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  • growth
  • one involved three rounds of adherence assays to bovine primary rectal epithelial cells while the other competed the clones over three rounds of growth in bovine rectal mucus. (frontiersin.org)
  • Viruses derived from the BAC clones were stable during in vitro passage, but showed differences in in vitro growth kinetics compared with the wild-type virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • In spite of the difference in in vitro growth, viruses from both clones induced 100 % protection against infection by the virulent MDV strain RB-1B, indicating that the BAC-derived viruses could be used as vaccines with efficacies similar to that of the parental virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • genes
  • Chatterjee, P. K. and Sternberg, N. L. (1996) Retrofitting high molecular weight DNA cloned in P1: introduction of reporter genes, markers selectable in mammalian cells and generation of nested deletions. (springer.com)
  • In order for cell to attain indefinite growth potential, however, additional mutations in cellular genes are essential to bypass M2 stage ( 2 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Genetics deals with the molecular structure and function of genes, and gene behavior in context of a cell or organism (e.g. dominance and epigenetics), patterns of inheritance from parent to offspring, and gene distribution, variation and change in populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reporter genes are used in some cloning vectors to facilitate the screening of successful clones by using features of these genes that allow successful clone to be easily identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such features present in cloning vectors may be the lacZα fragment for α complementation in blue-white selection, and/or marker gene or reporter genes in frame with and flanking the MCS to facilitate the production of fusion proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, selectable marker genes, such as antibiotic resistance and a visible marker, are utilized to select transformed yeast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • TRP1 and URA3 genes are other YAC vector cloning site for foreign DNA is located within the SUP4 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The procedure involved replacing the genes in the original chromosome with synthetic versions and the finished synthesized chromosome was then integrated into a yeast cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was 33 years old when he won the 1958 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for discovering that bacteria can mate and exchange genes (bacterial conjugation). (wikipedia.org)
  • Exon trapped sequence is used to identify genes in cloned DNA, and this is achieved by recognizing and trapping carrier containing exon sequence of DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • To address these concerns, expressions systems using multiple eukaryotic cells were developed for applications requiring the proteins be conformed as in, or closer to eukaryotic organisms: cells of plants (i.e. tobacco), of insects or mammalians (i.e. bovines) are transfected with genes and cultured in suspension and even as tissues or whole organisms, to produce fully folded proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • characterization
  • Some of the possible clinical applications for this technique include phasing of multiple mutations when parental samples are unavailable, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, prenatal diagnosis and in the characterization of cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genomes
  • Apart from being a notorious and hard to eradicate (immune to beta-lactam and other antibiotics) contaminant in mammalian cell cultures, it has also been used as a model organism: the second published complete bacterial genome sequence was that of Mycoplasma genitalium, which has one of the smallest genomes of free-living organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • To establish standard, genetically stable genomes that can be sequenced, disseminated, and repeatedly reconstituted to produce virus stocks, we have undertaken to clone two variants of Towne, designated Towne(long) and Towne(short) (referred to as TownevarRIT3) (A., Proc. (biomedsearch.com)
  • By being able to insert large fragments of DNA, YACs can be utilized to clone and assemble the entire genomes of an organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • A large piece of DNA can be engineered in a fashion that allows it be propagated as a circular artificial chromosome in bacteria--so-called bacterial artificial chromosome, or BAC. (genome.gov)
  • Because the BAC is much smaller than the endogenous bacterial chromosome, it is straightforward to purify the BAC DNA away from the rest of the bacteria cell's DNA, and thus have the cloned DNA in a purified form. (genome.gov)
  • Mycoplasma is a genus of bacteria of the class Mollicutes in the division Tenericutes, characterised by the lack of a cell wall (making it Gram negative) due to their parasitic or commensal lifestyle (extracellular and intracellular). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cloning DNA in bacteria Cloning is the process of creating many identical copies of a sequence of DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inspired by Oswald Avery's discovery of the importance of DNA, Lederberg began to investigate his hypothesis that, contrary to prevailing opinion, bacteria did not simply pass down exact copies of genetic information, making all cells in a lineage essentially clones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Commonly used protein production systems include those derived from bacteria, yeast,baculovirus/insect, mammalian cells, and more recently filamentous fungi such as Myceliophthora thermophila. (wikipedia.org)
  • To combine the high yield/productivity and scalable protein features of bacteria and yeast, and advanced epigenetic features of plants, insects and mammalians systems, other protein production systems are developed using unicellular eukaryotes (i.e. non-pathogenic 'Leishmania' cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • restriction
  • This may be a multiple cloning site (MCS) or polylinker, which contains many unique restriction sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • particularly DNA polymerase for PCR, reverse transcriptase for RNA analysis, restriction endonucleases for cloning, and to make proteins that are screened in drug discovery as biological targets or as potential drugs themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • recombinase
  • P1 encodes a site-specific recombinase, Cre, that is widely used to carry out cell-specific or time-specific DNA recombination by flanking the target DNA with loxP sites (see Cre-Lox recombination). (wikipedia.org)
  • transgenic mice
  • Using transgenic mice expressing an SDF-1-mRFP1 (monomeric red fluorescence protein 1) fusion protein we observed that SDF-1 was localized in synaptic vesicles in the terminals of basket cells together with GABA-containing vesicles. (jneurosci.org)
  • genomic
  • Comparative genomic hybridization is a molecular cytogenetic method for analysing copy number variations (CNVs) relative to ploidy level in the DNA of a test sample compared to a reference sample, without the need for culturing cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was concluded that the fluorescence ratios obtained were accurate and that differences between genomic DNA from different cell types were detectable, and therefore that CGH was a highly useful cytogenetic analysis tool. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chimerism may be due to either co-ligation of multiple genomic segments into a single YAC, or recombination of two or more YACs transformed in the same host Yeast cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other artifacts are deletion of segments from a cloned region, and rearrangement of genomic segments (such as inversion). (wikipedia.org)
  • And combined with physical clone coverage, researchers can navigate the genome easily and characterize the specific genomic section by more extensive sequencing. (wikipedia.org)
  • phage
  • The P1 phage has gained research interest because it can be used to transfer DNA from one bacterial cell to another in a process known as transduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tail sheath contracts and the DNA of the phage is injected into the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • base pairs
  • Each BAC is a DNA clone containing roughly 100 to 300 thousand base pairs of cloned DNA. (genome.gov)
  • Pelagibacter ubique (an α-proteobacterium of the order Rickettsiales) has the smallest known genome (1,308,759 base pairs) of any free living organism and is one of the smallest self-replicating cells known. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly
  • Interestingly, the BAC transfer clones of CRL-2504 cells displayed characteristics of either senescence as shown by β-galactosidase activity or apoptosis as revealed by positive staining with M30 cytoDeath antibody. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • recombinant
  • One of the critical steps in the production of recombinant proteins is the isolation of stable single cell clones expressing high levels of the protein of interest. (biomedcentral.com)
  • human
  • The anti-oxidative property of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) has been proposed previously, which prompted us to investigate the potential protective effect of MSNs on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) against oxidative stress. (go.jp)
  • The large tumor antigen of SV40 is capable of extending the cellular life span by sequestering tumor suppressor proteins pRB and p53 in virus-transformed human cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A two stage model consisting of M1 (mortality stage 1) and M2 (mortality stage 2) has been proposed for SV40-LT induced immortalization of human cells ( 2 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Insect or mammal cell lines are used when human-like splicing of mRNA is required. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Consequently, this species was chosen as a model for the minimal cell project, catalog the entire protein content of a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nonetheless, bacterial expression has the advantage of easily producing large amounts of protein, which is required for X-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance experiments for structure determination. (wikipedia.org)
  • marker
  • the average number of positive clones per marker was 6.74 (range 2 to 12), consistent with 6.46 coverage of the tiger genome. (mdpi.com)
  • receptor
  • Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and its receptor CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) are important regulators of the development of the dentate gyrus (DG). (jneurosci.org)
  • proteins
  • It has been demonstrated that SV40-LT releases the host cell from the G1 checkpoint (M1 stage) and extends its life span by sequestering pRB and p53 family of tumor suppressor proteins ( 10 - 12 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • mRNA
  • Because Adenine and Thymine pair together in DNA, the poly(A) tail and synthetic beads are attracted to one another, and once they bind in this process the cell components can be washed away without removing the mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • CpG sites within CpG islands are usually in an unmethylated state permissive to transcription in normal cells but become hypermethylated at certain promoters in cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • organism
  • From the point of view of biology, a code generated by a living organism has been translated into a digital representation for replication, editing, and transmission to other cells. (edge.org)
  • yeast cells
  • To obtain a clue to understand the selective sorting of vesicles between the Golgi cisterenae, we investigated the molecular arrangements of the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) subunits in yeast cells. (go.jp)
  • genetic
  • These studies suggest that M1 and M2 are regulated through separate genetic controls, and immortalized cells have either inactivated or bypassed regulatory pathways involved in both M1 and M2 stages. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • genome
  • As an alternative to the cloning bias associated with partial digestion, DNA fragments can be produced by randomly shearing the genome. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Funding from the Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI) enabled TCAG to form by consolidating existing core facilities including the Medical Research Council of Canada Genome Resource Facility, the Canadian Genetic Diseases Network (CGDN) large insert clone core, the CGDN DNA Sequencing Core and the SickKids Biotechnology Service DNA Sequencing and Synthesis labs. (wikipedia.org)
  • By transferring the T-DNA into the plant genome, the bacterium essentially reprograms the plant cells to grow into a tumor and produce a unique food source for the bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agrobacterium is then used as a vector to transfer the engineered T-DNA into the plant cells where it integrates into the plant genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then this process succeeds the macromolecular translocation from Agrobacterium to cytoplasm of host cell, transmission of T-DNA along with associated proteins (called T-complex) to the host cell nucleus followed by disassembly of the T-complex, stable integration of T-DNA into host plant genome, and expression of the transferred genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microfluidic whole genome haplotyping is a technique for the physical separation of individual chromosomes from a metaphase cell followed by direct resolution of the haplotype for each allele. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers can choose a vector also considering the ideal insert size to find a desired number of clones necessary for full genome coverage. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • Rhesus and human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein L are required for infection and cell-to-cell spread of virus but cannot complement each other. (nih.gov)
  • Identification and expression analysis of 26 oncogenes of the receptor tyrosine kinase family in channel catfish after bacterial infection and hypoxic stress. (auburn.edu)
  • Claudin multigene family in channel catfish and their expression profiles in response to bacterial infection and hypoxia as revealed by meta-analysis of RNA-Seq datasets. (auburn.edu)
  • The earliest recorded artificial induction of immunity in humans was by variolation or inoculation, which is the controlled infection of a subject with a less lethal natural form of smallpox (known as Variola Minor) to make him or her immune to re-infection with the more lethal natural form, Variola Major. (wikipedia.org)
  • The synthesis of the plant hormones auxin and cytokinin by enzymes encoded in the T-DNA enables the plant cell to grow uncontrollably, thus forming the crown gall tumors typically induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The infection process of T-DNA into the host cell and integration into its nucleus involve multiple steps. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, the bacteria multiply in the wound sap before infection and then attach to the plant cell walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial cells
  • In polarized epithelial cells, syntaxin 3 localizes to the apical plasma membrane and is involved in membrane fusion of apical trafficking pathways. (rupress.org)
  • For example, epithelial cells face the outside world or lumen of an organ on one side, and the interstitial environment and basement membrane on the other. (rupress.org)
  • Epithelial cells generally contain at least two different plasma membrane syntaxins. (rupress.org)
  • The clear distinction between apical and basolateral trafficking pathways makes epithelial cells a good system in which to test the central prediction of the SNARE hypothesis on their contribution to the overall specificity of trafficking pathways. (rupress.org)
  • Lacritin also promotes tear secretion, the proliferation and survival of epithelial cells, and corneal wound healing Lacritin is thus a multifunctional prosecretory mitogen with cell survival activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some lacritin is produced by the meibomian gland, and by epithelial cells of the conjunctiva and cornea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lacritin targets a restricted group of epithelial cells (including human corneal epithelia), and not fibroblastic, glioma, or lymphoblastic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • fragments
  • Multiple cloning sites are sometimes used to ensure that the fragments are inserted in all three possible reading frames so that the cDNA fragment is translated in the proper frame. (wikipedia.org)
  • ease
  • With the decreasing price of DNA sequencing and synthesis, the ease of genetic engineering (CRISPR, molecular cloning), and the increase in computational capacity, we have reached a stage where creating an engineered cell, and making it do what you want is a possibility. (wordpress.com)
  • For reason of ease and convenience, cloning is often performed using E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • suitable
  • Targeted cells signal to NFAT and mTOR if conditions are suitable for proliferation, or to AKT and FOXO3 under conditions of stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the enzymes of P. furiosus function optimally at a high temperature, scientists may not necessarily want to carry out a procedure at 100 °C (212 °F). Consequently, in this case, the specific enzyme AdhA was taken from P. furiosus and put through various mutations in a laboratory in order to obtain a suitable alcohol dehydrogenase for use in artificial processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus
  • Thus, VIP has been implicated in the regulation of immune cells and the expression of cytokines and growth factors. (anigroup.ru)
  • organisms
  • The majority of cell types in multicellular organisms are polarized and face two different environments. (rupress.org)
  • respectively
  • Syntaxins 3 and 4 localize to the apical and basolateral plasma membranes, respectively, in virtually all epithelial cell types investigated to date. (rupress.org)
  • pathways
  • Agrobacterium has been known to evolve a control system that hijacks host factors and cellular processes for several pathways of host-plant defense response to invade the host cell nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • membrane organization and cell organelles. (blogspot.com)
  • P. furiosus is also notable for an unusual and intriguingly simple respiratory system, which obtains energy by reducing protons to hydrogen gas and uses this energy to create an electrochemical gradient across its cell membrane, thereby driving ATP synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before the cell can bud, Cdc42 is used to locate the region of the cell's membrane that will begin to bulge into the new cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple
  • Some of the possible clinical applications for this technique include phasing of multiple mutations when parental samples are unavailable, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, prenatal diagnosis and in the characterization of cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • invade
  • Bacteria and viruses have been engineered to invade cancer cells , disperse biofilms , produce biofuel and synthesize drugs . (wordpress.com)
  • expression
  • Since IL-8 expression in melanocytes and melanoma cells can be induced by inflammatory signals, the question of whether specific organ microenvironments could influence the expression of IL-8 was analyzed. (americorpshealth.biz)
  • immune
  • Analysis of 52 Rab GTPases from channel catfish and their involvement in immune responses after bacterial infections. (auburn.edu)
  • Artificial induction of immunity is the artificial induction of immunity to specific diseases - making people immune to disease by means other than waiting for them to catch the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • scientists
  • American scientists report that they have bred the first-ever monkeys grown from cells taken from different embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • present
  • ПппThese are identical in appearance to the cells present at the periphery of normal sebaceous glands. (anigroup.ru)
  • function
  • These cells exhibit functional and structural asymmetry in their apical and basolateral plasma membranes that is essential to their function. (rupress.org)
  • Animal cells form many different shapes based on their function and location in the body. (wikipedia.org)