on "bioethical issues arising from research on human biology and behaviour. (scribd.com)
  • ban all federal funding for cloning research as well as asking for a temporary voluntary moratorium on cloning research by private institutions until more could be learned about the issue. (scribd.com)
  • Obviously his research failed, but, no doubt at the expense of many human embryos. (scribd.com)
  • The main argument for why cloning research should be continued is the possible benefits it can have. (scribd.com)
  • If someone wants to clone for reproductive reasons, she would most likely have a particular person in mind who she wants (to) clone, instead of using a random clone from a research lab. (wired.com)
  • The NHMRC Embryo Research Licensing Committee (NHMRC Licensing Committee) developed this discussion paper in response to a request from the Council of the NHMRC for a definition of 'human embryo' from a purely biological standpoint. (nhmrc.gov.au)
  • We could take a social scientific approach , seeking to understand the economic incentives that drive the genetic research agenda, or surveying public attitudes toward genetic testing, or documenting the use of reproductive genetic technology according to socioeconomic class. (thenewatlantis.com)
  • By spelling it out in a report last week, the President's Council on Bioethics has offered liberals and conservatives a potential way out in their contentious debate over human cloning and research. (csmonitor.com)
  • Conservatives view all human embryos as life and, thus, oppose research that destroys them. (csmonitor.com)
  • The first human embryonic stem (hES) cell bank was officially opened in the UK in May 2004 , with Health Minister Lord Warner saying, "This potentially revolutionary research could benefit thousands of patients. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • After he was jeered by cloning experts from around the world, the 55-year-old professor claimed powerful interests in the medical world were determined to drive research back into the 'dark ages' by trying to stop cloning. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • controversy
  • It states in part that the district "understands that the teaching of some scientific subjects such as biological evolution, the chemical origins of life, global warming and human cloning , can cause controversy and that some teachers may be unsure of the district's expectations concerning how they should present information on such subjects. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • uterus
  • In 2007, Senators Dianne Feinstein (D-Calif.) and Orrin Hatch (R-Utah) coauthored the Human Cloning Ban and Stem Cell Protection Bill, which not only would not have banned human cloning, it would have legalized it by codifying an inaccurate definition: "The term 'human cloning' means implanting or attempting to implant the product of nuclear transplantation into a uterus or the functional equivalent of a uterus. (lifelegaldefensefoundation.org)
  • organism
  • Interactions of cell with the extracellular matrix (ECM) are crucial for normal development and functioning of the human organism. (intechopen.com)
  • Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of calcium (Ca 2+ )- and zinc (Zn 2+ )-dependent proteolytic enzymes involved in physiological as well as in pathological processes in the human organism. (intechopen.com)
  • abnormalities
  • Chronic reproductive abnormalities will be discussed in detail using the current literature, including hypothalamic amenorrhea, polycystic ovarian syndrome and premature menopause. (evms.edu)
  • Cloned animals that reach adulthood often show abnormalities later in life such as extreme obesity and oversized organs, he added. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • nuclear transfer
  • Yet the basic technology for cloning a human embryo has been around since the early days of nuclear transfer. (uml.edu)
  • It has been well established that most of the non-human embryos produced through nuclear transfer cloning are abnormal, with a deficiency in several of the genes (imprinted and non imprinted) necessary to the development of the early embryo. (vatican.va)
  • But if the cells were then modified by nuclear transfer, the scientist performing the experiment could be subject to up to 10 years in jail and a civil penalty of at least $1 million, even though the goal had nothing to do with reproductive cloning. (sciencemag.org)
  • Imagine also that the technology for cloning by nuclear transfer is perfected and is without risk. (sciencemag.org)
  • dignity of the human
  • Thus, the Holy See earnestly encourages investigations that are being carried out in the fields of medicine and biology, with the goal of curing diseases and of improving the quality of life of all, provided that they are respectful of the dignity of the human being. (vatican.va)
  • Human embryonic cloning, even when done in the name of bettering humanity, is still an affront to the dignity of the human person. (vatican.va)
  • genetic engineerin
  • Biotechnology is often used to refer to genetic engineering technology of the 21st century, however the term encompasses a wider range and history of procedures for modifying biological organisms according to the needs of humanity, going back to the initial modifications of native plants into improved food crops through artificial selection and hybridization . (bionity.com)
  • processes
  • Biotechnology has contributed towards the exploitation of biological organisms or biological processes through modern techniques, which could be profitably used in medicine, agriculture, animal husbandry and environmental cloning. (bionity.com)
  • The processes and methods of agriculture have been refined by other mechanical and biological sciences since its inception. (bionity.com)
  • cows
  • LOWELL -- When cloning pioneer Dr. James Robl first began traveling down the path of embryos and cell nuclei, he just wanted to make a few good cows. (uml.edu)
  • Robl cloned two cows from a bovine named Zita, who produced huge amounts of milk and was ranked as the top cow in the country. (uml.edu)
  • Robl has also done work that transforms cows into producers of human antibodies. (uml.edu)
  • By using cloning techniques, and replacing a cow's antibody genes with a human's, researchers can inject the cow with a vaccine, which forces the cows to produce antibodies to fight off the weakened virus. (uml.edu)
  • 1971
  • James Watson testified before the United States Congress in 1971, declaring that we must pass laws about cloning now before it is too late. (thenewatlantis.com)
  • Another Nobel Laureate , James D. Watson , publicized the potential and the perils of cloning in his Atlantic Monthly essay, "Moving Toward the Clonal Man", in 1971. (wikipedia.org)
  • reproduction
  • An edited version of the discussion paper was published in Human Reproduction. (nhmrc.gov.au)
  • Human Reproduction (2007) 22:905-911. (nhmrc.gov.au)
  • Measures to ban cloning for the purpose of human reproduction have passed the US House but remain bottled up in the Senate. (csmonitor.com)
  • In this brilliant study of cloned wild life, Carrie Friese adds a whole new dimension to the study of reproduction, illustrating vividly and persuasively how social and biological reproduction are inextricably bound together, and why this matters. (worldcat.org)