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  • surfaces
  • Conversely, adhesion of starved cells on copper surfaces was lower than fresh cells due to incompatibility of hydrophobicity between bacterial cells and copper surfaces. (illinois.edu)
  • grown
  • Biofilms were grown in CDC reactors using different types of feed water such as groundwater, monochloramine-treated groundwater, dechlorinated tap water and tap water. (illinois.edu)
  • cells
  • The effect of bacteria surface hydrophobicity on bacterial adhesion was also investigated by starving Legionella cells in Newmark Groundwater. (illinois.edu)
  • However, how biofilm-released cells interact with the host remains unclear. (frontiersin.org)
  • Gene expression analysis of mouse splenocytes suggested that biofilm-released cells might be particularly effective at activating inflammatory and antigen presenting cells and inducing cellular apoptosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Furthermore, biofilm-released cells induced a higher production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, in contrast to mice infected with planktonic cells, even though these had a similar bacterial load in livers and spleens. (frontiersin.org)
  • The later refers to the release of bacterial cells from the biofilm to the surrounding environment, and is the least understood stage of the biofilm lifecycle ( Boles and Horswill, 2011 ). (frontiersin.org)