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  • study
  • Epidemiology refers to the study of the distribution of health related states or events including diseases and the application of this study to the control of diseases and other health problems. (transtutors.com)
  • population
  • Often researchers choose a sample in order to obtain a certain result, in such a case the sample is not a true representation of the population and is biased. (transtutors.com)
  • response
  • It must be noted that such a difference in response will not lead to a bias as long as it is not also associated with a systematic difference in outcome between the two response groups. (transtutors.com)
  • Validity
  • The effects of log-transformations were inconsistent in the case study, but the simulation study showed that if the intake distribution is in between normal and log-normal, the validity coefficient and attenuation factor will be seriously biased forboth transformed and untransformed intake. (uu.nl)
  • The third course, Validity and Bias in Epidemiology, builds on the fundamental concepts taught in the previous courses to discuss bias and confounding and how they might affect study results. (coursera.org)
  • recall bias
  • National estimates of the use of cancer screening procedures are based primarily on self-reported results from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) 9 and the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), 10 These estimates are well-known to be subject to biases such as social response bias and recall bias ( 1 , 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recall bias in a case-control study of low birth weight. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The role of report/recall bias in case-control studies of low birth weight (LBW) was investigated in women who gave birth at a tertiary hospital. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Recall Bias in a Prospective Cohort Study of Acute Time-Varying Exposu" by Kevin E. Kip, Frances Cohen et al. (usf.edu)
  • Recall bias is possible in a prospective cohort study when exposure status is transient and must be periodically recalled, and ascertainment occurs after symptom onset. (usf.edu)
  • systematic
  • It must be noted that such a difference in response will not lead to a bias as long as it is not also associated with a systematic difference in outcome between the two response groups. (transtutors.com)
  • causal
  • The selection bias alternative is illustrated by the causal directed acyclic graph (DAG) shown in Figure A. In this DAG, heart failure is a "collider" on the "backdoor path" obesity→heart failure←unmeasured factors→death. (lww.com)
  • We will finish the course with a broader discussion of causality in epidemiology and we will highlight how you can utilise all the tools that you have learnt to decide whether your findings indicate a true association and if this can be considered causal. (coursera.org)
  • I have advocated the use of causal directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) as a standard research tool to represent our causal hypotheses and help elucidate potential biases in proposed analyses. (ucsf.edu)
  • outcomes
  • There are several strategies to minimize testing bias, including selection of proper patient populations, measuring outcomes for all study participants, blind testing, or using imputation techniques to deal with missing data [ 8 - 10 ], but these techniques do not provide insight into size and direction of testing bias. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Second, we used classical logistic regression and mediation analytic methods for dichotomous outcomes to explore the structure of the bias. (springer.com)
  • inferences
  • Using genetic polymorphisms as instrumental variables could provide a very powerful tool for social epidemiology, but the inferences from such analyses rest on strong assumptions. (ucsf.edu)
  • methodology
  • The disadvantage of the PROBIT method is that the bias of the PROBIT methodology depends upon the deviation of the true population of WHZ from the assumed normal distribution of WHZ defined by the mean and standard deviation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • factors
  • Among the goals of the molecular epidemiology of infectious disease are to quantify the extent of ongoing transmission of infectious agents and to identify host- and strain-specific risk factors for disease spread. (cdc.gov)
  • If opt out is also related to risk factors, bias can arise. (aacrjournals.org)
  • prevalent
  • The smoking-preeclampsia paradox appears to be an example of (1) selection bias most likely caused by studying cases prevalent at birth rather than all incident cases from conception in a pregnancy cohort, (2) omitting important confounders associated with both smoking and preeclampsia (preventing the outcome to develop) and (3) controlling for a collider (gestation weeks at delivery). (springer.com)
  • The methodological assessment involved the inclusion of prevalent users, inclusion of lag periods, time-related biases, and duration of follow-up between insulin initiation and cancer incidence. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Such discrepancies may be due to methodological limitations, including inadequate durations of follow-up between insulin initiation and cancer incidence, protopathic bias, detection bias, the inclusion of prevalent users, and time-related biases such as immortal time bias, time-window bias, and time-lag bias ( 29 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Prevention
  • The first course of the specialisation, Measuring Disease in Epidemiology, looks into the main measures used in epidemiology and how these can inform decisions around public health policy, screening and prevention. (coursera.org)
  • direction of bias
  • SPRs can be used to predict the direction of bias when cases and controls stem from different sampling frames in population-based case-control studies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • occur
  • One example where testing bias might occur is in physicians' requests of blood tests. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, testing bias might occur because of underlying disease or medication use, as neutrophil counts differ in several diseases and clinical observations have shown that patients using glucocorticoids often have higher neutrophil counts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There are many cases where selection bias can occur. (transtutors.com)
  • When a particular section of the population is ignored (due to various reasons such as inconvenience in collection of data) in the sample selected from the population, selection bias will occur. (transtutors.com)
  • Self-Selecting Bias occurs only due to the researcher's judgement or the participant's choice to volunteer for the survey, whereas selection bias can occur due to various other reasons seen above (for example, time scale). (transtutors.com)
  • Selection Bias in epidemiological studies can also occur when a sample subject is chosen to be a part of the study as a result of a third variable (unmeasured variable) which is related to both the result and outcome of interest. (transtutors.com)
  • Identify different types of biases that may occur in epidemiological studies, in order to apply strategies to reduce such biases. (coursera.org)
  • Sensitivity
  • Lastly, we performed both deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis to estimate the amount of bias due to an uncontrolled confounder and corrected for it. (springer.com)
  • cognitive
  • Cognitive biases are a hallmark of depression but there is scarce research on whether these biases can be directly modified by using specific cognitive training techniques. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Insights into the nature of cognitive bias, including attentional bias to threat signals, are considered pivotal to understanding (chronic) pain and related distress. (bioportfolio.com)
  • methodological
  • The purpose of this piece is to try and unpack some of the methodological challenges and obstacles that give rise to the confusion and contradictions in the evolving field of nutrition epidemiology. (frontiersin.org)
  • In other cases, the methodological problems require more analytical solutions that have been developed elsewhere in epidemiology or in other disciplines, but are rarely applied to these research questions. (ucsf.edu)
  • disease
  • BACKGROUND: Sometimes in descriptive epidemiology or in the evaluation of a health intervention policy change, proportions exposed to a risk factor or to an intervention are used as explanatory variables in log-linear regressions for disease incidence or mortality. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Nutrients alter epigenetic processes, and thus, it is important to pay attention to disease epidemiology holistically ( 14 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • outcome
  • The present study aims to address the misconception, also known as outcome bias, that antibiotics may be an effective treatment against the common cold by providing a "debiasing" risk communication intervention. (bioportfolio.com)
  • describe
  • Non-random missingness, a term used by statisticians to describe this information bias [ 18 ], can result from social, economic, political, and other reasons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • examine
  • To examine changes over time in the representation of women at the editorial level in US epidemiology journals compared with the proportion of women authors and reviewers. (iit.edu)
  • We examine self-report bias in mammography screening rates overall, by age, and by race/ethnicity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • diseases
  • Requesting neutrophil counts specifically for certain diseases or for glucocorticoid users might cause testing bias in clinical databases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Epidemiology refers to the study of the distribution of health related states or events including diseases and the application of this study to the control of diseases and other health problems. (transtutors.com)
  • incidence
  • This article describes geographic bias in GIS analyses with unrepresentative data owing to missing geocodes, using as an example a spatial analysis of prostate cancer incidence among whites and African Americans in Virginia, 1990-1999. (biomedcentral.com)
  • processes
  • Modifying attentional processes with attentional bias modification (ABM) might be a relevant add-on to treatment in addiction. (bioportfolio.com)