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  • abnormal
  • The cause of these complications may be related to either abnormal flow of bile within the ducts or the presence of gallstones Direct hyperbilirubinemia They were classified into 5 types by Todani in 1977. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • Some may be due to a defect in early bile duct development (particularly those with other abnormalities) and some may arise in the perinatal period due to an external cause such as an hepatotropic virus reovirus 3 infection, congenital cytomegalovirus infection, and autoimmunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complications encountered include infection, bleeding and bile leaks. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • The challenges for surgeon in performing such cases increase when congenital variance of biliary tree occurs which may lead to unintentional bile duct injuries. (afpm.org.my)
  • pressure
  • But the problem is the test: pass a scope down the throat into the gut (which usually requires sedation which can affect the muscles of gut function), then pass a pressure-measuring tube into the bile duct, across the very structure whose function you're trying to measure. (blogspot.com)
  • GGT is elevated because it leaks out from the bile duct cells due to pressure from inside bile ducts. (wikipedia.org)
  • site
  • Extrahepatic bile ducts constitute a significant anatomic site for surgeons when performing hepatobiliary operations from minor procedure such as cholecystectomy to major operation such as hepatectomy. (afpm.org.my)
  • whole
  • To others, it encompasses the whole pantheon of pre- and post-op bile-related difficulties. (blogspot.com)