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  • axons
  • These ?ndings reveal a new relationship between GSK-3 and APP, and demonstrate that endogenous GSK-3 is an essential in vivo regulator of bidirectional APP transport in axons and lipid droplets in embryos. (utexas.edu)
  • amyloid precurs
  • Using genetic, biochemical and biophysical approaches in Drosophila melanogaster , we ?nd that endogenous GSK-3 is a required negative regulator of both kinesin-1-mediated and dynein-mediated axonal transport of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), a key contributor to AD pathology. (utexas.edu)
  • Vivo
  • By measuring the forces motors generate in vivo, we ?nd that GSK-3 regulates transport by altering the activity of kinesin-1 motors but not their binding to the cargo. (utexas.edu)
  • neuron
  • Axonal transport occurs throughout the life of a neuron and is essential to its growth and survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, since prolonged complete interruption of axonal transport is theoretically inconsistent with the continued normal neuron function characteristic of papilledema and, moreover, since previous data shows a "slowdown" rather than complete blockade of axonal transport in papilledema, it is likely that in eyes with papilledema there does not exist a complete flock of axonal transport. (arvojournals.org)
  • For experiments comparing the effect of endogenous mutant huntingtin on axonal transport, female heterozygous Hdh150Q mice were crossed with male heterozygous Hdh150Q mice to generate either wild-type Hdh or homozygous Hdh150Q littermates for primary neuron cultures. (jneurosci.org)
  • In a study published in the December issue of the journal Neuron, researchers demonstrated that axonal transport is disrupted in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), which is an animal model of the disease Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Researchers were also able to demonstrate that this disruption, while pervasive, was reversible. (labroots.com)
  • 2001). "Axonal transport of amyloid precursor protein is mediated by direct binding to the kinesin light chain subunit of kinesin-I". Neuron. (wikipedia.org)
  • vesicle
  • We propose that PD and other neurodegenerative diseases exhibiting dying-back neuropathology represent a previously undescribed category of neurological diseases characterized by dysfunction of vesicle transport and associated with the loss of synaptic function," they write. (alzforum.org)
  • In addition to this long established metabolic function, GAPDH has recently been implicated in several non-metabolic processes, including transcription activation, initiation of apoptosis, ER to Golgi vesicle shuttling, and fast axonal, or axoplasmic transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • The C. elegans counterpart of this gene is found to regulate synaptic vesicle transport possibly by integrating JNK signaling and kinesin-1 transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dynactin or Dynein activator complex is a multi-subunit protein found in eukaryotic cells that aids in bidirectional intracellular transport by binding to dynein and kinesin-2 and linking them to the organelle or vesicle to be transported. (wikipedia.org)
  • dynactin
  • Dynactin p25/DCTN5 and p27/DCTN6 are not essential for dynactin complex integrity, but are required for early and recycling endosome transport during the interphase and regulation of the spindle assembly checkpoint in mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymers
  • These observations suggest that slow axonal transport is a collection of fast but infrequent movements, which appear slow when the population of moving and nonmoving polymers are studied collectively. (rupress.org)
  • abnormalities
  • The team suggested that the disruption was likely due to both the inflammatory process and the demyelination process of EAE, and it's human counterpart, MS. The study also showed that the transport problems occurred before any signs of abnormalities in the microtubules could be seen. (labroots.com)
  • peptides
  • Peptide transport was determined by incubating ganglia with 35S-methionine and measuring the appearance of labeled peptides in connected ganglia. (jneurosci.org)
  • Labeled peptides transported between ganglia included FMRFamide, myomodulin, and pedal peptide. (jneurosci.org)
  • In addition to these previously characterized neuropeptides, a number of other as yet uncharacterized labeled peptides were also transported. (jneurosci.org)
  • Overall, FMRFamide and several unidentified peptides were the predominant transported peptides. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, the nature and amount of the peptides transported differed for each ganglia. (jneurosci.org)