• Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA. (harvard.edu)
  • We then profiled the bacteria within OSCC lesion surface samples at the species level using next-generation sequencing to comprehensively investigate bacterial community composition and functional genes in these samples. (nature.com)
  • Courses in microbial genetics focus on the genetic phenomena and genetic changes in various microbes, such as bacteria or bacterial viruses. (study.com)
  • Bacterial endophytes are defined as bacteria that can be detected at a particular moment within the internal tissues of an apparently healthy host plant [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Quorum sensing is a phenomenon that allows both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria to sense one another and to regulate a wide variety of physiological activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • The goal of this project is to understand the system-wide changes in the proteome of model bacteria that exhibit the phenomenon of wax ester accumulation. (umn.edu)
  • The occurrence of live bacteria beyond the mucosal barrier is known as bacterial translocation. (tribunes.com)
  • Inflammation is a complex event linked to tissue damage whether by bacteria, physical trauma, chemical, heat or any other phenomenon. (mdpi.com)
  • Translocation of intestinal bacteria to ascitic fluid is probably the first step in the development of episodes of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with cirrhosis. (bmj.com)
  • 1, 2 SBP probably occurs as a consequence of repeated access of bacteria from the intestinal lumen through a haematogenous route reaching the mesenteric lymph nodes 3, 4 and, eventually, gaining access to ascitic fluid (AF) in a process that has been termed bacterial translocation (BT). (bmj.com)
  • Physiological studies of thermophilic anaerobic bacteria have shown that the ethanol yield decreases at increasing substrate concentration. (osti.gov)
  • He plans to develop new, physics-based nanometer-resolution tools to guide treatment of diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria and to improve understanding of how human and bacterial cells interact. (umass.edu)
  • The bacteria-targeted metagenomic analysis revealed different community compositions between the distinct physiological stages of those tested. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We found that bacterial communities located close together were more similar in composition than communities located farther apart, and we used the decay of community similarity with distance to show that bacteria can exhibit a taxa-area relationship. (nih.gov)
  • This significantly enlarged number of bacterial proteins known to be phosphorylated on Ser/Thr/Tyr residues strongly supports the emerging view that protein phosphorylation is a general and fundamental regulatory process, not restricted only to eukaryotes, and opens the way for its detailed functional analysis in bacteria. (mcponline.org)
  • Initial studies have revealed that bacteria use histidine/aspartate phosphorylation, mainly in their two-component systems, which represent a paradigm of bacterial signal transduction ( 6 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Chemotaxis , a kind of taxis , is the phenomenon in which bodily cells, bacteria , and other single-cell or multicellular organisms direct their movements according to certain chemicals in their environment. (wikidoc.org)
  • The researchers call bacterial proteins like Mfd "evolvability factors" because, by increasing mutation rates, they propel the evolution of bacteria. (eurekalert.org)
  • Many types of bacteria produce Mfd, an indication of its important physiological role in cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • restricting the bacterial count in the mouth, * by not letting any food particles accumulate so that the bacteria can decompose them. (tripod.com)
  • Cell-wall structure and growth dynamics are critical to our understanding of bacterial physiology and cell biology, with cell-wall architecture relevant for mechanical interactions with other cells as well as the local microenvironment. (pnas.org)
  • We now describe a detailed investigation into the synthetic biology of this man-made protein in a living bacterial organism, and the effect that this protein has on normal cell physiology. (elsevier.com)
  • Phage ecology additionally draws (extensively) from microbiology, particularly in terms of environmental microbiology, but also from an enormous catalog (90 years) of study of phage and phage-bacterial interactions in terms of their physiology and, especially, their molecular biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • We recently discovered that bacterial membranes organize their signal transduction pathways in functional membrane microdomains (FMMs) that are structurally and functionally similar to the eukaryotic lipid rafts. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Interestingly signaling via serine/threonine/tyrosine phosphorylation is often implicated in the regulation of bacterial virulence ( 12 ), and in some cases it is also known to interfere with eukaryotic signal transduction, thereby rendering the host more prone to infection ( 13 , 14 ). (mcponline.org)
  • However, microbial pathogenesis is often studied in mucus-free environments that lack the geometric constraints and microbial interactions in physiological three-dimensional mucus gels. (nih.gov)
  • The conditions of the vaginal ecosystem's environment is complicated by the proximity of the anus, where microbial proliferation, tight clothes, hindered transpiration, sebum production and area compression from the bodyweight in seated position create maceration phenomena and additional irritation conditions. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • This novel accumulation of polyP by C. humicola G-1 in response to acid pH provides further evidence as to the importance of polyP in the physiological adaptation of microbial cells during growth and development and in their response to environmental stresses. (asm.org)
  • 41 ]). PolyP may therefore play an important role in the physiological adaptation of microbial cells during growth and development and in their response to nutritional and environmental stresses ( 3 , 32 , 39 , 45 , 46 , 61 ). (asm.org)
  • As cell-to-cell communication occurs in diverse bacterial species, QS likely plays a role in the microbial ecology of foods [ 3 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • However, today a many cells could be adapted to 2 H 2 O either via employing a special methods of adaptation which of them we shall describe above, or using selected (or/and resistent to 2 H 2 O) strains of bacterial and other origin. (nasledie.ru)
  • Bacterial Physiological Phenomena" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • Therefore, it has been a challenge to develop a universal and common treatment against viral pathogens, in contrast to bacterial pathogens. (eurekaselect.com)
  • One specific physiological change was decreased activity in a key T cell that responds to pathogens and other threats to the host. (yale.edu)
  • Bacterial pathogens are also under positive selection by host immune clearance. (nibs.ac.cn)
  • However, it is not known whether bacterial pathogens have evolved any mechanism to deal with or counteract GBPs-mediated immune defenses. (nibs.ac.cn)
  • The epithelial barrier of the intestinal mucosa is essential for physiological homeostasis and represents one of the first lines of defense against pathogens and exogenous antigens. (karger.com)
  • Also, the data acquired in this research project seem to show that the role of Mfd in increasing mutations and promoting antibiotic resistance is highly conserved across bacterial species, and is not specific to only a few types of pathogens. (eurekalert.org)
  • - At the molecular level, to characterize the impact of lipids on host cell membranes and on membrane-associated effectors involved in crucial steps of the dialog between mycobacterial pathogens and host macrophages, namely phagocytosis, intracellular bacterial trafficking and induction of membrane damage. (ipbs.fr)
  • Usually the mucus secretion from nose is watery and colorless, greenish mucus secretion occurs when there is bacterial and viral infection of the sinuses. (tandurust.com)
  • The study for the first time identifies GBPs as the physiological substrate of the IpaH family of ubiquitin-ligase effectors during S. flexneri infection. (nibs.ac.cn)
  • We have contributed to demonstrate that complex specific lipids (amphiphilic glycolipids and hydrophobic compounds) that are loosely associated with the outermost bilayer of the bacterial cell wall modulate the protective host immune responses, specifically during the early steps of infection when the bacilli encounter macrophages. (ipbs.fr)
  • In the vast majority of bacterial species, the peptidoglycan cell wall is the component of the cell envelope that mechanically dictates cell shape ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • In contrast to traditional views, recent analyses suggest the involvement of a consortium of microbes, rather than a single species, as causing disease 8 , a phenomenon that has been well characterized for periodontal diseases 9 . (nature.com)
  • However, until recently, limited technical resources were available to study this interaction in detail: only a minority of the bacterial species constituting the microbiota could be cultured in vitro . (inserm.fr)
  • It thus identified a total of 3.3 million different genes, belonging to more than 1,000 different species, the vast majority of bacterial origin. (inserm.fr)
  • Lastly, MetaHIT was the first study to demonstrate the extreme wealth of the intestinal flora, by identifying certain as yet unknown bacterial species. (inserm.fr)
  • A set of 11 strains of Brevundimonas alba were isolated from a bacterial freshwater community by conventional plating or by using a liquid most-probable-number (MPN) dilution series. (asm.org)
  • Since the discovery of the typical CRISPR loci in the 1980s, well before their physiological role was revealed, their variable sequences have been used as a complementary typing tool in diagnostic, epidemiologic, and evolutionary analyses of prokaryotic strains. (asm.org)
  • This work reports the isolation and identification of a novel aerobic Geobacillus strain XT15 capable of producing both of these chemicals under elevated temperatures, thus reducing the risk of bacterial contamination. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This regulatory mobility enables bacterial genes to access a vast pool of potential regulatory elements, facilitating efficient exploration of the regulatory landscape. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we show that bacterial genes can rapidly shift between multiple regulatory modes by acquiring functionally divergent nonhomologous promoter regions. (pnas.org)
  • Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) genes are present in many bacterial and archaeal genomes. (asm.org)
  • His innovative biophysical studies are making important fundamental contributions to the understanding of basic biological phenomena and the Burroughs Wellcome Fund career award offers him the opportunity to develop a new field of inquiry in pathogenic microbiology. (umass.edu)
  • In the mid 1910s, when phage were first discovered, the concept of phage was very much a whole-culture phenomenon (like much of microbiology), where various types of bacterial cultures (on solid media, in broth) were visibly cleared by phage action. (wikipedia.org)
  • This shift, paralleled in much of the rest of microbiology , represented a retreat from a much more ecological view of phages (first as bacterial killers, and then as organisms unto themselves). (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of peritoneal macrophages to synthesise nitric oxide and levels of all cytokines were significantly increased in patients with bacterial DNA. (bmj.com)
  • These physiological alterations were in part caused by an unusual stabilization of the raft-associated protease FtsH. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • These animals received 70% of the amount of food consumed by the healthy control group and exhibited physiological alterations compatible with malnutrition, including body weight loss, reduced levels of triglycerides and glucose, and reduced lymphocyte numbers. (hindawi.com)
  • The deficiency as well as toxicity of Se and the deficiency of vitamin E caused several alterations in the physiological functions of the tissues, and these alterations were supported by the histological lesions within these tissues. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Other viscous polymer solutions did not match the biofilm disruption caused by mucins, suggesting that mucin-specific properties mediate the phenomenon. (nih.gov)
  • We investigate this phenomenon by combining a population dynamic analysis with in vitro experiments. (asm.org)
  • Several studies have shown the immunogenic role of bacterial DNA in vitro, and we hypothesised that the presence of bacterial DNA could activate the type I immune response in peritoneal macrophages from these patients, leading to greater cytokine synthesis (interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-12, tumour necrosis factor α, and interferon γ) and effector molecules such as nitric oxide. (bmj.com)
  • This review refers to 63 bacterial families of which the following stood out: Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Apocynaceae and Celastraceae, with their countries, parts used, types of extract used, model bioassays, organisms tested and their activity. (mdpi.com)
  • As there exist estimates of bacterial numbers on Earth of approximately 1030, there consequently is an expectation that 1031 or more individual virus (mostly phage) particles exist , making phages the most numerous category of "organisms" on our planet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through analysis of 270,000 regulatory regions across 247 genomes, we demonstrate that regulatory "switching" to nonhomologous alternatives is ubiquitous, occurring across the bacterial domain. (pnas.org)
  • Extraction, purification and identification of bacterial signal molecules based on N-acyl homoserine lactones. (nih.gov)
  • There are many different kinds of signal molecules in the bacterial community.In this article, different methods, including extraction, purification and characterization of HSLs, are reviewed.The review provides an insight into identification and characterization of new HSLs and other signal molecules for bacterial intercellular communication. (nih.gov)
  • To unravel the connections underlying oral bacterial dysbiosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), cancer lesion samples and anatomically matched normal samples were obtained from the same patients. (nature.com)
  • Virus-host interaction is a complex phenomenon and often is virus- and host cell-specific. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Much is known about one mechanism that leads to this behavior, termed bacterial programmed cell death . (asmblog.org)
  • The volume of wax esters produced by the bacterial cell is significantly higher during conditions of nitrogen starvation, when all other media components are identical. (umn.edu)
  • The physiological changes that occur upon expression of this mutant protein-including loss of membrane potential, chromosome condensation and fragmentation, exposure of phosphatidylserine on the cell surface, and membrane blebbing-point to a PCD mechanism. (asm.org)
  • Importantly, key regulators and executioners of known bacterial PCD pathways were shown not to influence this cell death program. (asm.org)
  • Collectively, our results suggest that the cell death pathway described in this work constitutes a new mode of bacterial PCD. (asm.org)
  • We here demonstrate the existence of a bacterial PCD pathway that induces characteristics that are strikingly reminiscent of eukaryotic apoptosis, such as fragmentation of DNA, exposure of phosphatidylserine on the cell surface, and membrane blebbing. (asm.org)
  • In conclusion, our results indicate that LBP associates with chylomicrons and enables chylomicrons to rapidly bind bacterial toxin, thereby preventing cell activation. (jimmunol.org)
  • The exact physiological function of polyP remains uncertain, although various biological functions have been demonstrated, including as a reservoir of energy and phosphate ( 32 ), a chelator of divalent cations ( 30 ), a capsule material ( 54 ), and a "channelling" agent in the phenomenon of bacterial transformation ( 32 , 48 ). (asm.org)
  • this phenomenon is the basis of the biotechnologically important wastewater treatment process designated Enhanced Biological Phosphate Removal (reviewed by VanLoosdrecht et al. (asm.org)
  • Despite these, the biological function and physiological substrate of the IpaH family are still not known. (nibs.ac.cn)
  • In a new study, they tracked a lifetime of physiological changes experienced by mice given a liquid solution containing the stress hormone glucocorticoid while in the womb or soon after birth. (yale.edu)
  • Medzhitov and first author Jun Young Hun , also of Yale, catalogued a host of physiological changes that occurred in mice given glucocorticoids and that had serious consequences for the rest of their lives. (yale.edu)
  • A much higher proportion of undernourished mice exhibited bacterial dissemination to the lymph nodes, spleen and liver. (hindawi.com)
  • In mice, the P2X7 receptors are also activated by physiological concentrations of NAD [ 8 ]. (karger.com)
  • The presence of bacterial DNA in patients with decompensated cirrhosis is associated with marked activation of peritoneal macrophages, as evidenced by nitric oxide synthesising ability, together with enhanced cytokine production. (bmj.com)
  • The Division of Applied Mathematics is an established leader in research on mathematical modeling for physical and physiological, multi-scale fluid mechanics. (brown.edu)