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  • biofilm
  • A novel planar flow cell for studies of biofilm heterogeneity and flow-biofilm interactions. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Biofilm responses to smooth flow fields and chemical gradients in novel microfluidic flow cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Three different types of nanosized HA particles having different shapes and calcium to phosphate ratios were compared to uncoated turned titanium using safranin stain in a biofilm assay and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) for assessment of biofilm biomass and bacterial volume, respectively. (niom.no)
  • Bacterial processes related to survival and nodulation, including motility, biofilm formation, and cell aggregation, were affected or modified by the exogenous addition of increasing concentrations of synthetic AHLs. (nih.gov)
  • depends
  • The generation of dissimilar progeny cells in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes frequently depends on asymmetric localization of regulatory factors prior to division. (asmscience.org)
  • The QS process depends on bacterial production of various signaling molecules, among which the N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) are most commonly used by Gram-negative bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • proteins
  • Researchers from Switzerland and the UK report they have engineered the bacterium Escherichia coli to carry a vital piece of cell machinery that adds sugar molecules to newly synthesized proteins by a process known as glycosylation. (scienceblog.com)
  • The finding opens up the possibility of producing complex human proteins such as Factor VIII and the hormone erythropoietin, which stimulates the production of red blood cells by stem cells in bone marrow. (scienceblog.com)
  • Both these proteins, which require the addition of sugar molecules to function properly, are currently produced by culturing mammalian cells, which can be a costly and technically difficult process. (scienceblog.com)
  • The electron cryomicroscope allows us to see the arrangement of individual proteins inside cells in a lifelike state," says Jensen. (caltech.edu)
  • To do this, living cells are quickly frozen so that all the proteins are frozen in place-in the same places they were in the living state. (caltech.edu)
  • About half of the dry mass of a bacterial cell consists of carbon, and also about half of it can be attributed to proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In prokaryotes, the primary function of the cell wall is to protect the cell from internal turgor pressure caused by the much higher concentrations of proteins and other molecules inside the cell compared to its external environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bacterial proteins are of about 450 amino acyl residues in length and exhibit 12 putative transmembrane segments (TMSs). (wikipedia.org)
  • These transporters may function together with auxiliary proteins that allow passage across just the cytoplasmic membrane or both membranes of the Gram-negative bacterial envelope. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, it includes solutes such as ions and proteins, which are involved in wide variety of functions ranging from nutrient binding, transport, folding, degradation, substrate hydrolysis, to peptidoglycan synthesis, electron transport, and alteration of substances toxic to the cell (xenobiotic metabolism). (wikipedia.org)
  • 2009. Secretion and subcellular localizations of bacterial proteins: a semantic awareness issue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Assembly of a highly ordered coherent monomolecular S-layer array on a growing cell surface requires a continuous synthesis of a surplus of S-layer proteins and their translocation to sites of lattice growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The YadA protein domain adheres to the following substrates: epithelial cells extracellular matrix collagen cellular fibronectin laminin The C-terminal domain consists of 120 amino acids which belong to a family of surface-exposed bacterial proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterium
  • The result is a very fragile cell wall that bursts, killing the bacterium. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The cell cycle of the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus is accompanied by morphological transitions that produce an asymmetric predivisional cell. (pnas.org)
  • They showed that as each bacterium grows in a single direction, lines or files of cells are formed, but these files are unstable to small disturbances. (cam.ac.uk)
  • This was tested by looking at the interactions between twin cell populations and a mutant bacterium that has a round shape (where this behaviour is not observed). (cam.ac.uk)
  • This is a generalised bacterium, illustrating features of different bacterial types that would not be combined in a single cell. (sciencephoto.com)
  • For example, Escherichia coli cells, an "average" sized bacterium, are about 2 µm (micrometres) long and 0.5 µm in diameter, with a cell volume of 0.6-0.7 μm3. (wikipedia.org)
  • On May 21, 2010, Science reported that the Venter group had successfully synthesized the genome of the bacterium Mycoplasma mycoides from a computer record, and transplanted the synthesized genome into the existing cell of a Mycoplasma capricolum bacterium that had had its DNA removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is possibly the most numerous bacterium in the world (perhaps 1028 individual cells) and, along with other members of the SAR11 clade, are estimated to make up between a quarter and a half of all bacterial or archaeal cells in the ocean. (wikipedia.org)
  • prokaryotic
  • The general use was accepted at the "First International Workshop on Crystalline Bacterial Cell Surface Layers, Vienna (Austria)" in 1984, and in the year 1987 S-layers were defined at the European Molecular Biology Organization Workshop on "Crystalline Bacterial Cell Surface Layers", Vienna as "Two-dimensional arrays of proteinaceous subunits forming surface layers on prokaryotic cells" (see "Preface", page VI in Sleytr "et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • archaeal
  • High-resolution structures of an archaeal S-layer protein (MA0829 from Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A) of the Methanosarcinales S-layer Tile Protein family and a bacterial S-layer protein (SbsB), from Geobacillus stearothermophilus PV72, have recently been determined by X-ray crystallography. (wikipedia.org)
  • These models exhibit hexagonal (p6) and oblique (p2) symmetry, for M. acetivorans and G. stearothermophilus S-layers, respectively, and their molecular features, including dimensions and porosity, are in good agreement with data from electron microscopy studies of archaeal and bacterial S-layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus
  • To fully understand just what is happening in these cells, Jensen says, it is thus important to figure out the ways in which these receptors interact with one another, which in turn depends on understanding precisely how they are situated in relation to one another. (caltech.edu)
  • Thus, two transcriptional feedback loops coupled to cell cycle-regulated proteolysis and phosphorylation of the CtrA protein result in the pattern of CtrA activity required for the temporal and spatial control of multiple cell-cycle events. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, the swarmer-to-stalked cell transition is coincident with the initiation of DNA replication. (pnas.org)
  • A critical function of the CtrA response regulator is to bind to and repress the origin of replication in the swarmer cell and thus control the time of initiation of DNA replication ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Thus, the S-layer protein can represent up to 15% of the whole protein content of a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, bacterial bioluminescence is regulated by means of chemical communication referred to as quorum sensing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome
  • Scientists who were not involved in the study caution that it is not a truly synthetic life form because its genome was put into an existing cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apart from being a notorious and hard to eradicate (immune to beta-lactam and other antibiotics) contaminant in mammalian cell cultures, it has also been used as a model organism: the second published complete bacterial genome sequence was that of Mycoplasma genitalium, which has one of the smallest genomes of free-living organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pelagibacter ubique (an α-proteobacterium of the order Rickettsiales) has the smallest known genome (1,308,759 base pairs) of any free living organism and is one of the smallest self-replicating cells known. (wikipedia.org)
  • microscopic
  • The prototype sensor system monitors the natural response of bacterial cells bound within the microscopic channels of a plastic microfluidics device -- a miniaturized chemical and biochemical analysis system. (scienceblog.com)
  • These microscopic fractal patterns emerge spontaneously from physical interactions between the large number of cells within the population. (cam.ac.uk)
  • chromosome
  • 10,000 phenotypes that allowed us to study gene essentiality, discover leads for gene function and drug action, and understand higher-order organization of the bacterial chromosome. (nih.gov)
  • Once a version of the minimal 382-gene chromosome has been synthesized, it is intended to be transplanted into a M. genitalium cell to create Mycoplasma laboratorium. (wikipedia.org)
  • wall
  • As in other organisms, the bacterial cell wall provides structural integrity to the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the bacterial cell wall is entirely removed, it is called a protoplast while if it's partially removed, it is called a spheroplast. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Bacterial Cell Wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2005. Cryo-electron microscopy reveals native polymeric cell wall structure in Bacillus subtilis 168 and the existence of a periplasmic space. (wikipedia.org)
  • When in deficiency, they still grow but with the inability to make new cell wall proteoglycan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the first evidence of a macromolecular array on a bacterial cell wall fragment in the 1950s S-layer structure has been investigated extensively by electron microscopy and medium resolution images of S-layers from these analyses has provided useful information on overall S-layer morphology. (wikipedia.org)
  • rapidly
  • Phosphorylated CtrA (CtrA≈P) is present in the swarmer cell, rapidly disappears at the swarmer-to-stalked cell transition, and accumulates again in the predivisional cell. (pnas.org)
  • parasitic
  • This includes viral, bacterial and parasitic infections such as the common cold, urinary tract infections, meningitis, malaria and appendicitis among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • adhesion
  • The function is to promote their pathogenicity and virulence in host cells, though cell adhesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Essentially, the main function of the YadA domain is to help cell adhesion and to increase virulence. (wikipedia.org)
  • interactions
  • ClpV imaging allowed spatial and temporal documentation of cell-cell interactions (termed T6SS dueling) that likely mark the location of repeated T6SS-mediated protein translocation events between bacterial cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Attachment further allows more interactions and increase of biofilm formation to aid bacterial colonization. (wikipedia.org)
  • PMID
  • Boman HG (1991), "Antibacterial peptides: key components needed in immunity", Cell, 65 (2): 205-207, doi:10.1016/0092-8674(91)90154-Q, PMID 2015623. (wikipedia.org)
  • Search
  • But if there are no good nutrients, the cell will do something called 'tumbling,' in which it stops and randomly flips over in the fluid, then starts swimming again in a random direction in a search for better conditions. (caltech.edu)
  • Gram
  • There are four basic steps of the Gram stain: Applying a primary stain (crystal violet) to a heat-fixed smear of a bacterial culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes
  • The main plan consisted of: physical and functional mapping with complete sequencing of the mycoplasma Determine the open reading frames (ORFs) Determining the encoded amino acids Understanding the functions of genes Final step: reassemble mycoplasma's machinery cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sequencing data revealed many interesting facts about M. genitalium such as discovery of some conserved genes, which ultimately helped in defining essentiality to life, of a minimal self- replicating cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite
  • Despite bacterial colonies always forming circular shapes as they grow, their cells form internal divisions which are highly asymmetrical and branched. (cam.ac.uk)
  • growth
  • These fractal (self-similar) patterns are due to the physical forces and local instabilities that are a natural part of bacterial cell growth, a new study reveals. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Also, it provides a new insight into the way cell populations may interact during the early formation of medically important bacterial populations or biofilms, and produce irregular boundaries for invasive growth and increased surface contact. (cam.ac.uk)
  • molecular
  • Within the smoothly operating factory that is the cell, tiny molecular machines carry out their tasks with order and certainty. (scienceblog.com)
  • Morowitz' major idea was to define the entire machinery of mycoplasmas cell in molecular level. (wikipedia.org)
  • yields
  • On cell division, one pole yields a swarmer cell, and the other pole yields a nonmotile stalked cell (Fig. 1 B ), each with different cell fates ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • infect
  • Phage eluted in the final step can be used to infect a suitable bacterial host, from which the phagemids can be collected and the relevant DNA sequence excised and sequenced to identify the relevant, interacting proteins or protein fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Escherichia
  • The phage gene and insert DNA hybrid is then inserted (a process known as "transduction") into Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterial cells such as TG1, SS320, ER2738, or XL1-Blue E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • The IncP-1 plasmid group (IncP plasmids in Escherichia coli) of which RK2 is a part has been described as "highly potent, self-transmissible, selfish DNA molecules with a complicated regulatory circuit" RK 2 was first isolated in connection with an outbreak of antibotic-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella aerogenes in Birmingham in 1969, as one of a family of plasmids implicated in transfer of Ampicillin resistance between bacterial strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • David H. Figurski, Robert F. Pohlman, David H. Bechhofer, Alice S. Prince and Christie A. Kelton: "Broad host range plasmid RK2 encodes multiple kil genes potentially lethal to Escherichia coli host cells", Genetics, Volume 79. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor cells
  • This study will also look at specific substances called biomarkers in your blood, and in the tumor tissue which are involved in the growth of tumor cells, and determine if the levels of these biomarkers are related to your response to treatment or development of side effects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli cells
  • These nutritional elements in LB media, which otherwise the cell would have to synthesize, support a luxurious growth of E. coli cells. (formedium.com)
  • If a "phagemid" vector is used (a simplified display construct vector) phage particles will not be released from the E. coli cells until they are infected with helper phage, which enables packaging of the phage DNA and assembly of the mature virions with the relevant protein fragment as part of their outer coat on either the minor (pIII) or major (pVIII) coat protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergo
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • B cells demonstrating high affinity for self cells can undergo clonal deletion within the bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • T cells that show a high affinity for self MHC/peptide complexes can undergo clonal deletion in the thymus. (wikipedia.org)
  • T cells also have the opportunity to undergo clonal deletion within the thymic medulla if they express high affinity for self MHC/peptide complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Positive selection occurs in the thymic cortex, which suggests it is possible for a cell to undergo positive selection within the cortex and then negative selection in the medulla via clonal deletion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because most autoresponsive cells undergo clonal deletion, this allows microorganisms with epitopes similar to host antigen to escape recognition and detection by T and B lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Metabolism (from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • some single cell organisms have much more DNA than humans (see Junk DNA and C-value enigma). (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleic acids
  • Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • This deterioration is due to the death of the muscle cells and muscle tissues and leads to ongoing muscle wasting and muscle weakness. (blogspot.com)
  • Pasireotide works by binding to a protein called somatostatin receptor, which is expressed in many tissues throughout the body including thyroid cancer cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • scarce
  • When nutrients are scarce, myxobacterial cells aggregate into fruiting bodies (not to be confused with those in fungi), a process long-thought to be mediated by chemotaxis but now considered to be a function of a form of contact-mediated signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • Interferon type I: All type I IFNs bind to a specific cell surface receptor complex known as the IFN-α/β receptor (IFNAR) that consists of IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • In the cell nucleus, it seems that promoters are distributed preferentially at the edge of the chromosomal territories, likely for the co-expression of genes on different chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • respectively
  • Two such mutants, PFF1cop254D and PFF1cop271C, increase the copy number of PFF1 in E. coli from approximately 39-40 to about 501 and 113 plasmids per cell, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphocytes
  • Each of these lymphocytes express specificity to a particular epitope, or the part of an antigen to which B cell and T cell receptors recognize and bind. (wikipedia.org)
  • signals
  • They typically travel in swarms (also known as wolf packs), containing many cells kept together by intercellular molecular signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is where the lymphocyte would receive apoptotic signals from antigen-presenting cell (APCs). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is possible for B cells with high self affinity to go undeleted because they require activation signals and stimulation from autoreactive T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory
  • A promoter is induced in response to changes in abundance or conformation of regulatory proteins in a cell, which enable activating transcription factors to recruit RNA polymerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactions
  • Glycine-induced activation of strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors may also result in hyper- or depolarising reactions of the prospective cells with regards to the intracellular Cl? (biomasswars.com)
  • biological
  • His mathematical, theoretical, and technological innovations led to key discoveries about the motion of biological cells, sensory processes in vision, animal navigation, light energy harvesting in photosynthesis, and learning in neural networks. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • They bind to DnaA-ADP and DnaA-ATP with equal affinities and are bound by DnaA throughout most of the cell cycle and forms a scaffold on which rest of the orisome assembles. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, for both B and T cells in the primary lymphoid organs, clonal deletion is the most common form of negative selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • light
  • requires the medium to be formulated for this purpose), or the appearance of turbidity (cloudiness indicating light scattering by bacterial cells) indicates that sterilization was not achieved and the sterilization cycle may need revision or improvement. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary role of bacterioruberin in the cell is to protect against DNA damage incurred by UV light. (wikipedia.org)
  • produce
  • Myxobacteria produce a number of biomedically and industrially useful chemicals, such as antibiotics, and export those chemicals outside the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • Those cells that demonstrate a high affinity for this self antigen are often subsequently deleted so they cannot create progeny, which helps protect the host against autoimmunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such T cells are often removed via clonal deletion, leaving autoreactive B cells unstimulated and unactivated. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • Is yellowish skin coloration due to increase in the pigment bilirubin which is from the breakdown of red blood cells. (healthtap.com)
  • This phase II trial studies how well tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil works in preventing graft-versus-host disease in patients who have undergone total-body irradiation (TBI) with or without fludarabine phosphate followed by donor peripheral blood stem cell transplant for hematologic cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • surface
  • The S-layer is made of a cell-surface glycoprotein, which accounts for approximately 50% of the cell surface proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • source
  • Background Human being fetal midbrain-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs) might deliver a cells source for medication testing and regenerative cell therapy to take care of Parkinsons disease. (biomasswars.com)