• The four nitrogen-containing bases found in DNA are A, T, C and G. A and G are classified as "purines," while C and T are considered as "pyrimidines. (reference.com)
  • Naturally occurring bases can be divided into two classes according to their structure: pyrimidines are six-membered heterocyclic with nitrogen atoms in position 1 and 3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both pyrimidines and purines resemble pyridine and are thus weak bases and relatively unreactive towards electrophilic aromatic substitution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once Watson and Crick had determined the correct tautomeric forms for each base, the nature of the phenomenon of pairing became clear. (chemistryexplained.com)
  • Although these oligonucleotides have a different backbone sugar or, in the case of PNA, an amino acid residue in place of the ribose phosphate, they still bind to RNA or DNA according to Watson and Crick pairing, but are immune to nuclease activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, their work notes that the N-H bond that is cleaved in the isolated base pairs is at the same site as the glycosidic N-C bond between the base pair and the sugar phosphate backbone in the double-helical form of DNA and that the N-C bond should be even more easily cleaved. (pnas.org)
  • According to PBS, DNA resembles a long spiraling ladder consisting of a sugar-phosphate backbone and nucleotide pairs making up the rungs. (reference.com)
  • Consequently, the mechanisms of primary and secondary damage to purine-pyrimidine base pairs have been under intense investigation in recent years ( 1 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • One of the first attempts to predict RNA secondary structure was made by Ruth Nussinov and co-workers who used the dynamic programming method for maximizing the number of base-pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • He postulated that the 5' base on the anticodon, which binds to the 3' base on the mRNA, was not as spatially confined as the other two bases, and could, thus, have non-standard base pairing. (wikipedia.org)
  • anticodon A unit made up of three nucleotides that correspond to the three bases of the codon on the mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Artificial nucleotides (Unnatural Base Pairs (UBPs) named d5SICS UBP and dNaM UBP) have been inserted into bacterial DNA but these genes did not template mRNA or induce protein synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The promoter region starts 500 base pairs upstream of the 5' UTR of TMEM251 mRNA transcript and contains part of this 5' UTR. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Centimorgan is also often used to imply distance along a chromosome, but the number of base-pairs it corresponds to varies widely. (wikidoc.org)
  • For instance, the DNA in the largest human chromosome, chromosome number 1, consists of approximately 220 million base pairs and would be 85 mm long if straightened. (wikipedia.org)
  • On this chromosome are 2,715,461 base pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many DNA-binding proteins can recognize specific base pairing patterns that identify particular regulatory regions of genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The haploid human genome (23 chromosomes) is estimated to be about 3.2 billion bases long and to contain 20,000-25,000 distinct protein-coding genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some DNA- or RNA-binding enzymes can recognize specific base pairing patterns that identify particular regulatory regions of genes. (wikidoc.org)
  • Our analysis suggests that the per-base-pair mutation rates at two genes differ significantly (3.80 × 10 −10 at URA3 and 6.44 × 10 −10 at CAN1 ) and we propose a definition for the effective target size of genes (the probability that a mutation inactivates the gene) that acknowledges that the mutation rate is nonuniform across the genome. (genetics.org)
  • The Human Genome Project (HGP) was an international scientific research project with the goal of determining the sequence of nucleotide base pairs that make up human DNA, and of identifying and mapping all of the genes of the human genome from both a physical and a functional standpoint. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genetic code makes up for disparities in the number of amino acids (20) for codons (64), by using modified base pairs in the first base of the anti-codon . (wikidoc.org)
  • Degeneracy of codons is the redundancy of the genetic code, exhibited as the multiplicity of three-base pair codon combinations that specify an amino acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because at least 21 codes are required (20 amino acids plus stop) and the next largest number of bases is three, then 4³ gives 64 possible codons, meaning that some degeneracy must exist. (wikipedia.org)
  • The predicted promoter for CCDC82 is located on the minus strand and spans from base pairs 96,122,963 to 96,123,587. (wikipedia.org)
  • The complementary nature of this based-paired structure provides a backup copy of all genetic information encoded within double-stranded DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The regular structure and data redundancy provided by the DNA double helix make DNA well suited to the storage of genetic information, while base-pairing between DNA and incoming nucleotides provides the mechanism through which DNA polymerase replicates DNA, and RNA polymerase transcribes DNA into RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The positioning of these base pairs along the DNA chain is what is known as the genetic code. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The size of an individual gene or an organism's entire genome is often measured in base pairs because DNA is usually double-stranded. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplification with a thermal cycler (MJ Research PTC--200-DNA Engine, San Francisco, CA) was used to obtain a 2,122 base pair gene fragment consisting of the carbapenemase structural gene nmcA and its regulatory gene nmcR (12,13). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Estimating this parameter is typically a three-step process: determining the mutation rate to a particular phenotype, converting this phenotypic rate into a per-base-pair mutation rate in a particular gene, and extrapolating this local rate to the entire genome. (genetics.org)
  • The gene size is 1,277 base pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is 2252 base pairs long. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has become evident that distortions in the double helix are themselves dependent on base sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the nearest neighbor model the free energy change for each motif depends on the sequence of the motif and of its closest base-pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA sequence is 37,155 base pairs long and contains 7 exons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen bonding is the chemical interaction that underlies the base-pairing rules described above. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note, though, that a GC stacking interaction with the next base pair is geometrically different from a CG interaction. (wikidoc.org)
  • Density functional theory study of interaction, bonding and affinity of group IIb transition metal cations with nucleic acid bases. (springer.com)
  • Point mutations of a base paired nucleotide can lead to exposure of not only that nucleotide but also its interaction partner. (springer.com)
  • The changes in this pull request comprise an enhancement in form of quasi-unique base pairing, minor restructuring in two source code files in preparation for the oxRNA force field and the removal of a minor discrepancy in an input parameter of the oxDNA and oxDNA2 stacking interaction. (github.com)
  • T pair) is larger and the C1′-C1′ distance (ca. 860 pm or 8.6 Å) is smaller than in the regular geometry. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting variations in the way that DNA bases are presented to proteins can thus affect the recognition mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although mutation rates are a key determinant of the rate of evolution they are difficult to measure precisely and global mutations rates (mutations per genome per generation) are often extrapolated from the per-base-pair mutation rate assuming that mutation rate is uniform across the genome. (genetics.org)
  • Based on work by [email protected] , Jacki Buros (bot) and Alexandra Almonacid , wikidoc user LBiller and wikidoc anonymous users 70.177.9.13 and LordAnubisBOT . (wikidoc.org)
  • For example, stretches of A and T bases can narrow the minor groove of DNA (the narrower of the two grooves in the double helix), thus enhancing local negative electrostatic potentials and creating binding sites for appropriately placed, positively charged arginine amino-acid residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complementary base pairings are also responsible for the double-helix structure of DNA. (study.com)
  • Create Biology Diagram examples like this template called DNA Base Pairing Diagram that you can easily edit and customize in minutes. (smartdraw.com)
  • The first event (backtracking) involves a transcriptionally upstream motion of RNAP through several base pairs, which carries the 3' end of the nascent RNA transcript away from the enzyme active site. (nih.gov)