• Phage therapy refers to the use of viruses that specifically infect and kill bacteria (known as bacteriophages or phages for short) to treat bacterial infections. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • It was D'Herelle who conducted much research into bacteriophages and introduced the concept of phage therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • All manipulations of this popular bacteriophage may enable the development of vaccine technology, phage therapy, and other branches of biological and medical science. (turbosquid.com)
  • Bacteriophage (phage) therapy, i.e., the use of viruses that infect bacteria as antimicrobial agents, is a promising alternative to conventional antibiotics. (mdpi.com)
  • Using viruses instead of antibiotics to tame troublesome drug-resistant bacteria is a promising strategy, known as bacteriophage or " phage therapy . (scienceblog.com)
  • We also discuss the reasons that the clinical use of bacteriophages failed to take root in the West, and we share our thoughts about future prospects for phage therapy research. (asm.org)
  • Bacteriophages are composed of proteins that encapsulate a DNA or RNA genome , and may have relatively simple or elaborate structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bacteriophage genome integrates with the host genome and replicates with it, without destroying the cell. (news-medical.net)
  • If the bacteriophage has an RNA genome, RNA replicase is synthesized early in this process. (news-medical.net)
  • Bacteriophages are composed of proteins that encapsulate a DNA or RNA genome, and may have structures that are either simple or elaborate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome of this bacteriophage was completely sequenced, which opens the way for the use of many molecular techniques, such as site-specific mutagenesis, which was widely applied, for example, in investigating the functions of some essential T4 proteins. (turbosquid.com)
  • So-called lytic phages kill their bacterial host cell, while temperate bacteriophages (or lysogenic phages) either integrate into the bacterial genome (forming a so-called prophage) or exist as a plasmid in the bacterial cytoplasm. (innovations-report.com)
  • Beginning in the mid‐twentieth century, studies focused on bacteriophage T4 revealed essential features of the molecular nature of genes and genomes, mechanism and fidelity of DNA replication, genetic recombination, DNA repair, control of gene expression, genome organisation, assembly of complex macromolecular structures and pre‐emption of cell metabolism by virus infection. (els.net)
  • Bacteriophage T4 contains a large, linear double‐stranded DNA genome, with chemical modifications of its cytosine residues. (els.net)
  • The genomic diversity of the bacteriophages appears to be immense and has been proposed to represent the largest source of gene diversity in the natural world, a feature emphasised by the large number of novel genes of unknown function revealed by genome sequencing and meta-genomic studies [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The comparative analysis of bacteriophage genome sequences has greatly enhanced our understanding of their diversity, revealing relationships between phage genomes often infecting distantly related host bacteria. (mdpi.com)
  • RNA bacteriophages, plant viruses, and animal viruses have a self-folding mechanism that enables the viral genome to fit within the capsid container. (thoughtco.com)
  • Using the streptococcal temperate bacteriophage SpSL1, we show that the variants of both the SpnIII and SpnIV R-M systems are able to restrict invading bacteriophage with an efficiency approximately proportional to the number of target sites in the bacteriophage genome. (asm.org)
  • The resulting chimeric genome encodes a viable bacteriophage that appears to maintain key features of the original while being simpler to model and easier to manipulate. (mit.edu)
  • Treating this infection with antibiotics would result in a disruption of the gut microbiota, making the specificity of bacteriophage therapy a particularly useful tool. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • During a bacteriophage (or phage) infection cycle within a host organism, phage-directed proteins, called holins, are produced to perforate the bacterial membrane, allowing the accumulating cytoplasmic lysins access to the cell wall ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Professor Martha Clokie (pictured) in our Department of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation will give her inaugural lecture, 'Bacteriophages: micromanipulators of the bacterial world and a treasure trove of novel antibacterials' on Tuesday 6 December at 5.30pm at the University's Centre for Medicine. (le.ac.uk)
  • This process of infection, replication and release of new bacteriophage particles continues until there are no more cells to infect. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • However, when several organisms are responsible for a problem or infection within an animal, bacteriophages would have to be directed at each organism. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Characterisation of Escherichia coli Infection with a Verocytotoxigenic Bacteriophage . (factbites.com)
  • The first step of bacteriophage infection is adsorption, or the attachment of the virus to the bacterial surface. (factbites.com)
  • Each bacteriophage was probably specialized to an environment, and the closer the laboratory conditions were to the environment, the more effective the infection was. (factbites.com)
  • Ella Balasa, a 26-year-old from Richmond, Virginia, recently made the news when she was apparently successfully treated for a lung infection using a kind of virus called a bacteriophage. (biospace.com)
  • Treating this type of infection with bacteriophages provides a way to preserve the good gut bacteria while destroying only the C. diff germs. (thoughtco.com)
  • Claims 12 to 20 relate to the use of a bacteriophage preparation as defined in claim 1 for the manufacture of a medicament for treating a mammal suffering from infection by a bacterial microorganism. (epo.org)
  • The idea is to use bacteriophages as antibiotics - as something we could use to kill bacteria that cause infection," Hatfull says. (emaxhealth.com)
  • This thesis is focused on constructing such models for gene expression during bacteriophage T7 infection. (mit.edu)
  • Bacteria are under constant threat from infection by bacteriophages. (regonline.co.uk)
  • Bacteriophages can be used to selectively combat specific microorganisms in people without causing any type of infection or disrupting the body's microbiome as a whole. (medicalxpress.com)
  • A study undertaken at the University of Birmingham, U.K.,has established that the virus that infects bacteria (bacteriophages) has the potential to be harnessed to overcome bacterial infections in patients who are immunocompromised by the SARS-CoV-2 virus (the virus that causes COVID-19). (digitaljournal.com)
  • bacteriophage (băktēr´ēəfāj´) , virus that infects bacteria and sometimes destroys them by lysis, or dissolution of the cell. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A bacteriophage is a virus that infects bacteria. (biospace.com)
  • A bacteriophage ("bacteria eater", from ' bacteria ' and Greek φαγειν, "to eat") is a virus that infects bacteria. (citizendium.org)
  • A bacteriophage, or phage, is a virus that infects bacteria. (sciencephoto.com)
  • This makes up the 'head' of bacteriophage, while the 'tail' is made up of proteins with a receptor at the end which helps the virus attach to the surface of bacteria. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • In recent years there has been a growing interest in exploiting bacteriophages, or the lytic proteins that they encode, to treat biofilms. (prweb.com)
  • Within the proprietary xCELLigence microtiter plates that contain gold biosensors, biofilms of S. aureus were established and then exposed to different bacteriophage-derived proteins that catalyze degradation of the key biofilm extracellular polymers peptidoglycan or exopolysaccharide. (prweb.com)
  • Here, we report the complete genomic sequences, and predicted proteins of 27 bacteriophages of the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus . (pnas.org)
  • Using this strategy, we have previously shown that several Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophages encode proteins that target components of the DNA replication and RNA transcription machinery ( 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • As part of this ongoing effort, we now report the complete genomes and predicted proteins of a group of 27 S. aureus bacteriophages. (pnas.org)
  • If bacteriophages do not recognize the characteristic blend of proteins, carbohydrates and fats, they will not attach to the cell. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Bacteriophages attach to specific outer membrane proteins, which surround the rigid peptidoglycan layer of the bacterial cell wall. (factbites.com)
  • The T4 bacteriophage cell-puncturing device consists of two proteins that form a stable complex which makes up the hub of the T4 baseplate. (kenyon.edu)
  • Bacteriophages occur abundantly in the biosphere, with different genomes, and lifestyles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Desiere F, Lucchini S and Brussow H (1998) Evolution of Streptococcus thermophilus bacteriophage genomes by modular exchanges followed by point mutations and small deletions and insertions. (els.net)
  • Recent sequence analyses of bacteriophages from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other bacterial species indicates that between 50% and 75% of ORFs predicted from the phage genomes have no match in GenBank ( 4 - 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Thus, the systematic characterization of bacteriophage genomes represents a unique opportunity to increase the size and knowledge of both the global proteome and overall genetic diversity. (pnas.org)
  • The viral population, including bacteriophage, is very diverse yet relatively few viral genomes have been sequenced. (youtube.com)
  • In Part 2, he discusses the organization of bacteriophage genomes and explains how genomic sequence comparison can provide information about viral evolution. (youtube.com)
  • Only three S. pneumoniae bacteriophage genomes have been characterized in detail, and their sequences have been determined. (asm.org)
  • Hi all, I am looking for a way or a tool to map all the GC rich (of given percentage say, 60% or 70% GC) short stretches of nucleotides anywhere between 20-80 base pairs in Bacteriophage T4 and other Phage genomes.I could not find such a tool at NCBI website. (bioinformatics.org)
  • To investigate the effect of bacteriophages on Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from the urine of patients suffering from UTIs. (frontiersin.org)
  • June 10, 2018 - Atlanta, GA - In the first study of its kind, researchers from the New York-based Human Microbiology Institute have discovered the role certain bacteriophages may play in the onset of Parkinson's disease (PD). (asm.org)
  • Wallace will present the results from the Bacteriophage for Gastrointestinal Health (PHAGE) Study-the first clinical study in the Western hemisphere to provide patients with bacteriophages-at the American Society for Nutrition annual meeting, Nutrition 2018 , held June 9-12, 2018 in Boston. (medicalxpress.com)
  • A bacteriophage ( / b æ k ˈ t ɪər i oʊ f eɪ dʒ / ), also known informally as a phage ( / f eɪ dʒ / ), is a virus that infects and replicates within Bacteria and Archaea . (wikipedia.org)
  • A bacteriophage (/bækˈtɪərioʊfeɪdʒ/), also known informally as a phage (/ˈfeɪdʒ/), is a virus that infects and replicates within bacteria and archaea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Giles is a bacteriophage that infects Mycobacterium smegmatis bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chris - I suppose one other major bonus is that when the virus infects the C. diff bacterium, it then makes hundreds, if not, thousands of new bacteriophages programmed to attack C. diff . (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Bacteriophage described here has a double stranded DNA and infects the bacteria named Echerichia Coli. (slideme.org)
  • Viruses which infect bacteria are known as bacteriophages, and those which infect coliform bacteria are called coliphages ( Figure 1 ). (jove.com)
  • Results from a new clinical study have confirmed the safety and tolerability of using bacteria-specific viruses known as bacteriophages to eliminate disease-causing bacteria in the gut. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Coffey A and Ross RP (2002) Bacteriophage‐resistance systems in dairy starter strains: molecular analysis to application. (els.net)
  • In 2006 the Food and Drug Administration approved the use of bacteriophages that attack strains of Listeria as a food additive on ready-to-eat meat products. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Forty-one E. coli and 9 K. pneumoniae strains, isolated from the urine of patients suffering from UTIs, were tested in vitro for their susceptibility toward bacteriophages. (frontiersin.org)
  • The lytic activity of the commercial bacteriophage cocktails on the 41 E. coli strains varied between 66% (Pyo bacteriophage) and 93% (Enko bacteriophage). (frontiersin.org)
  • One bacteriophage of the Eliava collection could lyse all 9 K. pneumoniae strains. (frontiersin.org)
  • The treatment group received four bacteriophage strains that specifically eliminate E. coli, a pathogen that can contribute to gastrointestinal irregularities and stomach upset. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The researchers say that bacteriophages might also be useful for eliminating nutritional deficiencies due to chronic diarrhea in developing countries and are seeking larger-scale support to test which strains might be best for this application. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Each bacteriophage is specific to a bacterial species but they also attack one or several strains of the same species. (lesaffre.com)
  • Dr Ben Burrowes gained his PhD in Medical Microbiology from Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center in 2010, where his research focus was the development of therapeutic bacteriophages with extended host range using in vitro evolution. (springer.com)
  • The virology department of the Medical College in Hanover (MHH) used electron- microscopes to detect bacteriophages (viruses) in the stool of more than 80% of patients examined. (prohealth.com)
  • Bacteriophage Phi X 174 Electron micrograph. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Observed and photographed in 1940 (see photo) thanks to the invention of the electron microscope, bacteriophages (from the Greek word phago which means "eat") are viruses specific to bacteria. (lesaffre.com)
  • Chapters guide readers through regulatory compliance and safety aspects of bacteriophage therapy. (springer.com)
  • Authoritative and cutting-edge, Bacteriophage Therapy: From Lab to Clinical Practice aims to ensure successful results in the further study of this vital field. (springer.com)
  • Having gained a BSc (Cardiff University, UK) and PhD (University of Reading, UK), he has worked in the contract biomedical research industry and for AmpliPhi Biosciences Corporation (formerly Biocontrol Ltd) on the commercial development of bacteriophage therapy products. (springer.com)
  • The bacteriophages are now used in various applications such as vaccine development, immunodiagnostics, gene therapy, phage-based therapeutics, bacterial detection and epidemiology, the role of phages in the control of bacterial pathogens in food. (intechopen.com)
  • Bacteriophage cell-wall hydrolases, or lysins, have recently been exploited for their bacteriolytic activity as an alternative to antibiotic therapy ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • These may be used, among others, in the constantly developing bacteriophage therapy. (turbosquid.com)
  • An attractive mechanism under evaluation, and in current use in some countries, is bacteriophage therapy. (atcc.org)
  • Despite these drawbacks, there have been numerous studies depicting bacteriophage therapy as a safe possible alternative to antibiotic therapy in the treatment of bacterial infections. (atcc.org)
  • A historical overview of bacteriophage therapy as an alternative to antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial pathogens. (atcc.org)
  • New research suggests that bacteriophage therapy could counteract the risk of secondary bacterial infections, which affect some patients with weakened immune systems after being infected with the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. (digitaljournal.com)
  • In addition, T4 and related phages are being used in investigations of bacteriophage therapy. (els.net)
  • Based on the high lytic activity and the potential of resistance optimization by direct adaption of bacteriophages as reported in this study, and in view of the continuing increase of antibiotic resistance worldwide, bacteriophage therapy is a promising treatment option for UTIs highly warranting randomized controlled trials. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, bacteriophage therapy (3) is only currently allowed in human medicine in certain countries such as Poland, Georgia and Russia. (lesaffre.com)
  • The range of infections treated by bacteriophage therapy, whether authorised or tolerated on an exceptional basis, is quite wide (including the treatment of infected wounds, gastro-intestinal infections, infections of the respiratory, osteoarticular, urinary and genital tracts, etc. (lesaffre.com)
  • The phage-display method, which is commonly applied in bacteriophage modifications, was successfully used to display antigens (PorA protein, VP2 protein of vvIBDV, and antigens of anthrax and HIV) on T4's capsid platform. (turbosquid.com)
  • Additionally, bacteriophages appear to represent an enormous and unique untapped source of protein sequence diversity. (pnas.org)
  • Bacteriophages, or phages, have a head composed of protein, an inner core of nucleic acid -either deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA)-and a hollow protein tail. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Bacteriophages are, in fact, very simple organisms that consist of genetic material (DNA or RNA) surrounded by a protein coat, a hollow protein tail and tail fibers. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • In addition, the bacteriophage genetic material forces the cell to make protein coats, hollow protein tails and tail fibers, which are then assembled into new bacteriophage particles. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Since bacteriophages are viruses, they consist of a nucleic acid ( DNA or RNA ) enclosed within a protein shell or capsid . (thoughtco.com)
  • A bacteriophage may also have a protein tail attached to the capsid with tail fibers extending from the tail. (thoughtco.com)
  • The Gp31 protein from bacteriophage T4 functionally substitutes for the bacterial co-chaperonin GroES in assisted protein folding reactions both in vitro and in vivo. (rcsb.org)
  • All T4-type bacteriophage isolates tested so far have a conserved genetic module that encodes the virion components including gene 23 (g23), the major capsid protein. (wiley.com)
  • Unlike the present study, previous work on the bacterial colonization of ICUs had not considered the role of bacteriophages. (innovations-report.com)
  • For instance, a bacteriophage that infected an E. coli, would not infect a Salmonella. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Lambda is a double-stranded DNA bacteriophage of E. coli . (factbites.com)
  • Some bacteria species including E. coli , Streptococcus pyogenes (causes flesh-eating disease), Vibrio cholerae (causes cholera), and Shigella (causes dysentery) become harmful when genes that produce toxic substances are transferred to them via bacteriophages. (thoughtco.com)
  • Bacteriophages are also being used to destroy other superbugs including drug-resistant E. coli and MRSA . (thoughtco.com)
  • Based on the scientific results of twelve years of continuous investigation we now regard as proven that a connection exists between Primary Fibromyalgia Syndrome (PFS) and evidence of bacteriophages (specific E. coli phages) found in the stool of patients. (prohealth.com)
  • Bacteriophages (viruses) infect their specific host cell (in this case the E. coli bacteria) and cause the E. coli bacteria to produce new viruses via the viral genes. (prohealth.com)
  • After bacteriophage adaptation of the Pyo bacteriophage cocktail, its lytic activity was increased from 66 to 93% and only one E. coli strain remained resistant. (frontiersin.org)
  • The capture efficiencies of bacteriophages and antibodies on nanoparticles for the separation of E. coli K12 at varying concentrations were determined. (rsc.org)
  • T4 bacteriophages are specific to E. coli so they remain dormant virions until their tail fibers come in contact with a binding site on an E. Coli cell wall. (kenyon.edu)
  • R. Bruynoghe and J. Maisin, "Essais de thérapeutique au moyen du bacteriophage," CR Society of Biology , vol. 85, pp. 1120-1121, 1921. (hindawi.com)
  • Bacteriophage T4 is a virus with well-known genetics, structure, and biology. (turbosquid.com)
  • Bacteriophages play a critical role in bacterial biology, diversity, and evolution. (pnas.org)
  • They are still a paradigm for many areas of biology, especially gene expression (See Bacteriophage Lambda ). (factbites.com)
  • Presented will be an overview of the impact that bacteriophage have had on the biology of enteric pathogens, focussing on the salmonellae. (regonline.co.uk)
  • Our lab studies the biology and applications of bacteriophages (often simply called "phages"), which are viruses that infect bacteria. (agrilife.org)
  • Comparative genomic studies of bacteriophages, especially the tailed phages, together with environmental studies, give a dramatic new picture of the size, genetic structure and dynamics of this population. (nih.gov)
  • Juhala, R.J., M.E. Ford, R.L. Duda, A. Youlton, G.F. Hatfull, and R.W. Hendrix (2000) Genomic sequences of bacteriophages HK97 and HK022: pervasive geneti mosaicism in the lambdoid bacteriophages . (factbites.com)
  • On May 8, 2019, Nature Medicine Published online "Engineered bacteriophages for treatment of a patient with a disseminated drug resistant Mycobacterium abscessus. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Bacteriophages or phages are viruses that infect and kill bacteria. (le.ac.uk)
  • The treatment relies on genetically engineering bacteriophages, viruses that can infect and kill bacteria . (emaxhealth.com)
  • GangaGen received a patent for the invention of "Lysin-deficient bacteriophages having reduced immunogenicity," where they can be used to destroy pathogenic bacteria, including those resistant to antibiotics. (genengnews.com)
  • Bacteriophages are seen as a good alternative to antibiotics . (thoughtco.com)
  • When the company was first established in 2008, Dastych's vision was to reduce or eliminate the need for antibiotics in animal health using bacteriophages. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Prior to the discovery and widespread use of antibiotics, it was suggested that bacterial infections could be prevented and/or treated by the administration of bacteriophages. (asm.org)
  • Canadian microbiologist Felix d Herelle proposed that bacteriophage might be applied to the control of bacterial diseases, however in the West this idea was not explored with the same enthusiasm as in the former Soviet Union and was eventually discarded with the arrival of antibiotics. (novapublishers.com)
  • new antibiotics have placed the spotlight back on a biotechnology discovered in the 1910s, based on the use of bacteriophages. (lesaffre.com)
  • Thanks to their bactericidal characteristics, bacteriophages have shown themselves to be promising alternatives to antibiotics, especially as they are able to attack bacteria which have become resistant to anti-bacterial treatments. (lesaffre.com)
  • Graham Hatfull (University of Pittsburgh/HHMI) Part 1: Bacteriophages: What are they? (youtube.com)
  • In Part 1, Hatfull describes what bacteriophage are, some of their biological properties and how they were discovered. (youtube.com)
  • The work is the first to demonstrate the safe and effective use of engineered bacteriophages in a human patient, says Graham Hatfull, a Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) Professor at the University of Pittsburgh. (emaxhealth.com)
  • In October 2017, Hatfull received the email that set his team on a months-long bacteriophage-finding quest. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Hatfull, a molecular geneticist, had spent over three decades amassing a colossal collection of bacteriophages, or phages, from the environment. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Bacteriophages (sometimes called phages) are viruses that infect bacteria. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • A stage in bacteriophage synthesis in which its nucleic acid multiplies within the host bacterium independent of the bacterial multiplication process. (dictionary.com)
  • An extracellular bacterium associated with Paramecium, and induction of antiviral immunity by a bacteriophage that prevents bacterial clearance. (asm.org)
  • Bacteriophage T4 is a virulent phage, which always lyses and kills its host bacterium. (els.net)
  • Bacteriophages or phages are bacterial viruses that invade bacterial cells and, in the case of lytic phages, disrupt bacterial metabolism and cause the bacterium to lyse. (asm.org)
  • The bacteriophage life cycle is either lytic or lysogenic. (news-medical.net)
  • Bacteriophages have two life cycles by which they replicate: lysogenic and lytic. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Bacteriophages are capable of reproducing by either the lysogenic or lytic life cycles. (thoughtco.com)
  • Bacteriophage transfer (lysogenic conversion) promotes bacterial virulence evolution. (sciencemag.org)
  • For whoever is qualified to answer me: I would like to know what specific Bacteriophages will attack Salmonella enteriditis. (bio.net)
  • bacteriophage specific for Salmonella typhi. (drugs.com)
  • Inflammation boosts bacteriophage transfer between Salmonella spp. (sciencemag.org)
  • Novel tools to identify putative viral contigs, such as VirSorter [12] and VirFinder, [13] allow for the assessment of patterns of viral abundance, host range, and functional content of marine bacteriophage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gindreau E and Lonvaud‐Funel A (1999) Molecular analysis of the region encoding the lytic system from Oenococcus oeni temperate bacteriophage phi 10MC. (els.net)
  • The intention is to provide a definitive reference work on the technological and therapeutic applications of bacteriophages. (springer.com)
  • As such, it would be important to verify that the bacteriophage could not package extra host DNA or carry any bacterial sequences encoding, or homologous to, virulence factors, toxins, or antibiotic resistance genes. (atcc.org)
  • The ability of bacteriophages to impart novel biochemical and physiological properties not only provides the host with the opportunity to adapt to new environments, but, in some instances, confers novel virulence properties associated with pathogenesis in human bacterial infections. (pnas.org)
  • 1991) Species and type phages of lactococcal bacteriophages. (els.net)
  • 1 Because bacteriophages are species-specific, and in some cases strain-specific, they can be used to target the infecting pathogen without harming human cells or surrounding microflora. (atcc.org)
  • Host specificity of these bacterial viruses are also an issue, where an infecting bacterial species would need to be identified in order to determine which bacteriophage is optimal for use. (atcc.org)
  • In addition, the comparative analysis of multiple bacteriophages from a single bacterial species offers a unique opportunity to study the mechanisms driving prokaryotic genetic diversity, including lateral gene transfer and illegitimate recombination ( 4 , 8 - 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Antibacterial Efficacy of Lytic Bacteriophages against Antibiotic-Resistant Klebsiella Species," TheScientificWorldJOURNAL , vol. 11, pp. 1332-1340, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • Bacteriophage genomics. (nih.gov)
  • Phamerator: a bioinformatic tool for comparative bacteriophage genomics. (nature.com)
  • The purpose of this paper is to study the mathematical properties of the solutions of a model for bacteria and virulent bacteriophage system in a chemostat. (aimsciences.org)
  • Newly assembled bacteriophages are released by lysis, extrusion, or budding. (news-medical.net)
  • Appreciably, exogenous addition of purified lysins to susceptible Gram-positive bacteria also produces complete lysis in the absence of bacteriophage ( 4 , 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Here, bacteriophages invade bacterial cells and, if the bacteriophage is lytic, will take over the host machinery to make more phage components, eventually resulting in cell lysis. (atcc.org)
  • Lysis-deficient bacteriophage the. (mendeley.com)
  • A bacteriophage enzyme breaks down the bacterial peptidoglycan causing osmostic lysis. (kenyon.edu)
  • This book is intended for the student who is taking a first course in bacterial and bacteriophage genetics, rather than as a reference tool for the specialist. (springer.com)
  • In order to develop the basic concepts of bacterial and bacteriophage genetics in a volume of reasonable size, I have endeavored to avoid the stricdy molecular approach as weIl as the thoroughly comprehensive treatment characteristic of review articles. (springer.com)
  • Bacteriophage, viruses that specifically infect bacteria, are, by far, the majority of all biological entities in the biosphere. (youtube.com)
  • This volume details the experimental approaches suitable for isolating and characterizing bacteriophages to formulating bacteriophage medicinal products and clinical application. (springer.com)
  • The first regulated, randomized, double-blind clinical trial was reported in the Journal of Wound Care in June 2009, which evaluated the safety and efficacy of a bacteriophage cocktail to treat infected venous ulcers of the leg in human patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was the founder, CEO and CSO of Biocontrol Limited and CSO of AmpliPhi Biosciences and managed the first modern regulated clinical trial to demonstrate the efficacy of bacteriophages. (springer.com)
  • Lytic bacteriophages have shown clinical promise as therapeutic agents for topical or systemic treatments of bacterial infections ( 11 ) or for their ability to block and subvert essential host metabolic pathways ( 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • Despite the absence of lytic bacteriophages, two of the clinical isolates studied contained mitomycin C-inducible prophages. (innovations-report.com)
  • Although the early clinical studies with bacteriophages were not vigorously pursued in the United States and Western Europe, phages continued to be utilized in the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. (asm.org)
  • In this minireview, we briefly describe the history of bacteriophage discovery and the early clinical studies with phages and we review the recent literature emphasizing research conducted in Poland and the former Soviet Union. (asm.org)
  • P22 is genetically a member of the lambda-like bacteriophage family, and morphologically a member of the Podoviridae . (asm.org)
  • This transposase is essential for integration, replication-transposition and excision of Bacteriophage Mu DNA. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • zebrafish and mice, bacteriophage T4 still presents the best opportunities for understanding at the molecular level DNA replication and recombination, and macromolecular assembly. (els.net)
  • The lytic cycle allows the T4 bacteriophage to transform a host cell into a replication machine. (kenyon.edu)
  • The bacteriophage P22 kil gene, like lambda kil, kills the host cell when it is expressed. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Bacteriophage lambda is a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) phage with an isometric head about 50 nm diameter and a flexible tail about 150 nm long (3) ( micrograph). (factbites.com)
  • In the case of bacteriophage lambda , however, the appearance of the plaques is informative. (factbites.com)
  • Immunity in bacteriophage lambda (and related bacteriophages ) is conferred by a short and specific region of the bacteriophage chromosome. (factbites.com)
  • Different bacteriophage lambda containing the immunity regions of related lambdoid phage were very useful in the genetic studies of the immunity region. (factbites.com)
  • to superinfection by the same phage due to repression of transcription caused by the resident prophage (See Bacteriophage Lambda ). (factbites.com)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important human pathogen that often carries temperate bacteriophages. (asm.org)
  • Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere . (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteriophages are the most abundant life forms in the biosphere. (pnas.org)
  • Bacteriophages are the most abundant organisms in the biosphere and play major roles in the ecological balance of microbial life. (factbites.com)
  • Bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) are considered to be the most prevalent entities in the biosphere [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Bacteriophages, the viruses that infect bacteria, are the most abundant biological entities in the biosphere and play a key role in global biogeochemical cycling. (wiley.com)
  • Phylogenetic analysis showed that most of these g23 sequences belonged to two novel subgroups of T4-type bacteriophages, although some of them were related to well-studied subgroups of T4-type bacteriophages, such as marine cyanophage isolates of exoT-evens. (wiley.com)
  • The book bacteriophages will describe what are bacteriophages, type of phages and their classification, and standard methods of isolation. (intechopen.com)
  • Because of the specificity of bacteriophages, they are considered safe and, indeed, bacteriophages have not been reported to infect plant, animal or human cells. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • 1997) Molecular ecology of Streptococcus thermophilus bacteriophage infections in a cheese factory. (els.net)
  • Many bacteriophages employ a mechanism rather like a hypodermic syringe to inject genetic material into the cell through a tail-like structure. (news-medical.net)
  • Genetic structure of the bacteriophage P22 PL operon. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Bacteriophages have been compared to "space ships that are able to carry genetic material between susceptible cells and then reproduce in those cells" (Kutter, 1997). (thepoultrysite.com)
  • The genetic material seizes control of the cell causing it to make additional bacteriophage genetic material. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • In addition, the genetic material injected into cells by a bacteriophage is only capable of acting on bacterial internal contents. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Since the internal contents (that is, the structure and chemistry) of plant, animal and human cells is different from that of bacterial cells, bacteriophage genetic material cannot seize control of the cell. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • This means that even if a bacteriophage attached and injected genetic material into a plant, animal or human cell, the material could not take over the internal machinery of those cells (Kutter, 1997). (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Bacteriophages help to transfer genes between bacteria by means of genetic recombination . (thoughtco.com)
  • Bacteriophage are viruses (with genetic material) that infect bacteria. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Here, we show that bacteriophages evolve within two general evolutionary modes that differ in the extent of horizontal gene transfer by an order of magnitude. (nature.com)
  • Bacteriophage T4 presents numerous technical advantages as a model for studying virus reproduction or gene organisation and expression. (els.net)
  • First, can we address deficiencies in past simulations and measurements of bacteriophage T7 to improve models of gene expression? (mit.edu)
  • In the bacteriophage lytic cycle , the virus replicates within the host. (thoughtco.com)
  • The bacteriophage structure may include various features for infecting the host cell. (news-medical.net)
  • Lysins are murein hydrolases produced by bacteriophage that act on the bacterial host cell wall to release progeny phage. (pnas.org)
  • Bacteriophages usually have a narrow host range, and the global bacteriophage population has been estimated to be on the order of 10 31 ( 1 ), with the majority of this population turning over every few weeks ( 2 , 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • As it turns out, bacteria are often infected with viruses called bacteriophages, and play "host" to them just as the bodies of human beings, plants, and other animals host infections of both bacteria and viruses. (citizendium.org)
  • In particular, the board expressed the provisional view that the feature 'the bacteriophage preparation is capable of killing, in vitro, bacteria from at least 50% of host samples' in, inter alia, claim 1 was vague. (epo.org)
  • Bacteriophages are typically host specific, a property that is largely determined at the level of attachment to host cell receptors. (virology.ws)
  • Without their cell-puncturing device T4 bacteriophages would be unable to introduce their DNA into the cell of a host system. (kenyon.edu)
  • Bacteriophage components begin to be produced by way of the host bacterium's metabolic machinery. (kenyon.edu)
  • The bacteriophage is very effective - just a single one is enough to infect the host bacterial cell. (slideme.org)
  • Amber mutants of bacteriophage can be reverted by ionizing radiation to pseudo wild type particles, i.e. particles able to propagate in a suppressorless host. (tudelft.nl)
  • We aim to reduce the bacterial load of waste water by developing bacteriophages from sewage against the enteric pathogens. (amrita.edu)
  • Phages were discovered to be antibacterial agents and were used in the former Soviet Republic of Georgia (pioneered there by Giorgi Eliava with help from the co-discoverer of bacteriophages, Félix d'Herelle) during the 1920s and 1930s for treating bacterial infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bacteriophages originated from either commercially available bacteriophage cocktails registered in Georgia or from the bacteriophage collection of the George Eliava Institute of Bacteriophage, Microbiology and Virology. (frontiersin.org)
  • Use of polyvalent bacteriophages to combat biofilm of Proteus mirabilis causing catheter-associated urinary tract infections. (urotoday.com)
  • It is estimated there are more than 10 31 bacteriophages on the planet, more than every other organism on Earth, including bacteria, combined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteriophage is a live micro-organism, a natural enemy of bacteria. (novapublishers.com)
  • Since bacteriophages do not infect human cells , they have been used in medical therapies to treat bacterial diseases . (thoughtco.com)