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  • bacteria
  • Symbiosis between legumes and Rhizobium bacteria leads to the formation of root nodules where bacteria in the infected plant cells are converted into nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. (pnas.org)
  • During bacteroid maturation, repeated DNA replication without cytokinesis results in extensive amplification of the entire bacterial genome and elongation of bacteria. (pnas.org)
  • In contrast, bacteroids in determinate nodules of the nongalegoid legumes lotus and bean are comparable to free-living bacteria in their genomic DNA content, cell size, and viability. (pnas.org)
  • The bacteria within the nodule cells gain the ability to fix nitrogen gas by means of their nitrogenase enzyme complex and supply the host plant with the reduced nitrogen for plant growth. (pnas.org)
  • This mechanism lets the cell control multiple pathways with a single regulator, which is useful when bacteria have to respond rapidly, such as during the stress they undergo when treated with antibiotics. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Because Obg is universally conserved and essential, its function has impacts on all bacteria, including bacterial pathogens, and constitutes a potential target for antibiotic therapy. (grantome.com)
  • Professor Viollier's laboratory at the University of Geneva's (UNIGE) Faculty of Medicine has just unraveled the secrets of capsule formation during the cellular cycle and perhaps even identified potential Achilles' heel of bacteria. (phys.org)
  • Researchers take advantage of this feature to obtain populations of synchronized bacteria that can be used to study specific cell cycle processes. (phys.org)
  • A key theory of the cell cycle of asymmetric bacteria, which has prevailed for the last ten years, has been disproved by a combined approach using mathematical modelling and genetic experiments. (phys.org)
  • Just as higher forms of life have evolved a complex mitotic apparatus to partition duplicated DNA during cell division, bacteria require a specialized apparatus to partition their duplicated DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • In bacteria, which lack a cell nucleus, the cell cycle is divided into the B, C, and D periods. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells do not reproduce in synchrony without explicit and continual prompting (as in experiments with stalked bacteria ) and their exponential phase growth is often not ever a constant rate, but instead a slowly decaying rate, a constant stochastic response to pressures both to reproduce and to go dormant in the face of declining nutrient concentrations and increasing waste concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial chromosome replication is best understood in the well-studied bacteria Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research on B. subtilis has been at the forefront of bacterial molecular biology and cytology, and the organism is a model for differentiation, gene/protein regulation, and cell cycle events in bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • Many of the regulatory mechanisms and pathways in the C. crescentus cell-cycle circuit operate very rapidly so that they approximate discrete switching elements, whereas others, e.g., the transcriptional regulatory networks, operate relatively slowly. (pnas.org)
  • Joanne Lau, a microbiology doctoral student, and her advisor Peter Chien in the Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Dept. at UMass Amherst, report how two molecular pathways, protein degradation and phosphorylation, work together to ensure normal bacterial growth, in a recent early online edition of Molecular Cell. (technologynetworks.com)
  • occurs
  • Together with the finding that capsule is not produced at the division site in cpsD and cpsC mutants, these data show that CPS production occurs exclusively at mid-cell and is tightly dependent on CpsD interaction with CpsC. (vanopijnenlab.com)
  • The B period occurs between the completion of cell division and the beginning of DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aside from classical apoptosis, signs of cellular senescence has also been observed in normal and cancer cell lines (fibroblasts, HeLa and U2-OS) after CDT intoxication In lymphocytes, cell death occurs quickly and is not preceded by significant cytoplasmic distension. (wikipedia.org)
  • Providing no mutational event occurs, the resulting daughter cells are genetically identical to the original cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hence, "local doubling" of the bacterial population occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • These assembly stages are regulated to ensure that chromosome replication occurs only once in each cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • The symbiotic plant cells in both nodule types are polyploid because of several cycles of endoreduplication (genome replication without mitosis and cytokinesis) and grow consequently to extreme sizes. (pnas.org)
  • apoptosis
  • Affected cells die by apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This paper was followed by a 1999 publication in Infectious Immunity, which demonstrated that H. ducreyi CDT causes cell death via apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • it is often a biochemical alternative to the self-destruction of such a damaged cell by apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chk2 as well as ATR/ATM can activate p53 which leads to permanent cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitotic
  • In contrast, cell division activity in the indeterminate nodules is maintained and forms an apical meristem (nodule zone I). Because the size of the meristem is constant, cell division activity and production of new sets of meristematic cells are balanced with the exit of the same number of cells from the mitotic cell cycle. (pnas.org)
  • The word "post-mitotic" is sometimes used to refer to both quiescent and senescent cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some cells enter the G0 phase semi-permanently and are considered post-mitotic, e.g., some liver, kidney, and stomach cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • biology
  • Researchers from the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at the UAB and from the United Kingdom, for the first time describe the mechanism used by cells to optimise protein production in stressful situations through the altering of tRNA abundance. (technologynetworks.com)
  • How cell cycle events are controlled with growth remains an important and perhaps the most important, outstanding question in prokaryotic biology. (grantome.com)
  • All eukaryotic cells possess Obg, too-its function may be essential for mitochondria-and therefore its role in eukaryotic cell biology will be important to understand and will be facilitated by studies first in prokaryotes. (grantome.com)
  • Stanford Center for Cell Biology is live! (skotheimlab.com)
  • What she and her students discovered overturned accepted beliefs about bacterial cell biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory
  • Professor Patrick Viollier's team studies how cells produce the capsule at the right time and just identified some of the underlying regulatory mechanisms. (phys.org)
  • Accumulating evidence supported by functional and biochemical studies suggests that phospho-regulatory mechanisms also take place during the bacterial cell cycle. (frontiersin.org)
  • crescentus
  • Aspects of the cyclical circuit that drives progression of the C. crescentus cell cycle are described in recent papers ( 1 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • The active form of diguanylate cyclase PleD localizes to the stalked pole of differentiating C. crescentus cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • time-lapse
  • B) Representative time-lapse images of wild-type cells with TetR-YFP-labeled origins of replication. (nih.gov)
  • C) Representative time-lapse images at 10-minute intervals with phase-contrast and epifluorescence images of wild-type or Δ pleC cells expressing YFP-CtrA. (nih.gov)
  • ResultsUsing single-cell time-lapse microscopy, we measured cellular growth as well as fluctuations in the expression rate of a fluorescent protein and its concentration. (duhnnae.com)
  • antibiotics
  • The outer membrane surrounding the cell wall provides a barrier to certain antibiotics such that E. coli is not damaged by penicillin. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • Bacterial capsular polysaccharides (CPS) are produced by a multi-protein membrane complex, in which a particular type of tyrosine-autokinases named BY-kinases, regulate their polymerization and export. (vanopijnenlab.com)
  • induce cell
  • Nod factors induce cell divisions in the root cortex and successive divisions lead to the formation of the nodule primordium. (pnas.org)
  • In the presence of DNA damage, the cell can either repair the damage or induce cell death if the damage is beyond repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • division
  • Plant factors present in nodules of galegoid legumes but absent from nodules of nongalegoid legumes block bacterial cell division and trigger endoreduplication cycles, thereby forcing the endosymbionts toward a terminally differentiated state. (pnas.org)
  • In the case of determinate nodules, the initial cell division activity required for nodule primordium formation ceases rapidly and therefore the determinate nodules contain no meristem. (pnas.org)
  • D) Quantification of YFP-CtrA partitioning ~10 minutes after division in wild-type and Δ pleC cells. (nih.gov)
  • We observe that the cell division protein FtsZ assembles and localizes properly although cell constriction is impaired. (vanopijnenlab.com)
  • The D period refers to the stage between the conclusion of DNA replication and the end of cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The B period extends from the end of cell division to the beginning of DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • During interphase, the cell grows, accumulating nutrients needed for mitosis, preparing it for cell division and duplicating its DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell-division cycle is a vital process by which a single-celled fertilized egg develops into a mature organism, as well as the process by which hair, skin, blood cells, and some internal organs are renewed. (wikipedia.org)
  • After cell division, each of the daughter cells begin the interphase of a new cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before a cell can enter cell division, it needs to take in nutrients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interphase is a series of changes that takes place in a newly formed cell and its nucleus, before it becomes capable of division again. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previously it was called resting stage because there is no apparent activity related to cell division.Typically interphase lasts for at least 90% of the total time required for the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both daughter cells from the division do not necessarily survive. (wikipedia.org)
  • This period of little to no cell division is called the lag phase and can last for 1 hour to several days. (wikipedia.org)
  • The actual rate of this growth (i.e. the slope of the line in the figure) depends upon the growth conditions, which affect the frequency of cell division events and the probability of both daughter cells surviving. (wikipedia.org)
  • arrest
  • These toxins trigger G2/M cell cycle arrest in specific mammalian cell lines, leading to the enlarged or distended cells for which these toxins are named. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1997, the first paper of many to show G2/M cell cycle arrest caused by a cytolethal distending toxin was published in Molecular Microbiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most publications attribute the G2/M cycle arrest to the buildup of irreversible DNA damage from the toxin's DNase activity as the trigger for the G2/M cell cycle arrest, but other research suggests that this model is incomplete. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chk2 leads to reversible cell cycle arrest. (wikipedia.org)
  • morphologically
  • Although the various stages of interphase are not usually morphologically distinguishable, each phase of the cell cycle has a distinct set of specialized biochemical processes that prepare the cell for initiation of cell divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • KeywordsCell cycle Gene expression Growth Noise Single-cell microscopy Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-s12915-016-0231-z contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. (duhnnae.com)
  • theta
  • The theta and ring structures within the cells represent replicating DNA and nonreplicating DNA, respectively. (pnas.org)
  • divide
  • Chien and Lau say the "fascinating mystery" at the heart of this work has been to figure out how the cell cycle, made up of the many events that happen when cells divide, are so precisely coordinated by CpdR and other factors. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The cell enlarges in preparation for mitosis, but cannot divide to restore its normal size. (wikipedia.org)
  • initiation
  • These determinate nodules lose meristematic activity shortly after initiation, thus growth is due to cell expansion resulting in mature nodules which are spherical in shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • We found that, within the population, the mean expression rate doubles throughout the cell cycle with a characteristic cell cycle phase dependent shape which is different for slow and fast growth rates. (duhnnae.com)
  • A model was used to relate the findings and to explain the cell cycle-induced variations for different chromosomal positions. (duhnnae.com)
  • daughter cells
  • By contrast, CtrA, which is found only in the asymmetrically dividing α-proteobacteria, was integrated later in evolution to enforce replicative asymmetry on daughter cells. (nih.gov)
  • E) Histograms of replication cycle times for Δ pleC daughter cells. (nih.gov)
  • Segrosomes are usually composed of three basic components- the DNA (plasmid or chromosome) that needs to be segregated into daughter cells, a motor protein that provides the necessary physical forces for accomplishing the segregation and a DNA binding protein that connects the DNA and the motor protein, to form the complete segrosome complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The D period refers to the stage between the end of DNA replication and the splitting of the bacterial cell into two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • FtsZ
  • A) Histograms of replication intervals in FtsZ-depleted cells with or without the divL ts or ori(bc L d) mutations grown at 34°C. Mean values for each population are indicated. (nih.gov)
  • events
  • All of these cell-cycle events are controlled by a single protein, the essential response regulator CtrA ( 9 - 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Segrosome formation could be a highly regulated and ordered process to ensure its coupling with the other events of the bacterial cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • microscopy
  • Recent improvements in fluorescent microscopy techniques have provided novel insight into the dynamic structure of a single cell organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Recent findings have identified novel mechanisms providing signals that tightly integrate the biochemical and genetic components of the core cell-cycle circuit with the 3D topology of the cell ( 4 , 6 , 7 ) and DNA replication ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Genome
  • This is how Craig Venter created the first synthetic cell, assembling chemically-synthesized oligos into DNA chunks that were recombined in yeast to create an entire synthetic genome that was transplanted into a recipient bacterial cell that took on characteristics defined by the synthetic genome. (wordpress.com)
  • One of the myxobacteria, Minicystis rosea, has the largest bacterial genome with over 16 million nucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiplicity reactivation (MR) is the process by which two or more virus genomes, each containing inactivating genome damage, can interact within an infected cell to form a viable virus genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Background Cardiac stress may trigger production of the 40\kDa peptide fragment produced from the amino terminus from the cardiac myosin\binding protein C. function, cell viability, hypertrophy, or possibility of success. (biomasswars.com)
  • Pasireotide works by binding to a protein called somatostatin receptor, which is expressed in many tissues throughout the body including thyroid cancer cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Taking a systems approach, we develop and summarise the view that "serum ferritin" actually originates from damaged cells (and thus reflects cellular damage), that it contains some iron but has lost or liberated most of its normal content, and that since the protein part of ferritin is assumed to be benign, that it is this (initially) free iron that correlates with and is causative of disease. (rsc.org)
  • If a "phagemid" vector is used (a simplified display construct vector) phage particles will not be released from the E. coli cells until they are infected with helper phage, which enables packaging of the phage DNA and assembly of the mature virions with the relevant protein fragment as part of their outer coat on either the minor (pIII) or major (pVIII) coat protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phage eluted in the final step can be used to infect a suitable bacterial host, from which the phagemids can be collected and the relevant DNA sequence excised and sequenced to identify the relevant, interacting proteins or protein fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Applications of phage display technology include determination of interaction partners of a protein (which would be used as the immobilised phage "bait" with a DNA library consisting of all coding sequences of a cell, tissue or organism) so that the function or the mechanism of the function of that protein may be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Competing methods for in vitro protein evolution include yeast display, bacterial display, ribosome display, and mRNA display. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the best-known families of porphyrin complexes is heme, the pigment in red blood cells, a cofactor of the protein hemoglobin. (wikipedia.org)
  • He is best known for his discovery of the bacterial use of the rhodopsin protein in converting sunlight to biochemical energy in marine microbial communities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteria
  • Bacteria and viruses have been engineered to invade cancer cells , disperse biofilms , produce biofuel and synthesize drugs . (wordpress.com)
  • Phagocytes gobble up pathogens like foreign particles, bacteria, and dead cells so they need to be able to move freely in order to do their job. (biotoxinjourney.com)
  • Media conditions that support fast growth in bacteria also couples with shorter inter-initiation time in them, i.e. the doubling time in fast growing cells is less as compared to the slow growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • In bacteria, which lack a cell nucleus, the cell cycle is divided into the B, C, and D periods. (wikipedia.org)
  • In non-photosynthetic eukaryotes such as animals, insects, fungi, and protozoa, as well as the α-proteobacteria group of bacteria, the committed step for porphyrin biosynthesis is the formation of δ-aminolevulinic acid (δ-ALA, 5-ALA or dALA) by the reaction of the amino acid glycine with succinyl-CoA from the citric acid cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli
  • The yield and productivity of gamma-aminobutyric acid might be significantly improved if the overexpressed GadB in E. coli cells can be excreted outside, where it can directly transforms monosodium glutamate to gamma-aminobutyric acid. (springeropen.com)
  • To solve this problem, recombinant E. coli overexpressing GadB was employed as a whole cell biocatalyst in buffer solution containing MSG. (springeropen.com)
  • 2000 ). Because GadA and GadB are intracellular enzymes, and most MSG are out of the cells, the recombinant E. coli cells have to be specially treated by sonication, ethyl acetate, toluene, and thermal activation to increase the permeability (Zhao et al. (springeropen.com)
  • The phage gene and insert DNA hybrid is then inserted (a process known as "transduction") into Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterial cells such as TG1, SS320, ER2738, or XL1-Blue E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • This unravels the short tail fibers (STF) that bind irreversibly to the E. coli cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • The remaining part of the membrane is degraded and then DNA from the head of the phage can travel through the tail tube and enter the E. coli cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • Though still in the early stages, the company has already presented in vivo efficacy data in its two lead programs targeting the orphan genetic metabolic conditions Urea Cycle Disorder (UCD) and Phenylketonuria (PKU). (wordpress.com)
  • Enzymes also allow the regulation of metabolic pathways in response to changes in the cell's environment or to signals from other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The principle metabolic pathways are a glycolytic pathway, a pentose phosphate pathway, and the TCA cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen cyanamide interacts with the cytokinin metabolic cycle, which results in triggering a new growth cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Metabolism (from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • This deterioration is due to the death of the muscle cells and muscle tissues and leads to ongoing muscle wasting and muscle weakness. (blogspot.com)
  • organism
  • The cell-division cycle is a vital process by which a single-celled fertilized egg develops into a mature organism, as well as the process by which hair, skin, blood cells, and some internal organs are renewed. (wikipedia.org)
  • mainly
  • This leads to suggestions for how one might exploit the corollaries of the recognition that serum ferritin levels mainly represent a consequence of cell stress and damage. (rsc.org)
  • scarce
  • When nutrients are scarce, myxobacterial cells aggregate into fruiting bodies (not to be confused with those in fungi), a process long-thought to be mediated by chemotaxis but now considered to be a function of a form of contact-mediated signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • inducible
  • EF-1 alpha promoter versions of the Tet-On 3G Tetracycline Inducible Expression System provide for consistent long-term expression of the Tet-On 3G transactivator, even in cell types known for their tendency to silence a CMV promoter over time, such as hematopoietic cells and stem cells. (clontech.com)
  • This means that in these cell types long term tetracycline inducible expression can be achieved. (clontech.com)
  • pigment
  • The production of this pigment in Haematococcus Pluvialis is enhanced due to various environmental stresses which limit the growth of the cell under light conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • and examining the possible role of the pigment in protecting the cell from oxidative stress damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • We tested the EF-1 alpha version in Jurkat cells, a cell line known to show reduced expression and clonal variation in expression from CMV-based vectors. (clontech.com)
  • Serum ferritin is also a well known inflammatory marker, but it is unclear whether serum ferritin reflects or causes inflammation, or whether it is involved in an inflammatory cycle. (rsc.org)
  • They typically travel in swarms (also known as wolf packs), containing many cells kept together by intercellular molecular signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • To ensure the proper division of the cell, there are control mechanisms known as cell cycle checkpoints. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell cycle consists of four distinct phases: G1 phase, S phase (synthesis), G2 phase (collectively known as interphase) and M phase (mitosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • cell's
  • M phase is itself composed of two tightly coupled processes: karyokinesis, in which the cell's chromosomes are divided, and cytokinesis, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides forming two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • biomarkers
  • This study will also look at specific substances called biomarkers in your blood, and in the tumor tissue which are involved in the growth of tumor cells, and determine if the levels of these biomarkers are related to your response to treatment or development of side effects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Overall, this systems approach serves to explain a number of apparent paradoxes of serum ferritin, including (i) why it correlates with biomarkers of cell damage, (ii) why it correlates with biomarkers of hydroxyl radical formation (and oxidative stress) and (iii) therefore why it correlates with the presence and/or severity of numerous diseases. (rsc.org)
  • resistant
  • Then the cells are grown on a dish with the medium that the antibiotic is resistant to and if the insertion was successful, then cells will grow. (macalester.edu)
  • growth
  • The fruiting process is thought to benefit myxobacteria by ensuring that cell growth is resumed with a group (swarm) of myxobacteria, rather than as isolated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, it is possible that in fast growth conditions the grandmother cells starts replicating its DNA for grand daughter cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, hydrogen cyanamide stimulates cell division and growth in dormant plants, causing budbreak when the plant is on the edge of breaking dormancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • tail
  • The tail attaches to a host cell with the help of tail fibres. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tail fibres are also important in recognizing host cell surface receptors, so they determine if a bacterium is within the phage's host range. (wikipedia.org)
  • The baseplate changes conformation and the tail sheath contracts, causing GP5 at the end of the tail tube to puncture the outer membrane of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • kidney
  • Some cells enter the G0 phase semi-permanently and are considered post-mitotic, e.g., some liver, kidney, and stomach cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Ferroptosis is a kind of regulated cell loss of life driven by oxidative damage promoting lipid peroxidation, although detailed molecular regulators are largely unknown. (biomasswars.com)
  • With the decreasing price of DNA sequencing and synthesis, the ease of genetic engineering (CRISPR, molecular cloning), and the increase in computational capacity, we have reached a stage where creating an engineered cell, and making it do what you want is a possibility. (wordpress.com)
  • In April 2008, DeLong was presented with the Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky Medal for "important contributions to geomicrobiology and biogeochemical cycling through the innovative use of molecular tools and a genomic approach" at the European Geosciences Union. (wikipedia.org)
  • produce
  • Myxobacteria produce a number of biomedically and industrially useful chemicals, such as antibiotics, and export those chemicals outside the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • line
  • Such levels of control are not possible when using previous versions of the Tet-On system for this cell line. (clontech.com)
  • This type of negative feedback slows the production line when products begin to build up and is an important way to maintain homeostasis in a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • years
  • In the years following, DeLong's work took him to the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute and it is during his time there that he made a crucial discovery in the understanding of the Earth's carbon and energy cycles. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • They bind to DnaA-ADP and DnaA-ATP with equal affinities and are bound by DnaA throughout most of the cell cycle and forms a scaffold on which rest of the orisome assembles. (wikipedia.org)
  • types
  • The use of multiple probes with different fluorescent dyes allows for the identification of different cell types in the same field. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • During this phase, the biosynthetic activities of the cell, which are considerably slowed down during M phase, resume at a high rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, antibodies with high specificities for plant SPS also target the bacterial SPS, indicating the structure is conserved enough for the antibody to recognize the enzyme as an antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • structure
  • With a total of 26 π-electrons, of which 18 π-electrons form a planar, continuous cycle, the porphyrin ring structure is often described as aromatic. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapy
  • Background Human being fetal midbrain-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs) might deliver a cells source for medication testing and regenerative cell therapy to take care of Parkinsons disease. (biomasswars.com)