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  • residues
  • However many of these proteins are not peptidases and are classified as non-peptidase homologues as they either have been found experimentally to be without peptidase activity, or lack amino acid residues that are believed to be essential for the catalytic activity of peptidases in the S43 family. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell membranes
  • Major oral pathogens in the phylum Bacteroidetes , such as Porphyromonas gingivalis , export these proteins across two cell membranes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The former have a single bilayer with an enveloping peptidoglycan cell wall protecting the bacterium, whereas the latter have two cell membranes separated by a periplasm region, within which is the cell wall. (gatech.edu)
  • FepA
  • Because no energy is directly available to the outer membrane, the energy to drive the transport of ferric-enterobactin by FepA originates from the proton motive force (electrochemical gradient) generated by the inner membrane complex TonB-ExbB-ExbD. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • The AAEAP units form a repeating epitope that comprises the entire predicted sequence of the protein. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Bairoch, A., Apweiler, R.: The SWISS-PROT protein sequence database and its supplement TrEMBL. (springer.com)
  • Although the degree of sequence similarity of these proteins is not very high they share a number of characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many proteins like FGF1 (aFGF), FGF2 (bFGF), interleukin-1 (IL1) etc. which do not have a signal sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process begins as a leader sequence HlyA is recognized and binds HlyB on the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the sequence, the N terminus is highly conserved and hydrophobic, suggesting that this terminus is embedded within the membrane, with 6-8 transmembrane (TM) domains, while the C terminus is less conserved and appears to be devoid of TM regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • pores
  • The secreted YopB and YopD translocator proteins are essential for this process, forming pores in biological membranes through which the effectors are thought to gain access to the cell interior. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Surprisingly, this occurred in the absence of detectable YopB- and YopD-dependent pores in eukaryotic membranes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Some porins form general diffusion channels that allow any solute up to a certain size (that size is known as the exclusion limit) to cross the membrane, while other porins are specific for one particular solute and contain a binding site for that solute inside the pores (these are known as selective porins). (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, proteins can be released from cells by mechanical or physiological wounding and through nonlethal, transient oncotic pores in the plasma membrane induced by washing cells with serum-free media or buffers. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is possible that members of the FHIPEP family serve as pores for the export of specific proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • transporter
  • To get energy for this task, they utilize an inner membrane protein, TonB, that couples across the periplasm to an outer membrane transporter for import of, e.g., vitamin B12 or iron extracted from human transferrin. (gatech.edu)
  • We have proposed that energy is transduced through a mechanical coupling between the inner and outer membrane complexes, supported by simulations that demonstrate the strength of the TonB-transporter connection mediated by hydrogen bonds, as well as the response of the transporter to the application of force. (gatech.edu)
  • The auto-transporter consists of two domains, a membrane-bound barrel at the C-terminus and a secreted domain at the N-terminus. (gatech.edu)
  • Coupling of calcium and substrate binding through loop alignment in the outer membrane transporter BtuB. (gatech.edu)
  • We propose that these two proteins, which we have renamed LptF and LptG, respectively, are the missing transmembrane components of the ABC transporter that, together with LptB, functions to extract LPS from the IM en route to the OM. (pnas.org)
  • The lipid A-core moiety and the O-antigen repeat units are synthesized at the cytoplasmic face of the inner membrane and are separately exported via two independent transport systems, namely, the O-antigen transporter Wzx (RfbX) and the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter MsbA that flips the lipid A-core moiety from the inner leaflet to the outer leaflet of the inner membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipid
  • In contrast, the OM is typically an asymmetric lipid bilayer where the inner leaflet is composed of phospholipids and the outer leaflet is composed mainly of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Φ6 and its relatives have a lipid membrane around their nucleocapsid, a rare trait among bacteriophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • This means that the non-polar residues face outwards so as to interact with the non-polar lipid membrane, whereas the polar residues face inwards into the center of the β-barrel to form the aqueous channel. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunity
  • In 2010 he received the NWO Spinoza Prize for the elucidation of the three-dimensional structure of the C3 protein, which plays a central role in the complement system and contributes to innate immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • PMID
  • MotB (and MotA) serves two functions in E. coli, the MotA(4)-MotB(2) complex attaches to the cell wall via MotB to form the stator of the flagellar motor, and the MotA-MotB complex couples the flow of ions across the cell membrane to movement of the rotor [ PMID: 17052729 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Protein TpN50 from Treponema pallidum [ PMID: 8112835 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Vibrio parahaemolyticus sodium-type flagellar protein motY [ PMID: 8636046 , PMID: 15866878 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • phage
  • Based on phage adsorption, phage plaque formation, affinity chromatography, and Western blot assays, the outer membrane proteins of Y. pestis Ail and OmpF were identified to be involved, in addition to the rough lipopolysaccharide, in the adsorption of Yep-phi. (asm.org)
  • The observations highlight the importance of the tail fiber protein in the evolution and function of various complex phage systems and provide insights into phage-bacterium interactions. (asm.org)
  • Nevertheless, renewed interest in phage therapy has grown over the past decade due to the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens ( 7 , 8 ), with several phages shown to be effective in treating various bacterial infections ( 5 , 9 ). (asm.org)
  • Fusion of the viral envelope with the bacterial outer membrane is facilitated by the phage protein, P6. (wikipedia.org)
  • The completed phage progeny remain in the cytosol until sufficient levels of the lytic protein P5 degrade the host cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cytosol then bursts forth, disrupting the outer membrane, releasing the phage. (wikipedia.org)
  • The phage protein Lom is expressed during lysogeny, and encode host-cell envelope proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • inner leaflet
  • While it possesses the typical two-tailed phospholipids in its inner leaflet, the outer leaflet is composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). (gatech.edu)
  • amino acid
  • OspA and OspB share 53% amino acid identity and likely have a similar antiparallel "free-standing" β sheet protein structure associated with the outer membrane surface via a lipidated NH2-terminal cysteine residue. (wikipedia.org)