• Here, we develop a coarse-grained functional to explicitly model how the coordination of the metal (which results in a so-called entatic or rack-induced state) modifies the folding of the metallated Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin. (caltech.edu)
  • Fukuo T, Kubota N, Kataoka K, Nakai M, Suzuki S, Arakawa R (1998) Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis of blue copper proteins Azurin and mavicyanin. (springer.com)
  • Blue copper proteins, such as azurin, show dramatic changes in Cu2+/Cu+ reduction potential upon mutation over the full physiological range. (manchester.ac.uk)
  • Although unrelated to its electron-transfer property, azurin has been found to have anticancer properties through its interaction with tumor-suppressor protein p53. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial redox protein azurin , tumor suppressor protein p53, and regression of cancer. (kanker-actueel.nl)
  • Moreover, expression of azurin caused no changes in MSC expression profile of cytokines relevant in the context of cancer progression, thus suggesting that the antitumoral effects induced by hazu-MSC secretome might be due to the presence of azurin independently. (frontiersin.org)
  • Presence of azurin gene was tested for 25 environmental (soil) isolates using specific oligonucleotide primers (AZU-F and AZU-R) in a gradient PCR. (ac.bd)
  • Out of 25 isolates, 10 showed the presence of azurin gene by amplifying a single 545 bp DNA fragment in PCR. (ac.bd)
  • Presence of azurin gene was confirmed by PCR, and partially purified azurin protein was detected by SDS-PAGE according to specific molecular weight. (ac.bd)
  • However, this is the first report that azurin is also effective as an anticancer agent. (kanker-actueel.nl)
  • Here we report that azurin and an azurin-like protein (Laz) from gonococci/meningococci have activity against Toxoplasma, an apicomplexan parasite that causes opportunistic infection in immunocompromised individuals. (elsevier.com)
  • The active-site cysteine at position 112 was replaced by an aspartate (Cys112Asp) to assess directly the importance of this ligand to the structure-function properties of azurin. (caltech.edu)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is arsenite:azurin oxidoreductase. (wikipedia.org)
  • This method uses the gene for azurin from P. aeruginosa as an expression system for azurin or heterologous proteins in P. aeruginosa or heterologous cells. (google.com)
  • We combine experimental and computational methods to address the anomalous kinetics of long-range electron transfer (ET) in mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin. (caltech.edu)
  • ET rates and driving forces for wild type (WT) and three N47X mutants (X = L, S, and D) of Ru(2,2′-bipyridine)2 (imidazole)(His83) azurin are reported. (caltech.edu)
  • The underlying atomistic features are investigated using a recently developed nonadiabatic molecular dynamics method to simulate ET in each of the azurin mutants, revealing unexpected aspects of DA electronic coupling. (caltech.edu)
  • Moreover, it has been difficult to model and predict the reduction potential of azurin mutants and currently no unique procedure or workflow pattern exists. (manchester.ac.uk)
  • In this work a novel approach for calculating reduction potentials of azurin mutants is shown, based on a combination of continuum electrostatics, density functional theory and empirical hydrophobicity factors. (manchester.ac.uk)
  • We present a theoretical study of the blue-copper azurin extracted from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and several of its single amino acid mutants. (rsc.org)
  • Azurin moderates single-electron transfer between enzymes associated with the cytochrome chain by undergoing oxidation-reduction between Cu(I) and Cu(II). (wikipedia.org)
  • Azurin from P aeruginosa is a type I blue copper protein (cupredoxin), while cytochrome c551 (9 kDa) is a haem-containing cytochrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Azurin possesses a relatively large hydrophobic patch close to the active site, and two residues in this hydrophobic patch, Met-44 and Met-64, are believed to be involved in its interaction with the redox partners cytochrome c551 and nitrite reductase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of particular interest is to tune the redox potential of cupredoxin T1 azurin (Az), by manipulating the interaction beyond primary coordination sphere. (nus.edu.sg)
  • 9. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 4 , wherein the cupredoxin peptide is part or all of a protein selected from the group consisting of an azurin, pseudoazurin, plastocyanin, rusticyanin, Laz, auracyanin, stellacyanin and cucumber basic protein. (google.com)
  • p28 is a 28-amino acid peptide fragment of the cupredoxin azurin derived from Pseudomonas aeruginosa that preferentially penetrates cancerous cells and arrests their proliferation in vitro and in vivo. (uic.edu)
  • The cupredoxin family protein azurin, produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, exhibits a remarkable ability to impede invasion of a number of diverse intracellular pathogens, including the human AIDS virus human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum (which causes malaria). (elsevier.com)
  • Crystal structure of an electron transfer complex between aromatic amine dehydrogenase and azurin from Alcaligenes faecalis. (genome.jp)
  • The coordination chemistry and electron-transfer properties of a single-site mutant of the mononuclear copper electron-transfer protein azurin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been studied. (caltech.edu)
  • Although the mutant protein retains a high-affinity copper-binding active site, the absorption and EPR spectra of Cu[superscript II]Cys112Asp azurin are quite distinct from those of the wild-type protein and indicate the presence of a normal (type 2) copper center. (caltech.edu)
  • A redox-negative mutant form of azurin (M44K/M64E) demonstrates much less cytotoxicity to the UISO-Mel-2 cells than the wild-type protein. (kanker-actueel.nl)
  • Crystal structure of the disulfide bond-deficient azurin mutant C3A/C26A: how important is the S-S bond for folding and stability? (expasy.org)
  • Although azurin has a high inherent stability, the introduction of a novel disulfide bond connecting a flexible loop with small alpha-helix (D62C/K74C copper-containing mutant), increased the T(m) by 3.7 degrees C compared with the holo protein. (chalmers.se)
  • Mutant K24R stabilizes loops between two separate beta-strands and D23E/K128R was selected to stabilize the C-terminus of azurin. (chalmers.se)
  • The method, based on guanidinium chloride denaturation of the azurin mutant C112S from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, distinguishes between the effects of cooling to subfreezing temperatures from those induced specifically by the formation of a solid ice phase. (cnr.it)
  • Taken together, these observations suggest that electrons tunnel through the enzyme along its polypeptide and hydrogen bonds, making azurin is a useful model system for studying long-range, intraprotein electron transfer (LRET). (wikipedia.org)
  • When expressed in nitrogen-fixing organisms, azurin serves as the electron donor to nitrite reductase, an enzyme in the denitrification pathway of the nitrogen cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Azurin enters preferentially into cancer cells via the p28 domain of the enzyme, which roughly corresponds to the extended alpha-helical region of the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arsenate reductase (azurin) (EC 1.20.9.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction arsenite + H2O + 2 azurinox ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } arsenate + 2 azurinred + 2 H+ The 3 substrates of this enzyme are arsenite, water, and oxidised azurin, whereas its 3 products are arsenate, reduced azurin, and hydrogen ion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Herein, square-wave voltammetry was employed to investigate the electrostatic effects on the redox properties of tryptophan in two variants of the protein azurin. (genscript.com)
  • A peptide fragment of Azurin (P28) has shown to preferentially enter cancer cells and is responsible for the antitumor effect without affecting neighboring normal cells. (uni-ulm.de)
  • shows the conventional cyclic voltammogram and the simultaneously recorded FCV of Cy5-labeled wild-type (wt) azurin adsorbed on gold covered with a hexanethiol self-assembled monolayer (SAM), using epifluorescent detection, at a scan rate of 100 mV s 1. (docme.ru)
  • Ashur, I & Jones, AK 2012, ' Immobilization of azurin with retention of its native electrochemical properties at alkylsilane self-assembled monolayer modified indium tin oxide ', Electrochimica Acta , vol. 85, pp. 169-174. (elsevier.com)
  • Copper binding before polypeptide folding speeds up formation of active (holo) Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin. (nih.gov)
  • Copper removal produces apo-azurin which adopts a folded structure identical to that of the holo-form. (nih.gov)
  • Copper uptake by folded apo-azurin, to govern active (holo) protein, is slow (tau approximately 14 min, 50:1 copper-to-protein ratio). (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, the formation of active (holo) azurin is much faster when copper is allowed to interact with the unfolded polypeptide. (nih.gov)
  • 4000-fold) formation of active (i.e., holo) azurin. (nih.gov)
  • This study investigates the effects of introducing a novel disulfide bond and engineered electrostatic interactions with respect to the thermostability of holo azurin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (chalmers.se)
  • These structures support the selected design and provide valuable information for evaluating effects of the modifications on the thermostability of holo azurin. (chalmers.se)
  • We clarified the denitrifying systems of the actinomycete Streptomyces thioluteus and the yeasts Trichosporon cutaneum and Fellomyces fuzhouensis, We found the occurrence of P450nor in T.cutaneum and purified nitrite reductase (Nir) and azurin from S.thioluteus. (nii.ac.jp)
  • ArCH(2)NH(2) + H(2)O + 2 azurin = ArCHO + NH(3) + 2 reduced azurin. (cathdb.info)
  • Fluorescent Cyclic Voltammetry of Immobilized Azurin Direct Observation of Thermodynamic and Kinetic Heterogeneity. (docme.ru)
  • Cyclic voltammogram (black) and successive epifluorescent cyclic voltammograms (gray) of Cy5-labeled wt azurin at 100 mVs 1 scan rate (4 cycles). (docme.ru)
  • As a calibration standard, we have measured XMCD and X-ray absorption (XAS) spectra for the nickel(II) derivative of Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin (NiAz). (ubc.ca)
  • Ali MA, Mohamed MS, Sedek RG (2017) Can metal replacement increase the antitumor activity of azurin? (springer.com)
  • Nour El Din, Suzanne (2017): Azurin (P28) fusion protein mediated photodynamic therapy in the treatment of malignant tumors. (uni-ulm.de)
  • 2014). Phenoxazinone synthase Activity of Azurin Variants. (umn.edu)
  • The genes encoding Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin variants W48 (Y72F/Y108F), W48F (W48F/Y72F/Y108F), and W108 (W48F/Y72F/Y108W) were synthesized by GenScript (Piscataway, NJ) and subcloned into pET 9a vectors. (genscript.com)
  • Electron transfer reactions between aromatic amine dehydrogenase and azurin. (genome.jp)
  • Gated and ungated electron transfer reactions from aromatic amine dehydrogenase to azurin. (genome.jp)
  • The Co[superscript II] derivative of Cys112Asp azurin was prepared and found to be amenable to paramagnetic NMR spectroscopy. (caltech.edu)
  • The electronic spectroscopy of Ni[superscript II] Cys112Asp azurin suggests the existence of some bonding interaction with the thioether sulfur atom of Met121. (caltech.edu)
  • Low temperature 65Cu NMR spectroscopy of the Cu+ site in azurin. (nih.gov)
  • To study this reaction, an azurin protein scaffold model was used. (umn.edu)
  • Thus, intracellular trafficking of azurin to the nucleus is p53-dependent. (kanker-actueel.nl)
  • Adsorption of azurin at ITO as well as ITO coated with self-assembled monolayers of (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxysilane (MPTMS) and n-decyltrimethoxysilane (DTMS) was achieved, and immobilized protein probed using protein film electrochemistry. (elsevier.com)
  • 18 maart 20112: Over Azurin, een bacterieel eiwit gebruikt als immuuntherapeutisch middel bij melanomen is na 2002 niet veel meer te vinden in Pubmed. (kanker-actueel.nl)
  • Dat het nieuws over de effectiviteit van een eiwit - Azurin - gehaald uit bacteriën als vaccin in een driejarige studie bij melanomen in muizen goed en veelbelovend is bevestigt nu ook Ralph Moss in zijn nieuwsbrief van 29 november 2002. (kanker-actueel.nl)
  • The folding and unfolding kinetics for apo-azurin follow two-state behavior. (nih.gov)
  • However, azurin adsorbed at a DTMS covered ITO surface retained native electrochemical properties (E 1/2 = 122 ± 5 mV vs. Ag/AgCl) and could exchange electrons directly with the underlying ITO layer without need for an intervening chemical mediator. (elsevier.com)
  • Refolding in the presence of 10:1, 50:1, and 100:1 copper:protein ratios yields identical time-trajectories: active azurin forms in two kinetic phases with folding times, extrapolated to water, of tau = 10 +/- 2 ms (major phase) and tau = 190 +/- 30 ms (minor phase), respectively. (nih.gov)
  • Azurin" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (childrensmercy.org)
  • This work, which reveals the surprisingly fluctional nature of ET in azurin, suggests that hydrogen-bond networks can modulate the efficiency of long-range biological ET. (caltech.edu)
  • Each monomer of an azurin tetramer has a molecular weight of approximately 14kDa, contains a single copper atom, is intensively blue, and has a fluorescence emission band centered at 308 nm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Total cellular partially purified protein extracted from 10 azurin producing isolates selected from PCR fractionated by SDS PAGE produced patterns with a wide range of discrete bands with the inclusion of 14 kDa Molecular weight. (ac.bd)
  • Existing structural information about azurin has largely been derived from X-ray crystallography studies of single-site mutated forms of the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the Cu(I)/Cu(II) redox potential is typically higher for azurin than most other copper complexes, structural studies in which Met121 (one of azurin's equatorial copper-coordinating ligands) is replaced have demonstrated that the absence of a thiolate copper ligand does not preclude high reduction potentials, as large hydrophobic residues in position 121 also raise the redox potential of the copper atom. (wikipedia.org)
  • Computer structural analysis reveals that azurin shares structural features with the predominant surface antigen SAG1, which is known to play an important role in parasite attachment. (elsevier.com)
  • Interestingly, azurin also has structural similarities to a monoclonal antibody to SAG1. (elsevier.com)
  • We report the use of a purified bacterial redox protein, azurin , that enters human cancer ( melanoma UISO-Mel-2) cells and induces apoptosis. (kanker-actueel.nl)
  • The 2.4-Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of Cu[superscript II] Cys112Asp azurin is reported and confirms this ligand set and geometry. (caltech.edu)
  • Effects of sugars and polyols on the stability of azurin in ice. (cnr.it)
  • Sankar R, Siddik S, Abhijit M, Mahitosh M (2011) Azurin synthesis from Pseudomonas Aeruginosa MTCC 2453, properties, induction of reactive oxygen species, and p53 stimulated apoptosis in breast carcinoma cells. (springer.com)