• We have previously demonstrated that M. catarrhalis expresses specific outer membrane proteins (OMPs) in response to iron limitation and that this organism can utilize transferrin and lactoferrin for in vitro growth. (asm.org)
  • One of these proteins, which binds human transferrin, is OMP B1. (asm.org)
  • In our body, F-Box Proteins are a family of proteins that share the F-box motifs , that are involved in protein-protein interactions, which play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF ubiquitin ligase complexes. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • In our body, F-Box Proteins are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP domain proteins. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • In our body, GTP-Binding Proteins control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • Bacterial Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Bacterial Proteins" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Bacterial Proteins" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Bacterial Proteins" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • In humans, the majority of iron is located intracellularly complexed in ferritin, hemoglobin or heme proteins. (rupress.org)
  • These authors provide strong evidence for positive selection affecting several sites in host (transferrin, Tf) and pathogen (transferrin binding protein A) iron-binding proteins based on a combination of genetic, structural, and functional experimental methods. (evmedreview.com)
  • But they wondered if the potential for iron piracy by pathogen derived iron-binding proteins would lead to positive selection on portions of the transferrin molecule. (evmedreview.com)
  • The TbpA proteins, which are surface receptors, of the Gram-negative human pathogens N. meningitidis , N. gonorrhoeae , and Haemophilus influenzae all extract iron from the C lobe, but not the N lobe, of Tf. (evmedreview.com)
  • Four AP complexes (AP-1 to AP-4) contain a medium-sized subunit (?1-?4) that recognizes YXXØ-sequences (Ø is a bulky hydrophobic residue), which are sorting signals in transmembrane proteins. (jove.com)
  • Pathogenic and commensal bacteria alike obtain iron from human and animal hosts by competing for the metal with eucaryotic proteins, like transferrin, lactoferrin, and ferritin ( 11 , 25 , 49 , 54 ). (asm.org)
  • All these proteins belong to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) superfamily of proteins: a superfamily of secreted or membrane-bound proteins with SRCR domains that are highly conserved down to sponges, the most ancient metazoa. (mdpi.com)
  • The proteins work together to: trigger the recruitment of inflammatory cells "tag" pathogens for destruction by other cells by opsonizing, or coating, the surface of the pathogen form holes in the plasma membrane of the pathogen, resulting in cytolysis of the pathogen cell, causing the death of the pathogen rid the body of neutralised antigen-antibody complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transferrin receptors (TfR1 and TfR2) are transmembrane proteins with 66% homology. (turkupetcentre.net)
  • Therefore, we attempt to check whether we'd elicit ligand-dependent behavioural reactions in em C. elegans /em by expressing mammalian GPCRs in the ASH and ADL gustatory neurons, because they are straight exposed to the surroundings allowing gain access to of proteins and peptide ligands towards the heterologous receptors. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Bacteria face iron-limiting conditions in the mammalian host, where free iron is strictly limited and normally bound to sequestering proteins such as transferrin and lactoferrin. (asm.org)
  • Fe III is both insoluble and efficiently sequestered by mammalian proteins, such as hemoglobin, ferritin, transferrin, and lactoferrin, leaving a remarkably low available iron concentration of 10 -24 M ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • These receptors recognize either free heme or heme bound to host-carrier proteins. (asmscience.org)
  • HpuAB is unusual among heme receptors because it consists of two outer membrane-associated proteins. (asmscience.org)
  • Activation of immune complexes is associated with post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins, such as phosphorylation, glycosylation, or ubiquitination. (jove.com)
  • In Escherichia coli the TonB protein interacts with outer membrane receptor proteins that carry out high-affinity binding and energy-dependent uptake of specific substrates into the periplasmic space [ PMID: 14499604 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Lactoferrin is one of the transferrin proteins that transfer iron to the cells and control the level of free iron in the blood and external secretions. (wikipedia.org)
  • My lab centers around determining the atomic resolution structure of membrane proteins and complexes that function to transport materials across lipid bilayers. (utoronto.ca)
  • Any of the proteins on the surface of T lymphocytes that enhance the response of the T-cell receptor to foreign antigens and stimulate signals from the receptor to the cytoplasm. (tabers.com)
  • ABBR: CCR Any of several protein receptors for chemokines that spans the cell membrane and links to intracellular G proteins. (tabers.com)
  • To clarify the intracellular pathways followed by rafts we have investigated the transport itineraries of two main classes of raft markers, GPI-anchored proteins and the lipid-binding subunits of specific bacterial toxins. (rupress.org)
  • In this study we used markers for a variety of GPI-anchored proteins, including folate receptor, CD59 ( Davies and Lachmann 1993 ), and a construct composed of GPI-anchored green fluorescent protein (GPI-GFP). (rupress.org)
  • Beta-2-microglobulin (beta-2-M) is a small membrane protein (11,800 Dalton) associated with the heavy chains of class I major histocompatibility complex proteins and is, therefore, on the surface of all nucleated cells. (paperbomb.com)
  • PA binds specifically to two identified anthrax toxin receptors, tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8, also called ANTXR1) and capillary morphogenesis 2 (CMG2, or ANTXR2), two type I membrane proteins that share extensive sequence similarity both in their extracellular and intracellular domains [3] , [4] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Within the cell, rab11BP must undergo a conformational change in which the rab11-binding site becomes exposed, because when coexpressed with rab11 in transfected cells the two proteins formed abundant complexes in association with membranes. (pnas.org)
  • The precise mechanism of action of rab proteins has not yet been elucidated, although there is evidence that the active GTP-containing form of some rab proteins serves to stabilize SNARE complexes required for vesicle fusion ( 2 - 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Wild-type and mutant human rab11 cDNAs ( 16 ) were cloned into the bacterial expression vector pET-11d (Novagen), and the bacterially expressed rab11 proteins were purified from lysates by ammonium sulfate precipitation, followed by fast protein liquid chromatography on a Superdex HR-75 gel-filtration matrix (Pharmacia). (pnas.org)
  • Neisseria survive in the human host by utilizing surface receptors to pirate iron from human iron binding proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Our goal is to generate rich sets of restraint data that can be used to model both individual proteins and ultralarge protein complexes and networks. (ucalgary.ca)
  • What proteins comprise the essential complexes for non-homologous end joining, and how are they coordinated to repair lesions in DNA induced by (among other things) ionizing radiation? (ucalgary.ca)
  • 4) Proteins involved in establishment of intracellular niche are TonB-dependent receptors (orange) and pilus genes (sienna). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Other characterized surface lipoproteins of bacterial pathogens include Neisseria meningitidis TbpB, which acts as part of a two-component transferrin receptor ( 2 ), the subtilisin-like protease SphB1 of Bordetella pertussis ( 20 ), a potential adhesin of Campylobacter jejuni , JlpA ( 31 ), and multiple polypeptides expressed by Mycoplasma spp. (asm.org)
  • Results indicate that increasing tick control and vaccination campaigns for domestic dogs may improve the health of domestic animals, and potentially wildlife and humans in the Okavango Delta since viral and vector-borne bacterial pathogens can be transmitted between them. (prelekara.sk)
  • This means that the innate immune system will respond similarly to different pathogens, injuries, or stressors, but often not efficiently enough to resist and eliminate complex disease conditions. (docplayer.net)
  • These cells present receptors contained on the surface or within the cell, named pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which recognize molecules that are broadly shared by pathogens but distinguishable from host molecules, collectively referred to as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepcidin is transcriptionally induced in response to inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) as well as bacterial pathogens and lipopolysaccharide. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1, 4, 5] Cutaneous infections with Vibrio vulnificus and Aeromonas hydrophila, other seawater-associated bacterial pathogens, closely resemble the clinical picture. (interleukin-receptor.com)
  • In this review we attempt to unravel the complex interaction between so-called "natural," "primitive" (T-cell-independent), and "classical" IgA responses, the nature of the intestinal microbiota/intestinal pathogens and the highly flexible dynamic homeostasis of the mucosal immune system. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this setting although infection and dysfunction should not use of approximately one of bacterial pathogens. (musicaenlamochila.net)
  • Lipoproteins decorate the surface of many obligate host restricted Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, playing essential roles in immune evasion and nutrient acquisition. (utoronto.ca)
  • The important role played by transferrin in the resistance to invading pathogens makes this polymorphic gene a highly valuable candidate for studying adaptive divergence among local populations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have already succeeded in identifying an alternative drug treatment to antibiotics that may result in reduced multi-drug resistance in bacterial pathogens. (nih.gov)
  • Tf saturated with bound iron (diferric or holo-Tf) is captured by transferrin receptors (Tf-R) on cells, and the Tf-R internalizes the Tf-iron complex via receptor-mediated endocytosis. (evmedreview.com)
  • When entering the cell via the main path (by transferrin endocytosis), its goal is not the (still elusive) chelated iron pool in the cytosol nor the lysosomes but the mitochondria, where heme is synthesized and iron-sulfur clusters are assembled (Kurz et al,2008, Hower et al 2009, Richardson et al 2010). (wikipathways.org)
  • Morphologic characterization of the pathway of transferrin endocytosis and recycling in human KB cells. (wikipathways.org)
  • When a transferrin protein loaded with iron encounters a transferrin receptor on the surface of a cell , e.g., erythroid precursors in the bone marrow, it binds to it and is transported into the cell in a vesicle by receptor-mediated endocytosis . (wikipedia.org)
  • In the second part of the thesis, we to provide insights into the dynamics of human transferrin (hTf) that transports ferric ions in blood stream with a high affinity and delivers them to cells via receptor mediated endocytosis. (sabanciuniv.edu)
  • Here we show that PA triggers the ubiquitination of its receptors in a β-arrestin-dependent manner and that this step is required for clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (prolekare.cz)
  • Considering that PA 7mer is the receptor for EF and LF, one crucial point is that PA should not undergo endocytosis in its monomeric form, i.e. the enzymatic subunits would fail to be delivered to the cytoplasm. (prolekare.cz)
  • We show that clathrin is, as predicted, involved in endocytosis but that the anthrax toxin follows a non-canonical clathrin-dependent route that depends of β-arrestins and the heterotetrameric adaptor complex AP-1. (prolekare.cz)
  • Moreover we show that endocytosis is strongly actin dependent, in contrast to endocytosis of another bacterial toxin, diphtheria toxin. (prolekare.cz)
  • gene transfer to respiratory epithelial cells via the receptor-mediated endocytosis pathway. (springer.com)
  • Zenke M, Steinlein P, Wagner E, Cotten M, Beug H, Birnstiel ML. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of transferrin-polycation conjugates: An efficient way to introduce DNA into hematopoietic cells. (springer.com)
  • Clathrin-mediated vesicular transport, the most highly studied process to date, supports receptor-mediated endocytosis of cargo ligands, such as transferrin, low density lipoprotein, growth factors, antibody complexes and essential factors for cellular proliferation. (biologists.org)
  • The participation of GPR107 in the regulation of receptor-mediated endocytosis is the subject of this report. (biologists.org)
  • Nevertheless, iron deficiency was detected in 30.8% oí the cases using soluble transferrin receptor, 14% with erythrocyte protoporphyrln and 10% with serie ferrítin. (bvsalud.org)
  • Serum contains soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), which is a truncated monomer form of the transmembrane receptors, formed by proteolytic cleavage. (turkupetcentre.net)
  • Identification of a ferrireductase required for efficient transferrin-dependent iron uptake in erythroid cells. (wikipathways.org)
  • The receptor with its ligand bound transferrin is then transported through the endocytic cycle back to the cell surface, ready for another round of iron uptake. (wikipedia.org)
  • An attractive way of inhibiting biofilm formation is to fool the bacterial regulatory system for iron uptake. (asm.org)
  • A typical high-affinity iron uptake system consists of a low-molecular-mass Fe(III)-chelating compound, known as a siderophore, combined with its cognate membrane-located receptor ( 22 ). (asm.org)
  • However, the concept of regulation of iron uptake systems is becoming more complex with the recent findings of positive regulation of iron transport and siderophore biosynthetic genes, rather than only derepression mediated by the decrease of iron availability in the cell cytosol. (asm.org)
  • Hp adhered to the apical epithelial surface increase basolateral uptake of transferrin and induce its transcytosis in a CagA-dependent manner. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The primary focus of research in the lab is nutrient uptake mechanisms within Gram negative bacterial species. (utoronto.ca)
  • This protein regulates transferrin receptor mediated iron uptake and mutations in its gene cause hereditary iron overload (hemochromatosis).Conversely, iron overload in the immunocompetent host exacerbated disease.Consistent with this, iron deprivation in infected resting macrophages was detrimental for intracellular mycobacteria. (nih.gov)
  • This protein regulates transferrin receptor mediated iron uptake and mutations in its gene cause hereditary iron overload (hemochromatosis). (nih.gov)
  • Gpr107 -null fibroblast cells exhibit reduced transferrin internalization, decreased uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) cargo and resistance to toxins. (biologists.org)
  • Transferrin can also bind Al 3+ , and it is possible that it can be internalized in cells and incorporated in ferritin . (turkupetcentre.net)
  • The panel for testing includes: serum transferrin saturation (Serum iron x 100/TIBC) and ferritin. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • For symptomatic patients with elevated ferritin and transferrin saturations and negative C282y and H63D mutations, genetic testing for HAMP, HJV, HFE and TfR2 mutations is recommended. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • For compound heterozygotes or non C282Y mutations who have elevated transferrin saturation or ferritin, workup to exclude other liver or hematologic disease which may include liver biopsy. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • For C282Y homozygotes with no clinical evidence of disease, yearly ferritin, transferrin saturation, and liver enzymes should be performed. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Transferrin receptor 2: a new molecule in iron metabolism. (wikipathways.org)
  • 2. The IgE molecule will bind to Fc receptor on mast cell and basophils which in turn causes vasodilation, increased vascular permeability and vascular spasm. (docplayer.net)
  • An intracellular molecule that undergoes structural and functional changes in response to binding of cell membrane receptors by ligands. (tabers.com)
  • We have looked for similar activity in associated molecule with the SH3 domain of STAM (AMSH), a JAMM domain-containing protein that associates with the SH3-domain of STAM, a protein, which regulates receptor sorting at the endosome. (rupress.org)
  • Hrs is recruited to the endosome in a complex with signal transducing adaptor molecule (STAM)/Hrs binding protein, Hse1 in yeast. (rupress.org)
  • Current topics in the lab include (1) small molecule and protein import across the bacterial outer membrane, (2) protein secretion by pathogenic bacteria, and (3) protein import across mitochondrial outer membranes. (nih.gov)
  • The highly selective deficits observed in Gpr107 -null cells indicate that GPR107 interacts directly or indirectly with a limited subset of surface receptors. (biologists.org)
  • In these systems the outer membrane receptor directly recognizes the heme compounds. (rupress.org)
  • The bacterial Tf receptor is comprised of a surface exposed lipoprotein, Tf-binding protein B (TbpB), and an integral outer-membrane protein, Tf-binding protein A (TbpA), both of which are essential for survival in the host. (rcsb.org)
  • The ligand-gated outer membrane porin FepA serves Escherichia coli as the receptor for the siderophore ferric enterobactin. (asm.org)
  • The experiments refuted the idea that chirality of the iron complex affects its recognition by FepA and demonstrated the necessity of an unsubstituted catecholate coordination center for binding to the outer membrane protein. (asm.org)
  • The shape of a bacterial cell is maintained by its peptidoglycan sacculus that completely surrounds the cytoplasmic membrane. (caister.com)
  • During growth the sacculus is enlarged by peptidoglycan synthesis complexes that are controlled by components linked to the cytoskeleton and, in Gram-negative bacteria, by outer-membrane regulators of peptidoglycan synthases. (caister.com)
  • Synaptobrevins/VAMPs, syntaxins, and the 25-kD synaptosomal-associated protein are the main components of a protein complex involved in the docking and/or fusion of synaptic vesicles with the presynaptic membrane. (nih.gov)
  • The authors found that activation of dendritic cells by bacterial lipopolysaccharide leads to increased Forster resonance energy transfer-fluorescence of fluorescently labeled syntaxin 4 with VAMP3 specifically at the plasma membrane, indicating increased SNARE complex formation, whereas FRET with other tested SNAREs was unaltered. (nih.gov)
  • Inside endosomes the lower pH promotes the protonation of the carbonate anion coordinating the position of the ferric ion, induces conformational change in transferrin, and additionally membrane bound oxidoreductase catalyses the reduction of Fe 3+ to Fe 2+ . (turkupetcentre.net)
  • Some bacteria have also evolved mechanisms that appear to prevent or minimize siderophore freeloading, including maintaining variability in structure of siderophore-receptor pairs (diversifying selection) ( 21 , 22 ) and privatizing siderophores through high hydrophobicity or association with membrane-bound receptors ( 23 - 26 ). (asm.org)
  • TonB-dependent regulatory systems consist of six components: a specialised outer membrane-localized TonB-dependent receptor (TonB-dependent transducer) that interacts with its energizing TonB-ExbBD protein complex, a cytoplasmic membrane-localized anti-sigma factor and an extracytoplasmic function (ECF)-subfamily sigma factor [ PMID: 15993072 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Transport of iron into the cell cytosol is mediated by specific membrane receptor and transport systems which recognize the iron-siderophore complexes. (asm.org)
  • We use primarily X-ray crystallography in combination with other molecular approaches to gain a detailed understanding of how these membrane protein complexes function. (utoronto.ca)
  • In addition to the structural and biochemical characterization of these ion transport system components, research in my lab also examines the membrane protein complexes that facilitate the proper insertion and assembly of these membrane protein transport components including surface anchored lipoproteins. (utoronto.ca)
  • A complex containing protein, located on a cell membrane, capable of being stimulated by drugs in the extracellular fluid, and translating that stimulation into an intracellular response. (tabers.com)
  • PA 7mer -EF/LF and receptors-is then internalized by the cell and delivered to early endosomes, where PA 7mer undergoes a conformational change that leads to its membrane insertion and pore-formation (pPA 7mer ) [2] . (prolekare.cz)
  • We have previously shown that processing of PA leads to a relocalization of the toxin from the glycerolipid region of the plasma membrane to lipid rafts [8] , where the receptors encounter the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl that modifies a juxtamembranous lysine of the cytoplasmic tail of the receptors [11] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Rab11, in particular, has been shown to play a key role in plasma membrane receptor recycling, because expression of a form of this protein that cannot be activated by GTP binding inhibited transport of endocytosed transferrin receptors from sorting endosomes to a pericentriolar recycling compartment, from where receptors normally are returned to the cell surface ( 15 , 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • This movie shows how Neisseria are able to extract iron from transferrin for transport across the outer membrane. (nih.gov)
  • GPR107 is a type III integral membrane protein that was initially predicted to be a member of the family of G-protein-coupled receptors. (biologists.org)
  • Colocalization studies and proteomic analyses suggest that GPR107 associates with clathrin and the retromer protein VPS35 and that GPR107 might be responsible for the return of receptors to the plasma membrane from endocytic compartments. (biologists.org)
  • In this pathway, ligand-bound receptors on the cell surface are entrapped by deformation of plasma membrane domains into coated pits that invaginate, detach from the plasma membrane and undergo a complex, still poorly understood, sorting process ( Pucadyil and Schmid, 2009 ). (biologists.org)
  • Pili are complex outer-membrane, protein-based organelles that facilitate adhesion-the first step in meningococcal-host cell interactions. (tailieu.vn)
  • A subtype of bacterial transferrin-binding protein found in bacteria. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • Determination of some bacteria toxins associated with contact lenses (CL) after different using periods (0, 1, 5, 10 and 15 Days) with immuno-Tecra technique Bacterial toxin Usage periods of contact lenses (day) 0 1 Bacillus spp. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In this case the bacterial toxins , which cause the immune response, are more likely to be from gram-negative bacteria. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Most bacteria live as complex communities adhered to surfaces rather than as planktonic isolated cells. (asm.org)
  • However, competition for siderophores is often much more complex, as evidenced by numerous studies and the continued existence of siderophore-producing bacteria. (asm.org)
  • General heme receptors have been identified in numerous bacteria. (asmscience.org)
  • A key feature which enables pathogenic bacteria to survive within the vertebrate host is the production of siderophores, iron-sequestering compounds, and the synthesis of their cognate transport systems, which are crucial in overcoming the nonspecific defense mechanisms of the host and allow for bacterial multiplication ( 10 , 12 , 24 - 30 , 78 , 79 , 90 ). (asm.org)
  • The potential role of siderophore-mediated systems as virulence determinants in the specific host-bacteria interaction leading to disease is also analyzed with respect to the influence of these systems in the expression of other factors, such as toxins, in the bacterial virulence repertoire. (asm.org)
  • How do bacterial transferrin-binding receptors recognize this host protein and remove iron, so important for the growth of many pathogenic bacteria? (ucalgary.ca)
  • They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released. (nih.gov)
  • Barber and Elde expected that transferrin would be subject to purifying selection that maintains both the capacity to bind iron and the ability to effectively interact with the Tf-R on host cell surfaces. (evmedreview.com)
  • Transferrin glycoproteins bind iron tightly, but reversibly. (wikipedia.org)
  • It enables ligand bonding to the transferrin, as each monomer can bind to one or two atoms of iron. (wikipedia.org)
  • Somatostatin receptors bind two isoforms of the tetradecapeptide, SST-14 and -28 [9,10]. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Under iron-rich conditions, the Fe 2+ -Fur complexes bind to promoters containing a Fur box (Fur binding sequence) and repress transcription. (asm.org)
  • In the absence of TonB, these receptors bind their substrates but do not carry out active transport. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Receptors, primarily on white blood cells, that bind with epitopes on foreign antigens, stimulating an immune response. (tabers.com)
  • Any of at least six receptors that bind dopamine in the brain. (tabers.com)
  • Furthermore, although overexpression of rab11BP did not affect transferrin recycling, overexpression of a truncated form of the protein, rab11BP(1-504), that includes the rab11-binding site but lacks the WD40 domains inhibited recycling as strongly as does a dominant negative rab11 mutant protein that does not bind GTP. (pnas.org)
  • It has been further proposed that GPI-CD1d binding occurred in the endoplasmic reticulum and that the complex was further transported to endosomes for displacement of GPI and loading of exogenous ligands reminiscent of the MHC class II-invariant chain pathway ( 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • GPI-GFP does not accumulate within endocytic compartments containing transferrin, although it is detected in intracellular structures which are endosomes by the criteria of accessibility to a fluid phase marker and to cholera and shiga toxin B subunits (CTxB and STxB, which are also found in rafts). (rupress.org)
  • TIP47 (tail-interacting protein of 47 kD) was characterized as a cargo selection device for mannose 6-phosphate receptors (MPRs), directing their transport from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network. (rupress.org)
  • The transport of lysosomal enzymes from the TGN to endosomes depends mainly on the two mannose 6-phosphate receptors (MPRs), MPR46 or MPR300. (rupress.org)
  • The hydrolases are delivered to lysosomes after pH-induced dissociation of the enzyme receptor complexes in endosomes, whereas the MPRs cycle back to the TGN ( Bonifacino and Rojas, 2006 ). (rupress.org)
  • Molecular cloning of transferrin receptor 2. (wikipathways.org)
  • Transferrin has a molecular weight of around 80 kDa and contains two specific high-affinity Fe(III) binding sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Written by specialists in the field, this book provides a comprehensive overview of the structural and molecular biology of cellular processes that occur at or near bacterial membranes. (caister.com)
  • The authors present and discuss recent progress on the function and involvement of membranes in bacterial physiology enabling a greater understanding of the molecular details of the cell envelope, its biogenesis and function. (caister.com)
  • Transferrin is a glycoprotein composed of 700 amino acids, with molecular weight of 79.6 kDa. (turkupetcentre.net)
  • Transferrin acquires rapidly the metal cations from low molecular weight chelators such as citrate . (turkupetcentre.net)
  • Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) activates the innate immune response. (jove.com)
  • One of the most commonly found strategies evolved by microorganisms is the production of siderophores, low-molecular-weight iron chelators that have very high constants of association for their complexes with iron. (asm.org)
  • Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 3 recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns, and induce antimicrobial immune responses ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The ability to a molecular weight gain, and immunocompromised Oral bioavailability due to transferrin. (imagenenaccion.org)
  • Cancer is a complex heterogeneous disease with molecular, morphological, and clinical differences that exist both between and within tumors ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Scientists have known for about a decade that defensins can neutralize bacterial toxins but, until now, did not know how. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Shiga toxins represent a group of bacterial toxins that are involved in the most serious forms of food poisoning. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • She fell victim to septic shock after bacterial toxins invaded her bloodstream. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The poisoning is caused by bacterial toxins and pesticides that are used randomly in the planting and growth of fruits and vegetables. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Bacterial toxins block endothelial wound repair. (umassmed.edu)
  • Bacterial toxins endowed with enzymatic activity generally have targets, or require co-factors, that reside in the cytoplasm of the target cell. (prolekare.cz)
  • Since Braun's description of a lipoprotein (Lpp) in the cell envelope of Escherichia coli ( 10 ), the important roles of lipoproteins in bacterial physiology and pathogenesis have been increasingly appreciated. (asm.org)
  • Activation of CB(1) receptors by endocannabinoids may play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy by facilitating MAPK activation, AT(1)R expression/signaling, AGE accumulation, oxidative/nitrative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis. (nih.gov)
  • Many members of the Pasteurellaceae family make excellent natural models for the study of bacterial pathogenesis and host-pathogen-interactions thus giving valuable insights into related human diseases. (caister.com)
  • Taking full advantage of this opportunity, I rotated in labs working on various aspects of biological science research covering virology, cell culture, bacterial pathogenesis, X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy. (purdue.edu)
  • A model for the complex of TbpB bound to Tf is proposed. (rcsb.org)
  • Although iron bound to transferrin is less than 0.1% (4 mg) of total body iron, it forms the most vital iron pool with the highest rate of turnover (25 mg/24 h). (wikipedia.org)
  • When not bound to iron, transferrin is known as "apotransferrin" (see also apoprotein ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Transferrin bound to its receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Essentially all circulating iron in plasma is bound to transferrin. (turkupetcentre.net)
  • 80% of transferrin-bound iron is delivered to bone marrow and incorporated into new erythrocytes . (turkupetcentre.net)
  • Reticuloendothelial cells in the liver collect iron mainly by phagocytosis of senescent erythrocytes , releasing it into hepatocytes and into circulation, bound to transferrin. (turkupetcentre.net)
  • Gallium-transferrin complex can be internalized, while indium-bound transferrin is only bound to TfRs . (turkupetcentre.net)
  • After Fe 2+ (ferrous ion) is released, the transferrin receptor bound apotransferrin is recycled to the cell surface, and in the extracellular neutral pH apotransferrin is released from the complex. (turkupetcentre.net)
  • Transmembrane signaling across the ligand-gated FhuA receptor: crystal structures of free and ferrichrome-bound states reveal allosteric changes. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In the first part of the thesis, we have employed Perturbation- Response Scanning (PRS) method unified with elastic network models to predict key residues that induce the dissociated state of 25 non-redundant protein-protein complexes over their bound states. (sabanciuniv.edu)
  • Unexpectedly, actin was also found to be essential for efficient heptamerization of PA, but only when bound to one of its 2 receptors, TEM8, due to the active organization of TEM8 into actin-dependent domains. (prolekare.cz)
  • To determine if the transferrin recycling pathway is involved in Hp colonization of the cell surface, we silenced transferrin receptor expression during infection. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Challis GL (2005) A widely distributed bacterial pathway for siderophore biosynthesis independent of nonribosomal peptide synthetases. (springer.com)
  • The Klebsiella oxytoca pullulanase PulA is transported to the outer surface through a complex type II secretion apparatus ( 42 ). (asm.org)
  • A major source of transferrin secretion in the brain is the choroid plexus in the ventricular system . (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of dendritic cells to respond to the signals required for IL-1β secretion can be tested using a synthetic purine, R848, which is sensed by TLR8 in human monocyte derived dendritic cells (moDCs) to prime cells, followed by activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome with the bacterial toxin and potassium ionophore, nigericin. (jove.com)
  • Transferrin has very high affinity for ferric ion, but binding can only happen with a bridging anion, which in physiological conditions is carbonate. (turkupetcentre.net)
  • The observed inflammation and induction of high-affinity adaptive immune responses during pathogenic infection can be seen as a (preferably temporary) deviation of the bacterial-host relationship sharply away from its usual homeostatic set-point, with the corresponding decrease in function of the intestine that accompanies any such deviation. (frontiersin.org)
  • The affinity of transferrin for Fe(III) is extremely high ( association constant is 10 20 M −1 at pH 7.4) [7] but decreases progressively with decreasing pH below neutrality. (wikipedia.org)
  • The affinity of transferrin for Fe 3+ is ∼400 times higher than for Ga 3+ , but exchange half-life is very slow. (turkupetcentre.net)
  • TfR2 has lower affinity to diferric transferrin than TfR1, and it is only expressed in hepatocytes, enterocytes of the small intestine, and erythroid cells. (turkupetcentre.net)
  • Gladue, "Linezolid effects on bacterial toxin production and host immune response: review of the evidence," Current Therapeutic Research- Clinical and Experimental, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This result is what is normally expected of immune system receptors involved in co-evolutionary processes between host and pathogen, sometimes referred to as "arms races. (evmedreview.com)
  • Lipocalin 2 mediates an innate immune response to bacterial infection by sequestrating iron. (wikipathways.org)
  • Transferrin is also associated with the innate immune system . (wikipedia.org)
  • During pathogen attack, plants rapidly respond to infection via the recruitment and activation of immune complexes. (jove.com)
  • It is now well-accepted that this potent bacterial toxin plays an important role in producing necrotizing fasciitis (NF), the rapid infection of soft tissue referred to as flesh-eating" disease. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The low concentration of free iron in the mucous membranes and in tissues is one of the first lines of host defense against bacterial infection. (rupress.org)
  • 7 Poststreptococcal acute glomerulonephritis: Ab-ag complexes deposite in glomeruli HBV infection: HBsAg-Ab complexes may also cause acute glomerulonephitis this is mediated by T-cells. (docplayer.net)
  • This receptor can be the route where HIV-1 infection happens, causeing this to be receptor a restorative target in Helps treatment [11]. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Results ranging from heme transport being essential to virulence to being dispensable for virulence have been reported for different model systems of bacterial infection. (asmscience.org)
  • Therefore, in establishing an infection, microorganisms depend heavily on their ability to use the host-complexed iron. (asm.org)
  • CD4 receptors on T4 lymphocytes are the sites to which HIV binds, producing infection. (tabers.com)
  • With the aim to evaluate the best biochemical analysis of iron status in preschool children without anemia, a hundred and fortynine samples of boys and girls with an average age of 4 years from an urban marginal community and a rural área from Costa Rica hemoglobin, ferrítin, soluble receptors oí transferrin, erythrocyte protoporphyrln and C reactive proteln were analysed. (bvsalud.org)
  • Expression of recombinant OMP B1 on the surface of Escherichia coli confers transferrin binding activity, confirming that this protein is likely involved in iron acquisition. (asm.org)
  • Brickman TJ, Mcintosh MA (1992) Overexpression and purification of ferric enterobactin esterase from escherichia-coli-demonstration of enzymatic-hydrolysis of enterobactin and its iron complex. (springer.com)
  • Whole-genome sequencing of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup X isolates from sub-Saharan Africa and Europe showed that serogroup X emergence in sub-Saharan Africa resulted from expansion of particular variants within clonal complex 181. (cdc.gov)
  • It forms a cell surface receptor complex with TRANSFERRIN-BINDING PROTEIN B . (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • Endocannabinoids and cannabinoid 1 (CB(1)) receptors have been implicated in cardiac dysfunction, inflammation, and cell death associated with various forms of shock, heart failure, and atherosclerosis, in addition to their recognized role in the development of various cardiovascular risk factors in obesity/metabolic syndrome and diabetes. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we explored the role of CB(1) receptors in myocardial dysfunction, inflammation, oxidative/nitrative stress, cell death, and interrelated signaling pathways, using a mouse model of type 1 diabetic cardiomyopathy. (nih.gov)
  • Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex is a key regulator of autophagy, cell growth and proliferation. (jove.com)
  • [12] The main role of transferrin is to deliver iron from absorption centers in the duodenum and white blood cell macrophages to all tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transferrin plays a key role in areas where erythropoiesis and active cell division occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • The TonB complex senses signals from outside the bacterial cell and transmits them via two membranes into the cytoplasm, leading to transcriptional activation of target genes. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Central co-ordination complex and are more closely correlated with mast-cell-associated igE. (imagenenaccion.org)
  • The cell-to-cell signaling and regulating effects of chemokines, e.g., on inflammation or hematopoiesis, are mediated through chemokine receptors, which can be blocked with specific antagonist drugs. (tabers.com)
  • CD1b and -c molecules have been found to present mycobacterial cell wall-derived Ags to T cells ( 3 ), and CD1a has been implicated in the presentation of bacterial Ags ( 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • This is not a fixed structure but its function depends on the complex interplay between the different cell types such as the endothelial cells, astrocytes, pericytes, and the extracellular matrix of the brain and blood flow maintained in the microvessels or brain capillaries. (hindawi.com)
  • Adaptor protein (AP) complexes facilitate protein trafficking by playing key roles in the selection of cargo molecules to be sorted in post-Golgi compartments. (jove.com)
  • some (such as the folate receptor) accumulate in transferrin-containing compartments, others (such as CD59 and GPI-linked green fluorescent protein [GFP]) accumulate in the Golgi apparatus. (rupress.org)
  • Fish, chicken and mammals showed highly conserved syntenic regions in which monolobal and bilobal transferrins reside, but contrasting with tetrapods, the fish transferrin genes are positioned on three different linkage groups. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The highly conserved synteny between fish and tetrapod transferrin loci infers that the fusion of tandem duplicated Omp -like genes gave rise to the modern transferrins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Any of the markers on T lymphocytes and other white blood cells that, along with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, is responsible for the recognition of antigens. (tabers.com)
  • Donadio S, Staver MJ, McAlpine JB, Swanson SJ, Katz L (1991) Modular organization of genes required for complex polyketide biosynthesis. (springer.com)
  • This report shows that deletion of Gpr107 leads to an embryonic lethal phenotype that is characterized by a reduction in cubilin transcript abundance and a decrease in the representation of multiple genes implicated in the cubilin-megalin endocytic receptor complex (megalin is also known as LRP2). (biologists.org)
  • Tiotropium is solely by gut wall at the receptors as the uK leukotriene receptor, skin rash. (musicaenlamochila.net)
  • Reduction leukotriene receptor antagonist, and marine fishes. (imagenenaccion.org)
  • Demeclocycline is normal school and does not generally high intake A 19-year-old chinese leukotriene receptor. (imagenenaccion.org)
  • A bacterial species is a conceptual entity that is hard to define, despite its role as the basic taxonomic grouping. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In general, bacterial taxonomy is built around the living type specimen: a species consists of the type strain and, whenever available, all other strains sufficiently similar to the type strain to be considered as included in the species. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To begin to address this interesting question, the authors cloned and sequenced transferrin orthologs from 21 species of hominoids and monkeys, both Old and New World. (evmedreview.com)
  • Although E. cloacae complex strains are among the most common Enterobacter species causing nosocomial bloodstream infections in the last decade, little is known regarding their virulence-associated properties. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Via PRS, we show that dynamics within a selected local minimum can lend clues on the global, large scale conformational transition of hTf alone and in its complexes with the human and bacterial receptors. (sabanciuniv.edu)
  • Structure of chorismate mutase-like domain of DAHPS from Bacillus subtilis complexed with novel inhibitor reveals conformational plasticity of active site. (purdue.edu)
  • These may be based on a biological property (biovar), antigenic variation (serovar), pathogenicity (pathovar), or susceptibility to particular bacterial viruses (phagovar). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Transferrins are iron-binding blood plasma glycoproteins that control the level of free iron (Fe) in biological fluids . (wikipedia.org)
  • The OM contains in the outer leaflet the lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a complex glycolipid with important biological functions. (caister.com)
  • A mammalian siderophore synthesized by an enzyme with a bacterial homolog involved in enterobactin production. (wikipathways.org)
  • We characterized the ability of seven analogs of enterobactin to supply iron via FepA by quantitatively measuring the binding and transport of their 59 Fe complexes. (asm.org)
  • Among the compounds we tested, only ferric enantioenterobactin, the synthetic, left-handed isomer of natural enterobactin, and ferric TRENCAM, which substitutes a tertiary amine for the macrocyclic lactone ring of ferric enterobactin but maintains an unsubstituted catecholate iron complex, were recognized by FepA ( K d ≈ 20 nM). (asm.org)
  • The hemochromatosis gene product complexes with the transferrin receptor and lowers its affinity for ligand binding. (wikipathways.org)
  • Furthermore, pre-exposure of GPCR transgenic pets to its ligand prospects to receptor desensitisation and behavioural version to following ligand publicity, providing further proof integration from the mammalian GPCRs in to the em C. elegans /em sensory signalling equipment. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Using em C. elegans /em to review em in vivo /em GPCR-ligand connections is an benefit because functional appearance of heterologous olfactory receptors in the AWA and AWB olfactory neurons provides previously been proven (Milani em et al /em ) [5] and our unpublished observations. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • The nociceptive neurons, ASH and ADL, travel repulsive reactions, [6] therefore receptor activation is usually reflected within an avoidance response on ligand publicity, which may be analysed using strong behavioural assays [7,8]. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Mouse CD1d has also been found to control the function of a subset of T lymphocytes expressing receptors for NK cells (NKT cells) in a ligand-independent fashion that could be, however, augmented by the presence of glycosylceramides ( 8 , 9 , 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • This entry represents the plug domain superfamily, which has been shown to be an independently folding subunit of the TonB-dependent receptors [ PMID: 15111112 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The encoded protein was predicted to bear an N-terminal hydrophobic signal peptide, a large extracellular domain and a C-terminal seven transmembrane domain that is characteristic of members of the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily ( Edgar, 2007 ). (biologists.org)
  • Three examples of general heme receptors, which can recognize numerous heme-containing substrates, are HmuR of Yersinia pestis , HemR of Yersinia enterocolitica, and HmuR of Porphyromonas gingivalis. (asmscience.org)
  • CCR5 is usually a chemokine receptor that binds MIP-1 (CCL3), MIP-1 (CCL4) and RANTES, and directs chemotactic reactions in leucocytes. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • This antibody was used to clone ompB1 , and sequence analysis suggested that OMP B1 is the M. catarrhalis homologue to the transferrin binding protein B described for pathogenic Neisseriaceae , Haemophilus influenzae , Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae , and M. catarrhalis . (asm.org)
  • BBB is physically located in endothelium of blood vessels (capillaries) and acts as a "physical barrier" due to formation of complex tight junctions between adjacent endothelial cells. (hindawi.com)
  • The cytokines generated by mesangial cells, endothelial cells, and podocytes that tridirectionally and interactively influence cognate receptors on receiver cells are not fully defined. (asnjournals.org)
  • the causative agents of gonorrhea and meningococcal meningitis, surface lipoproteins (SLPs) such as factor H-binding protein (fHbp) and transferrin binding protein B (TbpB) are required for virulence and are primary targets for broad-spectrum vaccine development since they elicit bactericidal antibodies. (utoronto.ca)
  • CAND1 binds to unneddylated CUL1 and regulates the formation of SCF ubiquitin E3 ligase complex. (wikipathways.org)
  • Transferrin contains two binding sites for ferric ion ( Fe 3+ ), one in both of its subunits. (turkupetcentre.net)
  • An unrooted phylogenetic tree of heme and hemoprotein receptors from Table 1 , excluding HbpA ( T. denticola ), Pap31 ( B. henselae ), HbpA ( B. quintana ), HxuA ( H. influenzae ), lipoprotein e ( H. influenzae ), and the gram-positive receptors, is shown. (asmscience.org)
  • The lipid A moiety of LOS, which has been classically termed endotoxin (as opposed to the bacterial exotoxins), is the portion that mediates the induction of inflammatory cytokines often seen in disease. (tailieu.vn)
  • Transferrin concentration in plasma is normally 2-4 g/L, and it is found in similar concentrations in extracellular fluids. (turkupetcentre.net)
  • This action of selectivity for example, cleaves extracellular bacterial resistance. (musicaenlamochila.net)
  • We propose that AMSH is a deubiquitinating enzyme with functions at the endosome, which oppose the ubiquitin-dependent sorting of receptors to lysosomes. (rupress.org)
  • The signal for endosomal sorting of many receptors is the covalent addition of ubiquitin mediated by a cognate E3 ligase. (rupress.org)
  • Deubiquitination itself is not mandatory for receptor sorting to the yeast vacuole, as ubiquitin can confer sorting after being fused in frame with a cargo protein ( Reggiori and Pelham, 2001 ), but it is required for maintenance of the free ubiquitin pool, upon which receptor trafficking depends. (rupress.org)
  • With physiological concentrations the cellular transferrin receptors are saturated. (turkupetcentre.net)
  • How do we use protein chemistry to capture complex organization and topography, and what is the best way to measure these context-sensitive chemistries from trace-level cellular extracts? (ucalgary.ca)