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  • Pax5
  • In 1999, Stephen Nutt, Barry Heavey, Antonius Rolink, and Meinrad Busslinger unveiled how Pax5 masterminds B cell development ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The trans- and dedifferentiation potential of Pax5-deficient B lymphoid cells is indicated by a dashed line. (jimmunol.org)
  • A third critical factor, B cell-specific activator protein, was shown to be encoded by the Pax5 gene ( 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Inactivation of Pax5 blocked B lymphoid ontogeny at the pro-B cell (also termed pre-B1) stage, during which time DNA recombination between D H and J H elements initiates the process that generates functional Ab genes ( 13 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Striking and unexpected insight came when Nutt and his colleagues tried differentiating Pax5-deficient pro-B cells on stromal cells in vitro ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • As expected, Ab gene rearrangement and subsequent B cell maturation could not be completed unless Pax5 expression was restored. (jimmunol.org)
  • Surprisingly, however, when the Pax5-deficient cells were inadvertently cultured for several weeks on ST2 stromal cells in the absence of the cytokine IL-7, they changed in appearance, looking suspiciously like myeloid cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Pax5-deficient pro-B cells could metamorphose into terminally differentiated macrophages in the presence of M-CSF, whereas GM-CSF produced dendritic cells, G-CSF produced granulocytes, TRANCE/RANKL produced osteoclasts, and IL-2 generated NK cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • 14 ) injected Pax5-deficient pro-B clones into immunodeficient RAG-2 null mice and showed that they could reconstitute T cell development, with the resulting T cells bearing clonal D H -J H DNA rearrangements, indicative of their B lymphoid origin, as well as fully rearranged TCR genes. (jimmunol.org)
  • The illuminating conclusion was that Pax5 not only activated vital B cell-specific genes, it also suppressed genes normally expressed in multiple other hematopoietic cell lineages (see Ref. 15 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The PAX5 gene, encoding the B-cell-specific activator protein, is a critical determinant of commitment to the B-lymphocyte pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
  • According to the fusion transcript, the resulting chimeric protein would retain the PAX5 paired-box domain and both the helix-loop-helix and DNA binding domains of TEL . Thus, it is reasonable to hypothesize that this protein could act as an aberrant transcription factor. (aacrjournals.org)
  • stromal cells
  • RESULTS: Examination of the mRNA expression pattern of Wnt ligands, Fzd receptors and Wnt antagonists revealed that BM B progenitor cells and stromal cells express a set of ligands and receptors available for induction of Wnt signaling as well as antagonists for fine tuning of this signaling. (biomedsearch.com)
  • induce
  • Ab to CD40 or CD40L synergizes with IL-4 to induce switching to IgG1 and IgE in cultured mouse splenic B cells ( 17 , 18 ) and expression of certain IgG subclasses and IgE in cultured human B cells ( 19 , 20 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • 1988 ). Consecutive work demonstrated that CD69 expression does not depend on the nature of a specific stimulus as many different classes of molecules, such as concanavalin A, anti-CD3 antibody, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), type I interferons (IFN), lipopolysaccharide, etc., can induce the expression of CD69. (springer.com)
  • maturation
  • 7 - 9 TSP-1 is secreted into the extracellular matrix by multiple cell types, and elevated levels of TSP-1 in a tissue create antiangiogenic pressure by limiting the survival of ECs and affecting the proliferation of SMCs and vessel maturation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cellular
  • The tissue-specific regulation of TSP-1 production and secretion into the matrix may result from distinct cellular composition of organs and from the cell-specific molecular mechanisms of regulation and can determine the fates of angiogenesis and SMC proliferation in a tissue. (ahajournals.org)
  • SLC12A1/NKCC2 and SLC12A2/NKCC1 regulate cell volume and maintain cellular homeostasis in response to osmotic and oxidative stress (1). (cellsignal.com)
  • To assure correct partitioning of cellular contents, cells use regulatory mechanisms to verify that each stage of cell division has been correctly accomplished before proceeding to the next step. (frontiersin.org)
  • A great deal is known about mechanisms that regulate chromosome segregation during cell division, but we know much less about the mechanisms by which cellular organelles are partitioned, and how these processes are coordinated. (frontiersin.org)
  • mammalian
  • The cold-shock response in cultured mammalian cells: Harnessing the response for the improvement of recombinant protein production. (springer.com)
  • Biochemical insights into the mechanisms central to the response of mammalian cells to cold-stress and subsequent rewarming. (springer.com)
  • Metabolic rates, growth phase, and mRNA levels influence cell-specific antibody production levels from in vitro cultured mammalian cells at sub-physiological temperatures. (springer.com)
  • On the effect of transient expression of mutated eIF2alpha and eIF4E eukaryotic translation initiation factors on reporter gene expression in mammalian cells upon cold-shock. (springer.com)
  • Prior to total disassembly, the Golgi ribbon in mammalian cells, composed of alternating cisternal stacks and tubular networks, undergoes fission of the tubular networks to produce individual stacks. (frontiersin.org)
  • There are three classes of mammalian Arf proteins, Class I (Arfs1-3), Class II (Arfs 4-5), and Class III (Arf6), the division being largely based on sequence homology. (frontiersin.org)
  • Gene Expression
  • Gene expression analysis of murine cells producing amphotropic mouse leukaemia virus at a cultivation temperature of 32 and 37 °C. Journal of General Virology, 84 , 1677-1686. (springer.com)
  • This was followed by postdoctoral research at the European Molecular Biology Laboratories (Heidelberg) and Istituto di Ricerche di Biologia Molecolare "P. Angeletti" (Rome) on the molecular mechanisms underlying liver-specific gene expression during inflammation. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • molecular
  • My research employs a combination of cell culture and mouse model systems coupled with molecular, biochemical, immunological and pharmacological approaches. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • The tissue and cell specificity of the effects of high glucose are well recognized, but the underlying cell type-specific molecular mechanisms controlled by glucose are still unclear. (ahajournals.org)
  • Although the tissue specificity of diabetic vascular complications has been known for many years (eg, aberrant angiogenesis manifesting as tissue-specific neovascularization or tissue-specific insufficient angiogenesis in different organs of the same patient at the same time), the molecular mechanisms regulating the tissue specificity of the vascular responses to hyperglycemia are unknown. (ahajournals.org)
  • Proliferation
  • Furthermore, T cell contact help, primarily mediated by CD40-CD40 ligand (L) interaction, is important for B cell activation, proliferation, and isotype switching during T-dependent immune responses ( 14 , 15 , 16 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • TSP-1 is a secreted matricellular protein with cell type-specific effects: eg, it induces the proliferation of VSMCs and inhibits the proliferation of ECs. (ahajournals.org)
  • murine
  • MSK2 is phosphorylated and activated in response to tumor necrosis factor, epidermal growth factor or phorbol ester in HeLa cells or murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) in a p38- and ERK-dependent manner (8,11). (cellsignal.com)
  • macrophages
  • Resting circulating leukocytes do not express CD69, but CD69 is induced very early after activation of T and B lymphocytes, NK cells, neutrophiles, macrophages, and eosinophiles. (springer.com)
  • epithelial cells
  • It is mainly expressed on the luminal membrane of renal epithelial cells of the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TALH) and mediates the majority of NaCl resorption and concentration of urine (1,2). (cellsignal.com)
  • vitro
  • Different susceptibility of cytotoxic T cells to CD95 (Fas/Apo-1) ligand-mediated cell death after activation in vitro versus in vivo. (jimmunol.org)
  • Glucocorticoids promote a TH2 cytokine response by CD4+ T cells in vitro. (jimmunol.org)
  • High-dose IL-2 and IL-15 enhance the in vitro priming of naive CD4+ T cells for IFN-gamma but have differential effects on priming for IL-4. (jimmunol.org)
  • CD69 was first described as the activation antigen expressed on natural killer (NK) cells and T lymphocytes upon in vitro stimulation with interleukin (IL)-2 (Lanier et al. (springer.com)
  • progenitor
  • Exogenous Wnt3A induced stabilization and nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin in primary lineage restricted B progenitor cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Examination of early events in the coculture showed that Wnt3A inhibits cell division of B progenitor cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • membrane
  • When eukaryotic cells divide, they must faithfully segregate not only the genetic material but also their membrane-bound organelles into each daughter cell. (frontiersin.org)
  • In their active GTP-bound form, Arf proteins are tightly associated with the membrane bilayer. (frontiersin.org)
  • lymphomas
  • This gene is located at 9p13, which is involved in t(9;14)(p13;q32) translocations recurring in small lymphocytic lymphomas of the plasmacytoid subtype, and in derived large-cell lymphomas. (sdix.com)