• cholangiography
  • However if the diagnosis is established during intraoperative cholangiography, the surgeon is confronted with a therapeutic dilemma that is, the choice between laparoscopic common bile duct exploration, conversion to open surgery, or postoperative sphincterotomy. (sages.org)
  • biliary stricture
  • Bile duct stricture (also called biliary stricture) is an uncommon but challenging clinical condition that requires a coordinated multidisciplinary approach involving gastroenterologists, radiologists, and surgical specialists. (medscape.com)