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  • Neuron
  • An axon or nerve fiber is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that conducts electrical impulses away from the neuron's cell body or soma. (medicalxpress.com)
  • An axon is one of two types of protoplasmic protrusions that extrude from the cell body of a neuron, the other type being dendrites. (medicalxpress.com)
  • While several recent studies discovered molecules that repel motor neuron axons from incorrect targets in the limb, scientists at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies have identified a molecule, known as FGF, that actively lures growing axons closer to the right destination. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Understanding how axons find their destinations may help restore movement in people following spinal cord injury, or those with motor neuron diseases such as Lou Gehrig's disease, spinal muscle atrophy, and post-polio syndrome. (rxpgnews.com)
  • An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The swollen end of a telodendron is known as the axon terminal which joins the dendron or cell body of another neuron forming a synaptic connection. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some circumstances, the axon of one neuron may form a synapse with the dendrites of the same neuron, resulting in an autapse. (wikipedia.org)
  • An axon is part of a neuron. (wikipedia.org)
  • The impulse is limited to a single bifurcated axon, or a neuron whose axon branches into two divisions and does not cause a general response to surrounding tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The axon reflex results in a localized response to only the locally innervated cells of the single neuron where the signal originated. (wikipedia.org)
  • An axon, also called a nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that conducts electrical impulses called action potentials away from the neuron's cell body, or soma, in order to transmit those impulses to other neurons, muscle cells or glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • The axon terminal, and the neuron from which it comes, is sometimes referred to as the "presynaptic" neuron. (wikipedia.org)
  • The neurotransmitter molecule packages (vesicles) are created within the neuron, then travel down the axon to the distal axon terminal where they sit docked. (wikipedia.org)
  • The axon hillock is a specialized part of the cell body (or soma) of a neuron that connects to the axon. (wikipedia.org)
  • The length of an axon can be extraordinary: for example, if a pyramidal cell, (an excitatory neuron) of the cerebral cortex were magnified so that its cell body became the size of a human body, its axon, equally magnified, would become a cable a few centimeters in diameter, extending more than a kilometer. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuronal
  • These cues can be expressed on glial and neuronal cells the growing axon contacts or be part of the extracellular matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, many studies are being conducted in model organisms, such grasshoppers, zebrafish, and fruit flies to study the effects of manipulations of pioneer axons on neuronal development. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2017
  • On July 13, 2017, President Trump announced his intent to nominate Axon to serve as a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Northern District of Alabama. (wikipedia.org)
  • cues
  • By Salk Institute, During embryonic development, nerve cells hesitantly extend tentacle-like protrusions called axons that sniff their way through a labyrinth of attractive and repulsive chemical cues that guide them to their target. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Axons use mechanical and chemical cues to find their targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, many other classes of extracellular molecules are used by growth cones to navigate properly: Developmental morphogens, such as BMPs, Wnts, Hedgehog, and FGFs Extracellular matrix and adhesion molecules such as laminin, tenascins, proteoglycans, N-CAM, and L1 Growth factors like NGF Neurotransmitters and modulators like GABA Growing axons rely on a variety of guidance cues in deciding upon a growth pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • The growth cones of extending axons process these cues in an intricate system of signal interpretation and integration, in order to ensure appropriate guidance. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cues can be functionally subdivided into: Adhesive cues, that provide physical interaction with the substrate necessary for axon protrusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, studies in vertebrate nervous systems of ventral midline crossing axons, has shown that modulatory cues play a crucial part in tuning axon responses to other cues, suggesting that the process of axon guidance is nonlinear. (wikipedia.org)
  • He advocated that axons were guided by chemotactic cues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Weiss argued that functional specificity did not depend on specific axon connections, and that nonspecific mechanical cues participated in guiding axons. (wikipedia.org)
  • A variety of chemotactic cues provide essential signaling directing the directional growth of pioneer axons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of the various chemotactic cues that have been explored in the mechanisms of pioneer axons include netrin, ephrin, semaphorin, Slit-Robo, and Notch. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nerves
  • The growth cones of growing nerves control axon outgrowth and direction. (els.net)
  • Axons are the primary transmission lines of the nervous system, and as bundles they form nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, later experiments showed that in both invertebrate and vertebrate models, axons grew along pre-determined routes to create a reproducible scaffold of nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • The axon reflex (or the flare response) is the response stimulated by peripheral nerves of the body that travels away from the nerve cell body and branches to stimulate target organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although Lewis observed vasodilation that could be explained by axon reflex, there was not yet direct evidence explaining the branching of nerves from the center of an axon rather than a cell body or which chemical agents were responsible for the goose bump, red line, and dilated blood vessel symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • synapse
  • At a synapse, the membrane of the axon closely adjoins the membrane of the target cell, and special molecular structures serve to transmit electrical or electrochemical signals across the gap. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In the axon reflex, signaling starts in the middle of the axon at the stimulation site and transmits signals directly to the effector organ skipping both an integration center and a chemical synapse present in the spinal cord reflex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The axon reflex was discovered and was described as "a new type of peripheral reflex" that bypasses the integration center and synapse in the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • They described the axon reflex as a new type of peripheral (or local) reflex where electrical signal starts in the middle of the axon and transmit immediately skipping both an integration center and a chemical synapse as typically observed in the spinal cord reflex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurotransmitters are packaged into synaptic vesicles that cluster beneath the axon terminal membrane on the presynaptic side of a synapse. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs): Integral membrane proteins mediating adhesion between growing axons and eliciting intracellular signalling within the growth cone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process occurring at the axon terminal is exocytosis, which a cell uses to exude secretory vesicles out of the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The axon hillock also functions as a tight junction, since it acts as a barrier for lateral diffusion of transmembrane proteins, GPI anchored proteins such as thy1, and lipids embedded in the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • signals
  • A foray into plant biology led one researcher to discover that a natural molecule can repair axons, the thread-like projections that carry electrical signals between cells. (mcgill.ca)
  • Axons are distinguished from dendrites by several features, including shape (dendrites often taper while axons usually maintain a constant radius), length (dendrites are restricted to a small region around the cell body while axons can be much longer), and function (dendrites usually receive signals while axons usually transmit them). (medicalxpress.com)
  • The axon reflex is possible through the transmission of signals from the cutaneous receptors on the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Greek
  • a threadlike structure on which impulses are transmitted away from the main body of a nerve cell [from Greek, axon, axle, axis]. (everything2.com)
  • fasciculation
  • Glial cells also participate in the fasciculation and defasciculation of axons, which are essential in shaping the pathways that are eventually followed. (wikipedia.org)
  • repel
  • they can attract or repel axons. (wikipedia.org)
  • A combination of genetic and biochemical methods (see below) has led to the discovery of several important classes of axon guidance molecules and their receptors: Netrins: Netrins are secreted molecules that can act to attract or repel axons by binding to their receptors, DCC and UNC5. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • We have identified a novel strategy to promote axon regeneration with a family of small molecules that may be excellent candidates for future drug development," says Fournier. (mcgill.ca)
  • Axon pathfinding is accomplished with relatively few guidance molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myelin insulates axons from electrically charged atoms and molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Growth
  • Establishment of these connections involves the growth and extension of long thin processes, known as axons, from the main body of the cell. (els.net)
  • Once development is complete, axon growth may continue in discrete neurogenic regions of the brain and also following nerve injury. (els.net)
  • The team found that the physical bonding of 14-3-3 and GCN1 is an important factor in fusicoccin-A-induced axon growth. (mcgill.ca)
  • The axons are stained in green and the tips of the growing axons, called growth cones, are stained in red. (mcgill.ca)
  • Observations of axon growth during the early embryonic period have led to conclusions that axons are actively guided to specific locations. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, glial cells demonstrate an interaction with the growth cones of pioneer axons. (wikipedia.org)
  • A proposed mechanism involves the creation of a scaffold made out of interface glia, which growth cones contact during the establishment of axon tracts. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, ablation of glia in later embryonic development also interfered with guidance of follower axons, showing that glial cells are necessary in maintaining scaffold needed for contacting growth cones. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2018
  • On January 5, 2018 President Donald Trump announced his intent to renominate Axon to a federal judgeship. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular
  • As a rule of thumb, the activating function is proportional to the second-order spatial derivative of the extracellular potential along the axon. (wikipedia.org)
  • smartphone
  • ZTE has just made its latest smartphone, the Axon 7 , available for preordering by way of its official US website , and at Amazon, Best Buy, B&H, and Newegg, for a price of $400, with shipping to start on July 27th of this year. (wirefly.com)
  • With the coming of the Axon 7, the $400 smartphone club just got a little more crowded. (wirefly.com)
  • regeneration
  • Andrew Kaplan, a PhD candidate at the Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital of McGill University, was looking for a pharmacological approach to axon regeneration, with a focus on 14-3-3, a family of proteins with neuroprotective functions that have been under investigation in the laboratory of Dr. Alyson Fournier, professor of neurology and neurosurgery and senior author on the study. (mcgill.ca)
  • IMAGE: Treatment with fusicoccin-A induces the regeneration of damaged axons towards the center of the injury. (mcgill.ca)
  • dendrites
  • citation needed] Both inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) and excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) are summed in the axon hillock and once a triggering threshold is exceeded, an action potential propagates through the rest of the axon (and "backwards" towards the dendrites as seen in neural backpropagation). (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • Furthermore, MMCm axons could not "hear" their muscle partner's call and failed to reach their destination in mouse mutants lacking the sensor molecule. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Whereas
  • Whereas most microtubules (red) are located within the axon and splay out into the central region, some do become stabilised within active filopodia. (els.net)
  • attractant
  • A single chemotactic cue can both act as an attractant or repellent to pioneer axons, and may work from either a distance or within the immediate vicinity. (wikipedia.org)
  • longest
  • The longest axon in the human body would be those that run from the base of your spine down to your feet, the longest of which probably controls the interosseus muscles which twitch your toe s from side to side. (everything2.com)
  • The longest axons in the human body are those of the sciatic nerve, which run from the base of the spinal cord to the big toe of each foot. (wikipedia.org)
  • consists
  • however in invertebrates such as insects the axon sometimes consists of several regions that function more or less independently of each other. (medicalxpress.com)