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  • catechin
  • Catechol was first isolated in 1839 by Edgar Hugo Emil Reinsch (1809 - 1884) by distilling it from the solid tannic preparation catechin, which is the residuum of catechu, the boiled or concentrated juice of Mimosa catechu (Acacia catechu L.f). (wikipedia.org)
  • Catechin possesses two benzene rings (called the A- and B-rings) and a dihydropyran heterocycle (the C-ring) with a hydroxyl group on carbon 3. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrate
  • Both enzymes have been characterized as 2-hydroxy-6-oxohepta-2,4-dienoate hydrolases with low activity toward 2-hydroxy-6-oxophenylhexa-2,4-dienoate (the substrate of BphD), but EtbD2 and EtbD1 convert the latter compound with 11 and 3.3% relative activity, respectively (Yamada et al. (alpfmedical.info)
  • PO activity was determined in a 96-well microplate in a total reaction volume of 300 [micro]L per well with catechol as the substrate, according to the method described by Benjamin & Montgomery (1913). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • readily
  • Benzene can readily pass from soil or water into the air, and can then reenter the soil or aquatic ecosystems as a residue in snow or rainwater. (ecologycenter.us)
  • soil
  • The spatial distribution of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) degrader microhabitats as a function of 2,4-D degrader abundance is investigated by using a soil microsampling strategy combined with a mathematical spatial analysis. (readabstracts.com)
  • In the absence of water, benzene volatilization from soil is not rapid. (ecologycenter.us)
  • When uniformly distributed at 1 and 10 cm depths, volatilization half-lives of benzene from dry soil were 7 and 38 days, respectively. (ecologycenter.us)
  • The soil organic carbon sorption coefficient (Koc) ranges from 60 to 83, which helps to explain why benzene is so mobile in hydrated soil, as the compound will rapidly leach into groundwater. (ecologycenter.us)
  • When deposited directly onto soil, the composition of soil can have a direct impact on benzene sorption, as soils with increasing organic matter possess increasing affinity for the compound. (ecologycenter.us)
  • Although benzene is quite stable in purified water, a slow process of benzene degradation, known as indirect photolysis, will occur at water-soil interfaces. (ecologycenter.us)
  • genes
  • With respect to the initial step of biphenyl degradation, expression of all sets of ring hydroxylating dioxygenase genes (bphA, etbAl, etbA2) likewise is induced by biphenyl, and gene disruption experiments suggested that all these genes are involved in biphenyl degradation (Takeda et al. (alpfmedical.info)
  • aerobic
  • Of particular ecological significance is the microbial degradation of low levels of benzene by several species of aerobic bacteria, through nitrogen- and oxygen-enhanced oxidative processes. (ecologycenter.us)
  • respectively
  • 2006). Two cis-dihydrodiol dehydrogenases BphB1 and BphB2, which are encoded on pRHL1 and pRHL2, respectively, catalyze the second step in biphenyl catabolism, i.e., the rearomatization of the cis-dihydrodiol to form 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl. (alpfmedical.info)
  • gene
  • Examples of recent gene duplication events in signaling as well as dioxygenase clusters are present, indicating selective gene family expansion as a relatively recent event in D. aromatica 's evolutionary history. (biomedcentral.com)
  • aqueous
  • C6H5OH + H2O2 → C6H4(OH)2 + H2O Previously, it was produced by hydroxylation of salicylaldehyde using hydrogen peroxide, as well as the hydrolysis of 2-substituted phenols, especially 2-chlorophenol, with hot aqueous solutions containing alkali metal hydroxides. (wikipedia.org)
  • acid
  • Catechol is the conjugate acid of a chelating agent used widely in coordination chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxygenation and spontaneous deamination of 2-aminobenzenesulphonic acid in Alcaligenes sp. (genome.jp)
  • organic
  • Urushiols are naturally existing organic compounds that have the catechol skeleton structure and diphenol functionality but with alkyl groups substituted onto the aromatic ring. (wikipedia.org)
  • strain
  • The 16S rDNA analysis revealed 99% nucleotide similarity to that of the type strain of R.rhodochrous (Fig. 2) ( 10 ). (kenyon.edu)
  • chemical
  • In 1879, the Journal of the Chemical Society recommended that catechol be called "catechol", and in the following year, it was listed as such. (wikipedia.org)
  • It belongs to the group of flavan-3-ols (or simply flavanols), part of the chemical family of flavonoids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzene quickly dissipates in the environment, and is generally only found in high concentrations after an industrial accident or chemical spill. (ecologycenter.us)
  • water
  • Journal of Water and Environment Technology 12(2): 77-86. (u-tokyo.ac.jp)
  • Conversely, benzene released into water would not be expected to adsorb to sediment or suspended solids to any significant degree. (ecologycenter.us)
  • The low density of benzene (0.878 7 gcm~2 at 15 °C) would facilitate its migration to the air interface with water, enhancing volatilization at the surface. (ecologycenter.us)
  • The half-life of benzene in surface water (25 °C at 1m depth) is estimated to be 4.8 h based on evaporative loss, while half-lives in groundwater can reach one year. (ecologycenter.us)
  • addition
  • Cyclic esters are formed upon treatment with phosphorus trichloride and phosphorus oxychloride, carbonyl chloride, and sulphuryl chloride: C6H4(OH)2 + XCl2 → C6H4(O2X) + 2 HCl where X = CO, SO2, PCl, P(O)Cl Catechols produce quinones with the addition of ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN). (wikipedia.org)