• To determine the frequency and magnitude of Th1 cytokine responses elicited to C. trachomatis infection in humans, we stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 90 chlamydia-infected women with C. trachomatis elementary bodies, Pgp3, and major outer membrane protein and measured IFN-γ-, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-, and interleukin-2 (IL-2)-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses using intracellular cytokine staining. (uab.edu)
  • The IM is composed of phospholipids, integral transmembrane (TM) proteins that span the IM with α-helical TM domains, and lipoproteins ( 3 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • OM lipoproteins interact with the ABC transporter LolCDE, which extracts them from the IM and passes these proteins to the periplasmic chaperone LolA for delivery to LolB at the OM ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • To determine whether or not LolA is generally involved in the outer membrane localization of lipoproteins in vivo, the chromosomal lolA gene was manipulated so as to be controlled by the lac promoter-operator. (nih.gov)
  • Although LolA depletion did not immediately arrest the growth of cells lacking Lpp, disruption of the chromosomal lolA gene was lethal to the lpp strain, indicating that LolA is generally required for the outer membrane localization of lipoproteins, and therefore essential irrespective of the presence or absence of Lpp. (nih.gov)
  • Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 has been identified as the primary receptor for enteric LPS, whereas TLR2 has been implicated as the receptor for Gram-positive and fungal cell wall components and for bacterial, mycobacterial, and spirochetal lipoproteins. (jimmunol.org)
  • Vertebrates and invertebrates initiate a series of defense mechanisms in response to infection by various microorganisms by sensing the presence of conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns, such as bacterial LPS or lipoproteins ( 5 , 13 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Trafficking of N. meningitidis lipoproteins to the outer bacterial membrane determines which antigens are available for immune recognition. (asbmb.org)
  • For example, certain virulence factors are secreted through the use of so-called "auto-transporters", proteins that export themselves! (gatech.edu)
  • The translocation and assembly module (TAM) is a nanomachine required for virulence of bacterial pathogens. (monash.edu)
  • A sensor protein ChvG is part of a chromosomally encoded two-component regulatory system ChvG/ChvI that is important for the virulence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens . (pnas.org)
  • 10 ) used Tn phoA to identify insertion mutations in genes that encode proteins with extracytoplasmic domains, the rationale being that certain virulence determinants are likely to be associated with the cell envelope. (pnas.org)
  • The outer membrane has been a major focus for the identification of leptospiral virulence-associated factors. (asm.org)
  • Bacterial sRNAs effect how genes are expressed within bacterial cells via interaction with mRNA or protein, and thus can effect a variety of bacterial functions like metabolism, virulence, environmental stress response, and structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely, the lateral extracellular opening is blocked by the PorV protein in the PorV complex but accessible in the Plug complex. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The protein has a number of 'extracellular loops' that extend into the environment, but their roles in the structure and the activity of LptD are still largely unknown. (elifesciences.org)
  • built a library of over 3,000 custom antibodies, which are small Y-shaped proteins that can each recognise a specific portion in one of the extracellular loops and potentially incapacitate LptD. (elifesciences.org)
  • Iron is one target of gram-negative bacterial cell envelope transport systems, and microbes elaborate high-affinity siderophores that complex extracellular iron ( 70 ). (asm.org)
  • Vibrio mimicus (Vm) haemagglutinins (HAs), such as an extracellular HA/protease (Vm-HA/protease) and a major outer membrane protein-HA (Vm-OMPHA), have been recognized as the putative adherence factors for the bacterium. (elsevier.com)
  • however, we provide strong evidence that X. fastidiosa secretes wild-type XfYgiT into the extracellular environment via outer membrane vesicles, as confirmed by Western blotting and specific immunofluorescence labeling visualized by fluorescence microscopy. (frontiersin.org)
  • Because ChvG regulates unlinked acid-inducible genes encoding different functions in different ways, we hypothesize that ChvG is a global sensor protein that can directly or indirectly sense extracellular acidity. (pnas.org)
  • Do the amino acid sequence identities of residues that make contact across protein interfaces covary during evolution? (elifesciences.org)
  • A transient expression of HsdM-EGFP in COS-1 cells exhibited exclusively a nuclear localization of the fusion proteins, whereas the fusion proteins of HsdM with substitutions in residues lysine to alanine in the NLS sequences, 7 AAAKAAA 13 , were localized in the cytoplasm. (springer.com)
  • FHIPEP proteins have all about 700 amino acid residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • A key step in oxidative protein folding is the formation of disulfide bonds, which covalently link the side chains of pairs of Cys residues, impart thermodynamic and mechanical stability to proteins, and control protein folding and activity [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • PDI directly transfers a disulfide to two Cys residues of a substrate protein by means of a thiol-disulfide exchange reaction. (hindawi.com)
  • The exclusive detection of PTMs on lysine residues within LipL32 from in vivo-isolated L. interrogans implies that infection-generated modification of leptospiral proteins may have a biologically relevant function during the course of infection. (nih.gov)
  • The structurally characterized members of this functional superfamily usually consist of homotrimeric proteins with subunits that are of 250-450 amino acyl residues in length. (tcdb.org)
  • With the survey of experimentally known amino acid sequences and structures, the characteristic features of amino acid residues in β-barrel membrane proteins and novel parameters for understanding their folding and stability have been described by Gromiha and Suwa ( 2007 ). (tcdb.org)
  • Bacterial outer membrane proteins have a distinctive beta barrel architecture in which a sheet of polypeptide strands forms a membrane-spanning tubular structure surrounding a water-filled pore. (ox.ac.uk)
  • However, SprA has 36 polypeptide strands, forming an internal pore that is two and a half times larger in cross sectional area than its nearest contender, and easily large enough to allow the passage of the proteins exported by the T9SS. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The molecular architecture of a 2D crystalline protein barrier with nano-scale pores necessarily affects the diffusion behavior of low-concentration solutes even if they are significantly smaller than the pore size [ 11 , 12 , 13 ]. (nature.com)
  • Here we describe computational methods to model amyloid ion channels containing the β-sheet motif at atomic scale and to calculate toxic pore activity in the membrane. (springer.com)
  • Then, insertion of the C-terminal translocator domain in the outer membrane forms a hydrophilic pore for the translocation of the passenger domain to the bacterial cell surface. (rcsb.org)
  • Chen, Min , Khalid, Syma , Sansom, Mark S.P. and Bayley, Hagan (2008) Outer membrane protein G: engineering a quiet pore for biosensing. (soton.ac.uk)
  • The nanocomposite matrices were optimized for SDS-PAGE with water-soluble molecular weight marker proteins. (scialert.net)
  • Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis ( SDS-PAGE ) is a versatile technique used to separate proteins based on their molecular weight differences ( Chrambach and Rodbard, 1971 ). (scialert.net)
  • The success of SDS-PAGE relies on the expectation that all proteins in the analyte have nearly equal detergent loading and adopt similar shapes after SDS treatment as that of the molecular weight marker proteins used for calibration ( Chrambach and Rodbard, 1971 ). (scialert.net)
  • Molecular basis for activation of a catalytic asparagine residue in a self-cleaving bacterial autotransporter. (gatech.edu)
  • The reconstituted system provides a powerful new means to study molecular movements in biological membranes, and the technology is widely applicable to studying the dynamics of diverse cellular nanomachines. (monash.edu)
  • Atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are capable of providing insight into structural details of amyloid ion channels in the membrane at a resolution not achievable experimentally. (springer.com)
  • We investigate the molecular mechanisms by which the various mitochondrial outer membrane proteins are targeted to mitochondria, inserted into the outer membrane and assembled into functional complexes within the membrane. (uni-tuebingen.de)
  • To this end we combine methods from chemistry, biochemistry and molecular biology to probe a wide range of chromatin factors including chromatin binding proteins and histone-modifying enzymes. (uni-tuebingen.de)
  • Molecular Dynamics Simulations of an Engineered T4 Lysozyme Exclude Helix to Sheet Transition, and Provide Insights into Long Distance, Intra‐Protein Switchable Motion. (psc.edu)
  • Bacterial isolates are recovered from sputum and are subjected to molecular typing. (buffalo.edu)
  • Selective molecular communication between disulfide-generating enzymes and disulfide carrier proteins, which reflects the molecular and structural diversity of disulfide carrier proteins, is key to the efficient transfer of disulfides to specific sets of substrates. (hindawi.com)
  • An article in Molecular & Cellular Proteomics introduced a database of protein-protein interactions within herpesvirus-1. (asbmb.org)
  • Autoradiography of the polypeptide profiles identified a major surface protein with an apparent subunit molecular weight of 39,500 that was common to each C. trachomatis serotype. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (uniprot.org)
  • They consist of two protein components: a sensor that monitors some environmental parameter and a response regulator that mediates a change in gene expression in response to sensor signals. (pnas.org)
  • 2003. A Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium translocated leucine-rich repeat effector protein inhibits NF-κB-dependent gene expression. (springer.com)
  • The great diversity in outer membrane protein genes is thought to originate from gene duplication events, followed by the fusion and fission of resulting paralogs of the gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • These different copies and fragments of membrane proteins can then recombine, through a process called gene conversion, resulting in a new gene variant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reversible protein phosphorylation is a well-established mechanism of regulating gene expression in response to a variety of environmental stress factors ( 13 ) and in recent years, growing evidence has linked two-component systems as well as serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase signaling to AMR ( 13 ⇓ - 15 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Vitamin A had the greatest effect on the structure of the bacterial community and gene expression. (sciencemag.org)
  • 192, 149-157 (2003) The Journal of DOI: Membrane Biology 9 Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 2003 Topical Review R.J. Turner Membrane Biology Section, Gene Therapy and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, DHHS, 10 Center Drive MSC 1190, Bethesda MD 20892, USA Received: 17 September 2002 Introduction detail and it is this process that concerns us here. (deepdyve.com)
  • This volume concludes with a focus on computational and comparative genomics approaches, especially network-based methods for predicting physical or functional interactions, and integrative analytical approaches for generating more reliable information on bacterial gene function. (springer.com)
  • It is possible to analyze the whole gene expression of a bacterial pathogen during its interaction with the host. (asm.org)
  • The feasibility of this approach, however, depends upon the ability to recover biologically relevant bacterial RNA, and serious consideration should be given to prevent gene expression changes associated with preparative procedures ( 6 , 10 ). (asm.org)
  • This approach did not require time-consuming steps that can affect bacterial gene expression but creates other technical issues for microarray analysis, as human RNA can compete with bacterial RNA during cDNA synthesis and labeling, limit the amount of bacterial RNA that can be used, and impede accurate quantitation of bacterial RNA. (asm.org)
  • The e (P4) outer membrane protein of Haemophilus influenzae: biologic activity of anti-e serum and cloning and sequencing of the structural gene. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Nuclease colicins such as ColE9 ( brown ) contain a hairpin receptor-binding (R−) domain, an N-terminal translocation (T−) domain that includes the intrinsically unstructured translocation domain (IUTD), shown as a dotted line, and a C-terminal cytotoxic DNase domain to which is bound the immunity protein Im9 ( yellow ). (nih.gov)
  • Dr Joel Selkrig (Lithgow Lab) and colleagues have discovered a novel protein transport system, the translocation and assembly module (TAM). (edu.au)
  • most of these proteins occurs with the assistance of a In what follows I begin with a simplified de- large complex of translocation/insertion machinery. (deepdyve.com)
  • The Gram-negative bacterial cell wall component lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is recognized by the noncanonical inflammasome protein caspase-11 in the cytosol of infected host cells and thereby prompts an inflammatory immune response linked to sepsis. (asm.org)
  • In contrast, the OM is typically an asymmetric lipid bilayer where the inner leaflet is composed of phospholipids and the outer leaflet is composed mainly of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a unique glycolipid that paves the outer leaflet of the OM. (mdpi.com)
  • The OM is an essential structure that has been extensively studied over the last half century in Proteobacteria phylum and particularly in Enterobacteriaceae , it possesses a peculiar asymmetric structure due to the presence of a complex glycolipid, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS), in the outer leaflet of the lipid bilayer, whereas the inner leaflet is composed of phospholipids. (mdpi.com)
  • The Impact of 18 Ancestral and Horizontally-Acquired Regulatory Proteins upon the Transcriptome and sRNA Landscape of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium PLoS Genetics, 12, e1006258. (unam.mx)
  • The best-studied multi-MCE domain-containing protein is multivalent adhesion molecule 7 (MAM-7) in Vibrio parahaemolyticus , which is an orthologue of YebT. (nature.com)
  • This membrane contains a diverse set of proteins that are synthesized in the cytosol and harbor signals that are essential for their subsequent import into mitochondria. (uni-tuebingen.de)
  • This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and functions of the various disulfide transfer pathways involved in oxidative protein folding in the ER, chloroplasts, and mitochondria of plants. (hindawi.com)
  • Vibrio parahaemolyticus sodium-type flagellar protein motY [ PMID: 8636046 , PMID: 15866878 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The NRLBM gives access to a collection of over 10,000 bacterial isolates form patients and carriers and of human clinical specimen (liquor and serum). (amc.nl)
  • Protein band of 69 kDa was present only in four of the field isolates and vaccine strain whereas OMP with 43 kDa was detected in only four of the field isolates and absent in remaining field isolates and vaccine strain. (scialert.net)
  • The anti-e polyclonal serum cross-reacted with e protein in multiple clinical NT H. influenzae isolates. (semanticscholar.org)
  • LipL41 is encoded on the large chromosome 28 bp upstream of a small open reading frame encoding a hypothetical protein of unknown function. (asm.org)
  • Genetic, multi-omic, and pharmacologic analyses indicated that retinol treatment affected B. vulgatus fitness through the activity of the bacterial AcrAB-TolC efflux system. (sciencemag.org)
  • A TolC-Like Protein Is Required for Heterocyst Development in Anabaena sp. (asm.org)
  • Membrane proteins are the key components of cell membranes responsible for a range of structural, regulatory, transportation, energy utilization and enzymatic functions. (scialert.net)
  • Imaging bacterial cells in which the native SprA protein was tagged with a fluorescent dye showed that there are only around ten copies of the protein in a cell. (ox.ac.uk)
  • MAM-7 is reported to be an integral outer membrane protein on the cell surface that acts as an adhesin by binding to mammalian cells via phosphatidic acid and fibronectin 22 . (nature.com)
  • The activity of the latter constructs, which localized GFP in the cytoplasm and TonB in the cell envelope, indicate that the TonB N terminus remains in the inner membrane during its biological function. (asm.org)
  • Together, these findings infer that the TonB N terminus remains associated with the inner membrane, while the downstream region bridges the cell envelope from the affinity of the C terminus for peptidoglycan. (asm.org)
  • It is essential for bacterial cell viability and plays an integral function in the positioning and folding of other outer membrane proteins into the bacterial outer membrane. (maynoothuniversity.ie)
  • Combining our data with observations made with bacteriophage-lambda we conclude that the sugar residence time is much more sensitive to (and is decreased by) voltages that are negative from the intra-cell side of the bacterial membrane. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Monsonego A, Zota V, Karni A, Krieger JI, Bar-Or A, Bitan G, Budson AE, Sperling R, Selkoe DJ, Weiner HL (2003) Increased T cell reactivity to amyloid beta protein in older humans and patients with Alzheimer disease. (springer.com)
  • Virus (blue) binding to a cell membrane (grey) with receptors (orange). (uni-tuebingen.de)
  • In addition, based on their structure, we try to deduce how receptor proteins on the cell surface do their jobs of relaying information from the outside to the inside of the cell. (uni-tuebingen.de)
  • 2000. A bacterial toxin that controls cell cycle progression as a deoxyribonuclease I-like protein. (springer.com)
  • Three characterized MDR transporters of P. aeruginosa are known to share this structure, which consists of (i) an inner membrane pump-proton antiporter of the resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) family (e.g. (asm.org)
  • Collagen-binding outer membrane protein forming a fibrillar matrix on the bacterial cell surface. (rcsb.org)
  • Environmentally induced perturbations in cell membrane structure may result in significant disturbance of some physiological functions. (hindawi.com)
  • As a result it has a thinner cell wall with an outer membrane largely composed of LPS. (kenyon.edu)
  • The present invention relates to Chimeric Antigen Receptors (CAR) that are recombinant chimeric proteins able to redirect immune cell specificity and. (patents.com)
  • This cellular exoskeleton is the main structure responsible for the cell shape and the mechanical strength and elasticity of the bacterial envelope [ 10 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Exactly how they are assembled onto the bacterial cell surface remains contentious. (edu.au)
  • At this moment he is Associate Professor in Medical Microbiology, head of the Laboratory for Experimental Bacteriology and head of the Netherlands Reference Laboratory for Bacterial Meningitis (all at the Dept. of Medical Microbiology, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam). (amc.nl)
  • In collaborative studies with Dr. D. van de Beek (Department of Neurology, AMC) we investigate clinical aspects of bacterial meningitis as well correlation between clinical features, outcome and host and bacterial factors. (amc.nl)
  • Enterococcus faecalis is a commensal organism in the gastrointestinal tract, but can form dangerous biofilms on implanted medical devices that can lead to complications like bacterial meningitis. (asbmb.org)
  • Microglia are immune cells in the brain that respond to bacterial meningitis by launching an inflammatory response. (asbmb.org)
  • The cause of meningitis is sometimes diagnosed by measuring the amount of protein in a spinal tap to find out whether the blood-brain barrier is intact. (asbmb.org)
  • Therefore, 7-HOCA could serve as a secondary diagnostic marker for bacterial meningitis and related conditions. (asbmb.org)
  • Despite exceptional sequence diversity, S-layer proteins (SLPs) share important characteristics such as their ability to form crystalline sheets punctuated with nano-scale pores, and their propensity for charged amino acids, leading to acidic or basic isoelectric points. (nature.com)
  • Proteins are strings of amino acids that have folded into a specific three-dimensional shape. (elifesciences.org)
  • noticed that when a pair of amino acids (one from each protein in a two-protein complex) co-varied, these two amino acids tended to make contact with each other at the protein-protein interface. (elifesciences.org)
  • Different methods including hydrophobicity profiles, rule based approach, amino acid properties, neural networks, hidden Markov models etc., predict membrane spanning segments of β-barrel membrane proteins. (tcdb.org)
  • He has served as the chair of the Gordon Research Seminar on Membranes: Materials & Processes in 2016 and won the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Science to Achieve Results (STAR) fellowship from 2014-2016. (rsc.org)