• Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of T4 proteins. (genetics.org)
  • Identification of P48 and P54 as components of bacteriophage T4 baseplates. (asm.org)
  • The products of genes 48 and 54 (P48[the nomenclature P48 refers to the protein product of bacteriophage T4 gene 48] and P54), which are known to be required for the synthesis of mature baseplates, have been shown to be structural components of the baseplate. (asm.org)
  • Analysis of bacteriophage T5 by cryo-electron microscopy and protein sequence analysis reveals analogies with HK97 and T4 that suggest a mosaic of such connections. (deepdyve.com)
  • Unlike HK97, the T5 capsid binds a decoration protein in the center of each hexamer similarly to the "hoc" protein of phage T4, suggesting a common role for these molecules. (deepdyve.com)
  • These results support the notion that the indispensable DNA polymerase of bacteriophage T4 plays a crucial role in the selection of the correct base during DNA replication. (pnas.org)
  • Display of a PorA peptide from Neisseria meningitidis on the bacteriophage T4 capsid surface. (asm.org)
  • By employing T4 genetic strategies, we show that more than one subtype-specific PorA peptide can be displayed on the capsid surface and that the peptide can also be displayed on a DNA-free empty capsid. (asm.org)
  • The data suggest that the phage T4 hoc-soc system is an attractive system for display of peptides on an icosahedral capsid surface and may emerge as a powerful system for construction of the next generation multicomponent vaccines. (asm.org)
  • Total RNAs were isolated at the times indicated and 10 μg of each total RNA was analyzed by Northern blotting with a probe for the T4 genes indicated in A-D. The half-life of each transcript was calculated by measuring signal intensities and is shown below A-D. The arrowheads indicate the transcripts of each gene. (genetics.org)
  • The involvement of two bacteriophage T4 gene products in the initiation of T4 tail tube and sheath polymerization on mature baseplates has been studied by radioautography of acrylamide gels of various partially completed tail structures. (asm.org)
  • T4 uses host cell RNA polymerase for transcription of its own genes, but it modifies the bacterial enzyme, both to prevent its transcription of bacterial genes after infection and to contribute towards a timed viral gene transcription program. (els.net)
  • Total RNAs were isolated at the times indicated and 10 μg of each total RNA was analyzed by Northern blotting with a probe for the T4 genes indicated in A-D. The half-life of each transcript was calculated by measuring signal intensities and is shown below A-D. The arrowheads indicate the transcripts of each gene. (genetics.org)
  • Genetic exclusion in phage T4 is the prime responsibility of the imm immunity and speckle genes. (dtic.mil)
  • The products of genes 48 and 54 (P48[the nomenclature P48 refers to the protein product of bacteriophage T4 gene 48] and P54), which are known to be required for the synthesis of mature baseplates, have been shown to be structural components of the baseplate. (asm.org)
  • Repair of the double-strand break (DSB) results in the predominance of T4 genes 56 and segF in the progeny, with exclusion of the corresponding T2 sequences. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Phage T4 has many optional homing endonuclease genes similar to segF, whereas similar endonuclease genes are relatively rare in other members of the T-even family of bacteriophages. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Conserved T4-like genes are displayed as blue arrows, novel ORFs are shown as red arrows, tRNAs as black arrowheads. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We are developing phage T4 into a biomedical platform, to use it as an antibiotic, as a cancer therapeutic, and for the delivery of genes to targeted cells for gene therapy. (grantome.com)
  • Some evidence suggests that in T4-infected E . coli these genes are cotranscribed in the 45 to 44 to 62 direction . (musc.edu)
  • In this study regulation of expression of genes 45 , 44 , and 62 has been examined by using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic assays to analyze the protein products synthesized in T4-infected E . coli at various times after infection under different conditions . (musc.edu)
  • Bacteriophages, the viruses that infect bacteria, are the most abundant biological entities in the biosphere and play a key role in global biogeochemical cycling. (wiley.com)
  • Bacteria are constantly threatened by predation from bacteriophage parasites and, in response, have evolved an array of resistance mechanisms. (edu.au)
  • Toxin-antitoxin (TA) loci are widespread in bacteria and can confer multiple benefits, including resistance to bacteriophages. (edu.au)
  • Unlike the traditional subunit vaccines, the phage T4 vaccine uses a highly stable nanoparticle scaffold, provides multivalency, requires no adjuvant, and elicits broad T-helper 1 and 2 immune responses that are essential for complete clearance of bacteria during infection. (cdc.gov)
  • A bacteriophage ( / b æ k ˈ t ɪər i oʊ f eɪ dʒ / ), also known informally as a phage ( / f eɪ dʒ / ), is a virus that infects and replicates within Bacteria and Archaea . (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found wherever bacteria exist. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is estimated there are more than 10 31 bacteriophages on the planet, more than every other organism on Earth, including bacteria, combined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteriophages: A Therapy Concept against Multi-Drug-Resistant Bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • It must be emphasised that bacteriophages are natural parasites of bacteria, which in turn are parasites or symbionts of mammals (including humans). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bacteriophage T4 infecting some bacteria. (news-medical.net)
  • All T4-type bacteriophage isolates tested so far have a conserved genetic module that encodes the virion components including gene 23 (g23), the major capsid protein. (wiley.com)
  • Phage therapy uses bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) to treat bacterial infections and is widely being recognized as an alternative to antibiotics. (meta.org)
  • Bacteriophages, bacterial viruses unable to infect eukaryotic cells, constitute a serious alternative to antibiotic therapy of bacterial infections [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Electron Microscopy images of bacteriophage T4 viruses. (eurekalert.org)
  • This extremely detailed visualization shows one such virus, called an enterobacteria phage T4. (wired.com)
  • Gisela Mosig (November 29, 1930 - January 12, 2003) was a German-American molecular biologist best known for her work with enterobacteria phage T4. (wikipedia.org)
  • T4 bacteriophages are specific to E. coli so they remain dormant virions until their tail fibers come in contact with a binding site on an E. Coli cell wall. (kenyon.edu)
  • I discuss a model based on these results that explains how BrUdR stimulates opposite mutagenic pathways in T4-infected and uninfected E. coli. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The T4 gp44/62 clamp loader has not been crystallized but a comparison to the E. coli gamma complex is provided. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The shutoff of host DNA synthesis is delayed until about 8 to 10 min after infection when E. coli B/5 cells are infected with bacteriophage T4 mutants deficient in the ability to induce nuclear disruption (ndd mutants). (elsevier.com)
  • Using this derivative, CT447 T4 plq + (for T4 plaque + ), the authors have shown that host DNA degradation and shutoff of host DNA synthesis occur after infection with either ndd98 x 5 (shutoff delayed) or T4D + (shutoff normal) with approximately the same kinetics as in E. coli strain B/5. (elsevier.com)
  • The gene 32 protein of the bacteriophage T4 is required for efficient genetic recombination in infected Eschericia coli cells and strongly stimulates in vitro pairing catalyzed by the phage uvsX protein, a RecA-like strand transferase. (scripps.edu)
  • A plasmid vector for expression of bacteriophage T4 gene product 11 (gp11) in E. coli cells has been constructed. (utmb.edu)
  • b) A chronology of major events in T4 infection. (els.net)
  • Recombination hotspots have previously been discovered in bacteriophage T4 by two different approaches, marker rescue recombination from heavily damaged phage genomes and recombination during co-infection by two undamaged phage genomes. (duke.edu)
  • The host DNA synthesized after infection with ndd mutants is stable in the absence of T4 endonucleases II and IV, but is unstable in the presence of these nucleases. (elsevier.com)
  • We hypothesized that incubating BW25113 with WT supernatant would confer an observable level of resistance to T4 infection, whilst incubation of BW25113 with ΔompC mutant supernatant would yield negligible protective effects. (ubc.ca)
  • Deoxycytidylate hydroxymethylase from bacteriophage T4 is a homodimeric enzyme in which each polypeptide chain consists of 246 amino-acid residues. (elsevier.com)
  • Bacteriophage T4 lysozyme, molecular model. (sciencephoto.com)
  • 1) The lysozyme from the bacteriophage T4 eJD7 eJD4, which is a spontaneous revertant of the eJD4 frame shift mutant, has been isolated and purified. (elsevier.com)
  • The mutagenized gene was inserted into a specialized bacteriophage lambda cloning vector that must acquire a functional lysozyme gene in order to form plaques. (umassmed.edu)
  • Three compensatory second-site revertants were obtained: Thr152-Met, Lys43-Ile, and Thr151-Ala. The effects of these mutations are interpreted in light of previous structural and genetic studies of T4 lysozyme. (umassmed.edu)
  • Bouvier, Suzanne E. and Poteete, Anthony R., "Second-site reversion of a structural defect in bacteriophage T4 lysozyme" (1996). (umassmed.edu)
  • Systematic mutation of bacteriophage T4 lysozyme" by Dale Rennell, Suzanne E. Bouvier et al. (umassmed.edu)
  • Amber mutations were introduced into every codon (except the initiating AUG) of the bacteriophage T4 lysozyme gene. (umassmed.edu)
  • The amber alleles were introduced into a bacteriophage P22 hybrid, called P22 e416, in which the normal P22 lysozyme gene is replaced by its T4 homologue, and which consequently depends upon T4 lysozyme for its ability to form a plaque. (umassmed.edu)
  • Plating the collection of amber mutants covering 163 of the 164 codons of T4 lysozyme, on 13 suppressor strains that each insert a different amino acid substitutions at every position in the protein (except the first). (umassmed.edu)
  • Of the resulting 2015 single amino acid substitutions in T4 lysozyme, 328 were found to be sufficiently deleterious to inhibit plaque formation. (umassmed.edu)
  • The effects of many of the deleterious substitutions are interpretable in light of the known structure of T4 lysozyme. (umassmed.edu)
  • and Poteete, Anthony R., "Systematic mutation of bacteriophage T4 lysozyme" (1991). (umassmed.edu)
  • Although the endolysin of phage T4 encoded by the e gene (Lysozyme E) was identified in 1961, the holin (product of gene t and called T-holin) was not characterized until 2001. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transversion mutations can be distinguished from transition mutations by the use of special tauII mutants of bacteriophage T4. (neb.com)
  • Genetic Exclusion in Bacteriophage T4. (dtic.mil)
  • All genetic markers from phage T2 are partially excluded from the progeny of mixed infections with the related phage T4 (general, or phage exclusion). (mdc-berlin.de)
  • By employing T4 genetic strategies, we show that more than one subtype-specific PorA peptide can be displayed on the capsid surface and that the peptide can also be displayed on a DNA-free empty capsid. (asm.org)
  • Altman, S & Warner, V 1975, ' 9-Aminoacridine mutagenesis of bacteriophage T4 intracellular DNA ', MGG Molecular & General Genetics , vol. 138, no. 4, pp. 333-343. (elsevier.com)
  • This book is intended for the student who is taking a first course in bacterial and bacteriophage genetics, rather than as a reference tool for the specialist. (springer.com)
  • In order to develop the basic concepts of bacterial and bacteriophage genetics in a volume of reasonable size, I have endeavored to avoid the stricdy molecular approach as weIl as the thoroughly comprehensive treatment characteristic of review articles. (springer.com)
  • Molecular analysis of the g23 sequence revealed a remarkable level of diversity of T4-type bacteriophages isolated from rice straw and surface soil in a Japanese rice field. (wiley.com)
  • Most of the intracellular T4 DNA made in the presence of 9-aminoacridine is of lower molecular weight than mature T4 DNA and does not get packaged into phage particles. (elsevier.com)
  • Thus, the generation of low molecular weight T4 DNA in the presence of 9-aminoacridine is not, in itself, also a mutagenic process. (elsevier.com)
  • The study by Otsuka and Yonesaki, published in this issue of Molecular Microbiology, describes a new plasmid-encoded TA system, lsoAB, which confers resistance to a dmd - mutant of bacteriophage T4 through the activity of the LsoA toxin. (edu.au)
  • The antibacterial activity of bacteriophages has been described rather well and its molecular mechanisms and qualifying agents are also well known. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our studies on the T4 replisome build on the seminal work from the Alberts laboratory. (elsevier.com)
  • Reference: Dynamic protein interactions in the bacteriophage T4 replisome. (neb.com)
  • Adsorption of a heavy metal, Zn 2+ , to the surface of phage T4 was tested in a series of purified phage/metal solutions (0 µM - 1000 µM at 23°C). The Langmuir isotherm reasonably describes the sorption data, with an R-square of 0.8116. (unl.edu)
  • The Langmuir constant was determined to be 0.01265 which demonstrates that the adsorption of zinc onto the surface of phage T4 does occur, but not at a rapid rate. (unl.edu)
  • The effects of pH have been determined to have an effect on the adsorption of Zn 2+ onto the surface of phage T4. (unl.edu)
  • As bacteriophages are unable to infect mammalian cells, they are considered a neutral object characterised by their antigenic properties [ 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we investigated if there exists a difference in the ability of T4 to infect the wildtype (WT) K-12 strain BW25113 in presence of OmpC-containing BW25113 supernatant compared to K-12 ΔompC mutant strain JW2203-1 supernatant. (ubc.ca)
  • MMS induces diverse rII mutations from a wild-type background in bacteriophage T4. (genetics.org)
  • Thus, many of the mutations arise via the T4 WXY system. (genetics.org)
  • While these investigations focus on two enzymes in T4 deoxyribonucleotide metabolism, namely T4 ribonucleotide reductase and dCMP deaminase, the effects of other phage mutations on dNTP pools and mutagenesis were also investigated. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Using a T4 DNA transformation assay, we have examined this intracellular T4 DNA for its content of 9-aminoacridine-induced revertants of certain rII gene frameshift mutations. (elsevier.com)
  • The Gp31 protein from bacteriophage T4 functionally substitutes for the bacterial co-chaperonin GroES in assisted protein folding reactions both in vitro and in vivo. (rcsb.org)
  • Using an in vitro assembly system, the 120- by 86-nm heads (capsids) of phage T4 were arrayed with anthrax and plague antigens fused to the small outer capsid protein Soc (9 kDa). (asm.org)
  • Interestingly, SegF preferentially cleaves gene 56 of T2, both in vitro and in vivo, compared with that of phage T4. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Our work includes the interaction studies between different bacteriophage strains with different PCa cell lines and to know how these particles modulate cancer cell behaviour in vitro ( Figure 1 ). (alliedacademies.org)
  • We would like to take this advantage to report our preliminary findings based upon the in vitro interaction studies from PCa cells (PC3) with bacteriophage T4 and M13. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Previous studies had indicated that RB69 regA had a greater affinity for RNA than did T4 regA , in vitro . (musc.edu)
  • T4 morphogenesis involves separate subassembly pathways for viral heads, tails, tail baseplates and fibres, with the substructures assembling spontaneously. (els.net)
  • A model of the T4 virion, with its tail contracted, based on image reconstruction from electron microscopic images. (els.net)
  • The involvement of two bacteriophage T4 gene products in the initiation of T4 tail tube and sheath polymerization on mature baseplates has been studied by radioautography of acrylamide gels of various partially completed tail structures. (asm.org)
  • Jet nebulization of bacteriophages with different tail morphologies - Structural effects. (nih.gov)
  • The well-known T4 bacteriophage has a polygonal head where DNA is contained, and a rod-shaped tail made up of long fibers. (news-medical.net)
  • Here, we report the development of a dual anthrax-plague nanoparticle vaccine employing bacteriophage (phage) T4 as a platform. (asm.org)
  • In addition, we are engineering the surface of T4 to carr multiple copies of an epitope for vaccine development. (grantome.com)
  • We engineered a virus nanoparticle vaccine using bacteriophage T4 by incorporating key antigens of both B. anthracis and Y. pestis into one formulation. (cdc.gov)
  • From there, she was recruited to Vanderbilt University to study bacteriophage T4, a topic for which she became a leading investigator. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunization experiments were performed in rabbits using soluble as well as T4 displayed gp41 antigens to determine their immunogenicity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A large number of revertants occurring spontaneously and after treatment with 2-aminopurine, [5- 3 H]uracil radioactive decay, ethyl methanesulfonate, 5-bromodeoxyuridine, hydroxylamine and ultraviolet light were tested for their ability to support the growth of 24 amber mutants and one ochre mutant of bacteriophage T4. (elsevier.com)
  • To test our hypothesis, we performed several growth curve assays in which BW25113 was grown in either WT or ΔompC mutant supernatant, infected with T4 bacteriophage upon inoculation and grown for up to 8 hours. (ubc.ca)
  • Contrary to our hypothesis, the experimental results demonstrated that there is no difference in T4-mediated cell lysis between BW25113 incubation with WT versus ΔompC mutant supernatant. (ubc.ca)
  • T4 holin is fairly large, about 218 amino acyl residues (aas) in length. (wikipedia.org)
  • A bacteriophage enzyme breaks down the bacterial peptidoglycan causing osmostic lysis. (kenyon.edu)
  • Thus while bacteriophages do not substantially affect differentiation of DCs, some products of phage-induced lysis of bacterial cells may influence the differentiation and potentially also some functions of DCs. (frontiersin.org)
  • T-even phage such as T4 use a holin-endolysin system for host cell lysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The phage T4 T-holin (lysis protein) is identical to the holin from phage K3 and nearly identical to that from phage ARI. (wikipedia.org)
  • T4 gene 59 helicase assembly protein binds to both T4 gene 41 helicase and T4 gene 32 single-stranded DNA binding protein, and to single and double-stranded DNA. (rcsb.org)
  • We show here that T4 gene 59 helicase assembly protein binds most tightly to fork DNA substrates, with either single or almost entirely double-stranded arms. (rcsb.org)
  • The 1.45 A resolution crystal structure of the full-length 217-residue monomeric T4 gene 59 helicase assembly protein reveals a novel alpha-helical bundle fold with two domains of similar size. (rcsb.org)
  • We propose a speculative model of how the T4 gene 59 helicase assembly protein might bind to fork DNA based on the similarity to HMG1, the location of the basic and hydrophobic regions, and the site size of the fork arms needed for tight fork DNA binding. (rcsb.org)
  • The fork-binding model suggests putative binding sites for the T4 gene 32 single-stranded DNA binding protein and for the hexameric T4 gene 41 helicase assembly. (rcsb.org)
  • Raney, KD & Benkovic, SJ 1995, ' Bacteriophage T4 Dda helicase translocates in a unidirectional fashion on single-stranded DNA ', Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 270, no. 38, pp. 22236-22242. (elsevier.com)
  • Sequence and structure of endonuclease II-dependent cleavage sites in bacteriophage T4 DNA. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Therefore, phage T4 is a unique nanoparticle platform to formulate multivalent vaccines against high-risk pathogens for national preparedness against potential bioterror attacks and emerging infections. (cdc.gov)
  • An introductory course on the T3/T4 translational research domains. (harvard.edu)
  • This approach uses a two-plasmid system in which lacZ expression is placed under the translational control of T4 regA via the gene 44 recognition element (gene 44 RE) (AAUGAGGAAAUU) on plasmid pLacZ-44RE . (musc.edu)
  • I describe in this dissertation the further development of a procaryotic system, namely bacteriophage T4, as a model in vivo system for studying dNTP pool imbalances and mutagenesis. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Here we propose a new method of T4 phage purification by affinity chromatography after its modification with affinity tags (GST and Histag) by in vivo phage display. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Affinity tags can be successfully incorporated into the T4 phage capsid by the in vivo phage display technique and they strongly elevate bacteriophage affinity to a specific resin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Four carcinogenic inorganic salts and five chemical carcinogens ( N -hydroxy-1-naphthylamine, N -hydroxy-2-naphthylamine, N -hydroxy-2-aminofluorene, 10-formyl-1,2-benzanthracene, and DL-ethionine) were toxic but not mutagenic to intracellular T4 phage. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Phylogenetic analysis showed that most of these g23 sequences belonged to two novel subgroups of T4-type bacteriophages, although some of them were related to well-studied subgroups of T4-type bacteriophages, such as marine cyanophage isolates of exoT-evens. (wiley.com)
  • Sequencing of this conserved region of the pseudo T-even phage RB49 revealed substantial nucleotide sequence divergence from T4 (approximately 30% to 40%), and random genomic sequencing of this phage indicated that more than a third of its sequences had no detectable homology to T4. (nih.gov)
  • In fact, the GGAG motif is one of the most frequent Shine-Dalgarno sequences encountered in T4. (biomedcentral.com)
  • SegA protein cleaved circular and linear plasmids, DNA containing unmodified cytosines, and wild-type T4 DNA containing hydroxymethylated, glucosylated cytosines. (asm.org)
  • Thus far, over 6000 bacteriophages have been identified by using electron microscopy and the total number of phage virions in the biosphere has been estimated at around 10 32 . (frontiersin.org)
  • Analysis of bacteriophage T5 by cryo-electron microscopy and protein sequence analysis reveals analogies with HK97 and T4 that suggest a mosaic of such connections. (deepdyve.com)
  • Two antimutagenic DNA polymerases of bacteriophage T4 markedly reduce transition mutagenesis by a variety of chemical mutagens. (pnas.org)
  • In addition, the phage-encoded RegB endoribonuclease (T4 regB gene) functionally inactivates many early transcripts and expedites their degradation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phage particle purification is important for two different issues: general investigation of bacteriophage particles, i.e. phage biology studies, and for therapeutic applications of bacteriophages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We also believe that they will contribute to the general understanding of bacteriophage biology, as bacteriophages, extremely ubiquitous entities, are in permanent contact with human organisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Biology portal As of this edit, this article uses content from "1.E.8 The T4 Holin (T4 Holin) Family", which is licensed in a way that permits reuse under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, but not under the GFDL. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 'foldon' structural tag was fused at the C-terminus of gp41-5M to facilitate trimer formation, and phage T4 small outer capsid (Soc) protein was fused at the N-terminus for arraying gp41 on T4 capsids. (biomedcentral.com)