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  • glucose
  • Glucose is the primary fuel for most of your cells and is the preferred energy for the brain and nervous system, the red blood cells and the placenta and fetus. (innerbody.com)
  • Your body will grab protein from your diet (if available), skeletal muscles and organs and convert its amino acids into glucose (gluconeogenesis) for energy and to maintain normal blood glucose levels. (innerbody.com)
  • Thiamine pyrophosphate is also a coenzyme of the transketolase system by which direct oxidation of glucose occurs in the cytoplasm of cells via the pentose phosphate pathway. (fao.org)
  • small organic acids
  • This result, together with the presence of small organic acids like acetate and formate (1.36 mM and 0.06 mM respectively) in the acidic (pH 1.8) water stream, suggests that either L. ferrooxidans or other member of the microbial community are producing acetate in the acidophilic biofilm under microaerophilic conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Growth on these complex organics has revealed the production of small organic acids such as formate and acetate. (wikipedia.org)
  • acetate
  • Additionally, acetate may have a negative effect on bioleaching by inhibiting the growth of chemolithotrophic bacteria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thiamine functions in all cells as the coenzyme cocarboxylase, thiamine pyrophosphate, which participates in the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvic acid to acetate for entry into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. (fao.org)
  • Sodium ions react very little with the hydroxide ions whereas the acetate ions combine with hydronium ions to produce acetic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • It is expected that whole enzyme systems should change from mesophilic enzymes to thermophilic enzymes for the evolutionary change from mesophiles to thermophiles. (hindawi.com)
  • it produces the protease enzyme and hydrochloric acid to kill bacteria and to give the right pH for the protease enzyme to work. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • Enzymes in turn are composed of amino acids and often non-peptidic cofactors that are essential for enzyme function. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme is down-regulated by cholic acid, up-regulated by cholesterol and is inhibited by the actions of the ileal hormone FGF15/19. (wikipedia.org)
  • Branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (BCAT), also known as branched-chain amino acid transaminase, is an aminotransferase enzyme (EC 2.6.1.42) which acts upon branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Pseudomonas
  • Cells of the alkaliphilic Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas alcaliphila AL15-21 T grown at pH 10 under low-aeration intensity have a soluble cytochrome c content that is 3.6-fold higher than that of the cells grown at pH 7 under high-aeration intensity. (hindawi.com)
  • nutrients
  • Both diffusion and carrier mediated transport mechanisms which facilitate molecular trafficking through transcellular route to maintain influx and outflux of important nutrients and metabolic substances are elucidated. (hindawi.com)
  • To supply the body with the materials it needs for energy and the building of new tissue, nutrients have to pass through the digestive system. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Let's first look at what enzymes are and what they do and then we'll be able to better understand how they work in our digestive system to let us to take in the vital nutrients we need to survive within the laws of nature. (arn.org)
  • Extreme acidic environments are characterized by their high metal content and lack of nutrients (oligotrophy). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Choline, inositol and ascorbic acid are required in appreciable quantities in the diet and sometimes are not referred to as vitamins but as major dietary nutrients. (fao.org)
  • antiporter
  • The latter process is mediated by the Arg:Agm antiporter AdiC, which is activated in response to acidic pH and remains fully active at pH 6.0 and below. (nih.gov)
  • Identification of Tyr74 as a critical pH sensor in the amino acid antiporter AdiC. (nih.gov)
  • The Glu:GABA antiporter GadC ( 3 , 4 ) and the Arg:Agm antiporter AdiC ( 5 , 6 ) are at the center of the systems. (sciencemag.org)
  • Structure of AdiC, an amino acid antiporter of the APC superfamily. (sciencemag.org)
  • bile acids
  • Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in the bile of mammals and other vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different molecular forms of bile acids can be synthesized in the liver by different species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primary bile acids are those synthesized by the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secondary bile acids result from bacterial actions in the colon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bile acids are about 80% of the organic compounds in bile (others are phospholipids and cholesterol). (wikipedia.org)
  • An increased secretion of bile acids produces an increase in bile flow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to secreting any of the bile acids (primary or secondary, see below), liver cells conjugate them with one of two amino acids, glycine or taurine, to form a total of 8 possible conjugated bile acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pKa of the unconjugated bile acids are between 5 and 6.5, and the pH of the duodenum ranges between 3 and 5, so when unconjugated bile acids are in the duodenum, they are almost always protonated (HA form), which makes them relatively insoluble in water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conjugating bile acids with amino acids lowers the pKa of the bile-acid/amino-acid conjugate to between 1 and 4. (wikipedia.org)
  • All four of these bile acids can be taken back up into the blood stream, return to the liver, and be re-secreted in a process known as enterohepatic circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human adults secrete between 12-18 g of bile acids into the intestine each day, mostly after meals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bile acid pool size is between 4-6 g, which means that bile acids are recycled several times each day. (wikipedia.org)
  • About 95% of bile acids are reabsorbed by active transport in the ileum and recycled back to the liver for further secretion into the biliary system and gallbladder. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • Despite our knowledge of structural information, the molecular mechanism by which AdiC senses acidic pH remains completely unknown. (nih.gov)
  • The smooth LPS also inhibits host cell apoptosis by O-polysaccharides through a TNF-alpha-independent mechanism, which allows for B. suis to avoid the activation of the host immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • VMAT uses the same transport mechanism for all types of monoamines. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been postulated that the evolutionary advantage of possessing a system of magnetosomes is linked to the ability of efficiently navigating within this zone of sharp chemical gradients by simplifying a potential three-dimensional search for more favourable conditions to a single dimension (see the "Magnetism" subsection below for a description of this mechanism). (wikipedia.org)
  • substances
  • Present review paper highlights role of BBB in endothelial transport of various substances into the brain. (hindawi.com)
  • It has been reported that cells of Bacillus halodurans C-125 produce acidic substances, such as teichuronopeptide and teichuronic acid, on their surface [ 10 - 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • homologous
  • X-ray diffraction reveals that lactoferrin is based on one polypeptide chain that contains about 700 amino acids and forms two homologous globular domains named N-and C-lobes. (wikipedia.org)
  • suggests
  • This review also suggests requirement of new well-designed therapeutic strategies mainly potential techniques, appropriate drug formulations, and new transport systems for quick, easy, and safe delivery of drugs across blood brain barrier to save the life of tumor and virus infected patients. (hindawi.com)
  • possesses
  • These are quite different from other capillaries found in the body as their endothelial wall possesses tight junctions which obstruct transport between cells. (hindawi.com)
  • SpeB is also found on the surfaces of the bacteria and possesses glycoprotein and laminin binding activities ( 19 ). (asm.org)
  • mixed acid ferment
  • Additionally, genes involved in mixed acid fermentation ( poxB , ackA ) were up-regulated in the biofilm. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Specific transcriptomic fingerprints can be inferred for both planktonic and sessile cells, having the former a more active TCA cycle, while the mixed acid fermentation process dominate in the latter. (biomedcentral.com)
  • molecules
  • Due to the fact that both the hypersensitivity reaction and the peak of lipoproteins in circulation occur ~5 hours postprandial, we hypothesize that the alpha-gal molecules are transported via intestinal lipoproteins. (etsu.edu)
  • Our preliminary data showed that a higher concentration of alpha-gal was present in the insoluble fractions, supporting our hypothesis that alpha-gal molecules are transported by intestinal lipoproteins. (etsu.edu)
  • Due to this observation, it is thought that the alpha-gal molecules are transported by intestinal lipoproteins. (etsu.edu)
  • In a nutshell, digestion involves breaking down large food molecules into water-soluble molecules that can be passed into the blood and transported to the body's organs. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • One sulfhydryl-containing amino acid can scavenge up to four molecules of HOCl. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this, it has been proposed that sulfhydryl groups of sulfur-containing amino acids can be oxidized a total of three times by three HClO molecules, with the fourth reacting with the α-amino group. (wikipedia.org)
  • chains
  • Because methylmercury is formed in aquatic systems and because it is not readily eliminated from organisms it is biomagnified in aquatic food chains from bacteria, to plankton, through macroinvertebrates, to herbivorous fish and to piscivorous (fish-eating) fish. (wikipedia.org)
  • found that the mammalian active site contains three surfaces: surface A (Phe75, Tyr207 and Thr240), surface B (Phe30, Tyr141, and Ala314), and surface C (Tyr70, Leu153 and Val155, located on the opposite domain) that bind to the substrate in a Van der Waals-type interaction with the branched side chains of the amino acid substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Magnetotactic bacteria produce their magnetic particles in chains. (wikipedia.org)