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  • Munc18
  • Munc18-1 phosphorylation by protein kinase C potentiates vesicle pool replenishment in bovine chromaffin cells. (mpg.de)
  • Using a gain-of-function mutant of Munc18-1 (E466K), which is based on a mutation in the related yeast protein Sly1p, we have identified a direct interaction of Munc18-1 with Rab3A, which is increased by the mutation. (biochemj.org)
  • complexes
  • Liposomes and liposome-protein complexes are floated on a sucrose gradient by centrifugation to separate them from unbound protein. (springer.com)
  • BACKGROUND: The VAT protein of the archaebacterium Thermoplasmaacidophilum, like all other members of the Cdc48/p97 family of AAAATPases, has two ATPase domains and a 185-residue amino-terminalsubstrate-recognition domain, VAT-N. VAT shows activity in protein foldingand unfolding and thus shares the common function of these ATPases indisassembly and/or degradation of protein complexes. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • lipids
  • The bidirectional traffic would tend to equalize the composition of the compartments, yet most proteins and some lipids are concentrated in one organelle and define its identity. (rupress.org)
  • Fratti RA, Jun Y, Merz AJ, Margolis N, Wickner W (2004) Interdependent assembly of specific regulatory lipids and membrane fusion proteins into the vertex ring domain of docked vacuoles. (springer.com)
  • toxins for humans
  • BoNT Structure-function BoNTs are the most toxic protein toxins for humans [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • There are seven immunologically unique BoNT serotypes (A-G). The Centers for Disease Control classifies BoNTs as 'Category A' select agents and are the most lethal protein toxins for humans. (mdpi.com)
  • neurotransmitter
  • The vesicle protein synaptotagmin I is the Ca 2+ sensor that triggers fast, synchronous release of neurotransmitter. (jneurosci.org)
  • These quantitative results extend our previous studies on the differential expression of presynaptic proteins involved in neurotransmitter release in GABAergic and glutamatergic terminals and indicate that heterogeneity of the respective release machineries can be generated by the differential complement of SV proteins involved in distinct stages of the release process. (frontiersin.org)
  • interaction
  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network. (genes2cognition.org)
  • Preventing the interaction of GluR2 with these proteins impairs LTD in both the hippocampus and cerebellum ( 17 - 20 ). (pnas.org)
  • By contrast, interaction with the amino-terminal longin domain conferred specificity on VAMP721 binding without influencing gating. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Endogenous interaction of SERT with the protein was evaluated in mouse brains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast, we show that the interaction of cerebellin with isolated GluD2 ectodomain is low affinity, which is not simply an outcome of lost avidity when compared with binding with a tetrameric full-length receptor. (stanford.edu)
  • BoNT
  • DNA-based vaccines include plasmids or viral vectors containing the gene encoding one of the BoNT heavy chain receptor binding domains (HC). (mdpi.com)
  • Recently, BoNT-like proteins have also been identified in several non-clostridia. (mdpi.com)
  • We demonstrate that neuronal surface receptor binding limits the clinical efficacy of unmodified BoNT/B and that modified BoNT/B proteins have promising clinical potential. (sciencemag.org)
  • In particular, one of the isolated scFvs, 2H8, bound BoNT/A1 with a 3.3 nM affinity and effectively inhibited BoNT/A1 endopeptidase activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • compartments
  • With nonidentical compartments established in this way, the localization and cellular transport of cargo proteins can be explained simply by their affinity for coats. (rupress.org)
  • recombinant
  • These vaccines include DNA-based, viral vector-based, and recombinant protein-based vaccines. (mdpi.com)
  • Among the potential recombinant protein vaccines reviewed are HC, light chain-heavy chain translocation domain, and chemically or genetically inactivated holotoxin. (mdpi.com)
  • suggests
  • Differential expression of active zone proteins in neuromuscular junctions suggests functional diversification. (mpg.de)
  • This suggests that these proteins function as power engines to bring the membranes together ( Rizo and Xu 2013 ). (tcdb.org)
  • mutants
  • Mutation of this hydrophobic residue in the C 2 B domain (I420), on the other hand, blocked all locomotion, was embryonic lethal even in syt I heterozygotes, and resulted in less evoked transmitter release than that in syt null mutants, which is more severe than the phenotype of C 2 B Ca 2+ -binding mutants. (jneurosci.org)
  • synaptotagmin
  • Here we use Drosophila to show the functional role of a highly conserved, hydrophobic residue located at the tip of each of the two Ca 2+ -binding pockets of synaptotagmin. (jneurosci.org)
  • high-affinity
  • During an allergic response, the high-affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, becomes cross-linked by receptor-bound IgE and antigen resulting in immediate release of pre-synthesized mediators - stored in granules - as well as in de novo synthesis of various mediators like cytokines and chemokines. (frontiersin.org)
  • neurons
  • Here, we explore the role of GluR2-interacting proteins in AMPAR trafficking by assessing the trafficking behavior of wild-type and mutant forms of epitope-tagged GluR2 in hippocampal neurons. (pnas.org)
  • collectively
  • This process is mediated by a set of ∼30 soluble proteins collectively known as the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT), which, in a sophisticated hierarchical- and stoichiometric-dependent manner, are assembled at the endosomal membrane into several multi-protein subcomplexes, termed ESCRT-0, -I, -II, and -III. (frontiersin.org)
  • induce
  • We show also that most of the Arabidopsis ESCRT proteins examined at least partially localize to MVBs in plant cells when ectopically expressed on their own or co-expressed with other interacting ESCRT proteins, and some also induce abnormal MVB phenotypes, consistent with their proposed functional role(s) as part of the ESCRT machinery in Arabidopsis . (frontiersin.org)
  • According to these models, ESCRT assembly begins with the recognition and concentration of ubiquitinated cargo proteins in the endosomal membrane by ESCRT-0 and the recruitment of ESCRT-I. ESCRT-I also binds and sorts ubiquitinated cargo, recruits ESCRT-II, and together, ESCRT-I and II induce membrane deformation. (frontiersin.org)
  • distinct
  • These results provide further evidence for distinct functional roles of GluR2-interacting proteins in AMPAR trafficking. (pnas.org)
  • BoNTs
  • BoNTs are 150-kDa single chain AB proteins ( Figure 1 ) cleaved to form a 50-kDa light chain (L) and a 100-kDa heavy chain (H), which are linked by a disulfide bond. (mdpi.com)
  • complex
  • The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) consists of several multi-protein subcomplexes which assemble sequentially at the endosomal surface and function in multivesicular body (MVB) biogenesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • These proteins map out an evolutionary path fromsimple homodimeric transcription factors containing a single copy of theVAT-Nn repeat to complex enzymes containing four copies. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • glutamate
  • The PDZ domain-containing proteins protein interacting with C-kinase-1 (PICK1), glutamate receptor-interacting protein (GRIP), and AMPAR binding protein (ABP), also interact with GluR2 ( 6 - 8 ) and have been suggested to play roles in the clustering and surface expression of AMPARs ( 14 - 16 ). (pnas.org)