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  • species
  • In 1999, influenza viruses from quail infected two humans in Hong Kong, suggesting the potential for avian influenza viruses to cross the species barrier and infect humans without prior reassortment in an intermediate host, such as the pig. (abcam.com)
  • By coexpression and coimmunoprecipitation with species-specific antibodies, we could show the formation of mixed subviral particles and disulfide-linked heterodimers between the WHV S and HBV M proteins whereas the DHBV and HBV surface proteins did not coassemble. (asm.org)
  • Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD), a skeletal abnormality apparent as a plug of non-vascularized, non-mineralized, white opaque cartilage in the tibial growth plate of avian species can serve as a good model for studying process and genes involved in matrix mineralization and calcification. (frontiersin.org)
  • The construct ORF2-3 aa339-507 was used to study the potential binding of avian HEV capsid protein to human and other avian species. (duhnnae.com)
  • For the first time, interactions between avian HEV capsid protein and host cells were investigated demonstrating that aa471 to 507 of the capsid protein are needed to facilitate interaction with different kind of cells from different species. (duhnnae.com)
  • Antibody
  • Anti-Avian Influenza Matrix Protein I antibody (ab25918) at 0.5 µg/ml (Western blot analysis of Avian Flu Matrix Protein 1. (abcam.com)
  • It is possible that preferential boosting of low-frequency, stalk-reactive memory B cells in response to avian influenza HAs ( 12 - 15 ) may be responsible for the low magnitude of the neutralizing antibody response. (asm.org)
  • Such targeting approaches have involved engineered versions of the Sindbis virus E2 glycoprotein bearing either a Staphylococcus aureus protein A domain [ 4 - 14 ] or single chain antibody fragments fused in-frame to the E2 glycoprotein coding region [ 15 ], allowing antibody-mediated cell targeting in the presence of the Sindbis virus E1 fusion protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • epitope
  • MAb 3A9 might be a valuable tool for the development of new immunodiagnostic approaches for ALV, and the defined linear epitope might help further our understanding of the antigenic structure of the P27 protein. (deepdyve.com)
  • Here, we empirically examine the epitope diversity and abundance of CD4 T cells elicited by seasonal and avian HA proteins. (asm.org)
  • Further identification of the displayed epitope was performed with a set of truncated polypeptides expressed as glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins, and the motif 182 WNDNT 186 was defined as the minimal unit of the linear B cell epitope recognized by MAb D9 in western blot assays. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We identified a conserved linear epitope, WNDNT, on the AIV NS1 protein that is recognized by MAb D9. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The competitive binding assay indicated that all mAbs recognized the same epitope on sC protein that was conserved in different isolates. (npust.edu.tw)
  • fusion proteins
  • The titers of unconcentrated vector particles bearing Sindbis virus strain TR339 or vesicular stomatitis virus G fusion proteins plus stem cell factor in the context of c-kit expressing cells were up to 3.2 × 10 5 transducing units per ml while vector particles lacking the stem cell factor ligand displayed titers that were approximately 80 fold lower. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The background levels were lower compared to alternative strategies involving Sindbis virus strain TR339 or vesicular stomatitis virus fusion proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • surface proteins
  • Phenotypic mixing of rodent but not avian hepadnavirus surface proteins into human hepatitis B virus particles. (asm.org)
  • To investigate the assembly of these proteins, we asked whether surface proteins from different hepadnaviruses are able to mix phenotypically with each other. (asm.org)
  • The results suggest that the assembly of HBV subviral particles and virion envelopes requires relatively precise molecular interactions of their surface proteins, which are not conserved between the two hepadnavirus genera. (asm.org)
  • subgroup
  • Transduction of erythropoietin receptor-expressing cells mediated by bi-functional bridge proteins was found to be dependent on the dose, the correct subgroup-specific virus receptor and the correct envelope protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • capsid protein
  • The capsid protein P27 is the group-specific antigen of ALV and has many viral antigen sites that are easy to detect. (deepdyve.com)
  • In this study, four truncated avian HEV capsid proteins ORF2-1 - ORF2-4 with an identical 338aa deletion at the N-terminus and gradual deletions from 0, 42, 99 and 136aa at the C-terminus, respectively, were expressed and used to map the possible binding site within avian HEV capsid protein. (duhnnae.com)
  • However, the shortest construct, ORF2-4, lost the capability of binding to cells suggesting that the presence of amino acids 471 to 507 of the capsid protein is crucial for the attachment. (duhnnae.com)
  • poultry
  • Avian influenza virus HAs preferentially recognize α2,3 linked SA receptors, which are abundant in the gastrointestinal tract of poultry and wild birds ( 13 ), whereas those from human viruses preferentially recognize α2,6 linked SA receptors, which are present in the upper respiratory tract of both humans and ferrets ( 14 - 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • neuraminidase
  • The 1918 PB2 protein was found to be both necessary and sufficient for airborne transmission of a virus expressing the 1918 HA and neuraminidase. (pnas.org)
  • envelope
  • This contrasts with the ability of, e.g., rhabdoviruses or retroviruses, to incorporate envelope proteins even from unrelated viruses. (asm.org)
  • humans
  • Vaccine trials have suggested that humans respond poorly to avian influenza vaccines relative to seasonal vaccines. (asm.org)
  • Because of the generally high levels of cross-reactive CD4 T cells in humans, it is not possible to compare the inherent immunogenicities of avian and seasonal HA proteins in an unbiased manner. (asm.org)
  • Therefore, we conclude that failure in responses to avian vaccines in humans is likely due to a lack of cross-reactive CD4 T cell memory perhaps coupled with competition with or suppression of naive, HA-specific CD4 T cells by memory CD4 T cells specific for more highly conserved proteins. (asm.org)
  • Although it appears that adjuvants, higher doses, and prime-boost strategies may be effective in overcoming the apparent low immunogenicity, it is still not clear why primary responses to avian influenza vaccines are so weak in humans. (asm.org)
  • glycoprotein
  • In one of the strategies, vector particles bearing a membrane-bound stem cell factor sequence plus a separate fusion protein based either on Sindbis virus strain TR339 glycoproteins or the vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein were used to selectively transduce cells expressing the corresponding stem cell factor receptor (c-kit). (biomedcentral.com)
  • chicken
  • We used low-stringency hybridization of a chicken embryonic cDNA library to isolate cDNA clones coding for three chicken winged helix (CWH) proteins, CWH-1, CWH-2, and CWH-3. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Human
  • Here, we used a series of human 1918-avian H1N1 influenza reassortant viruses to identify the genetic determinants that govern airborne transmission of avian influenza viruses. (pnas.org)
  • Studies to investigate the transmissibility of the 1918 pandemic virus have been carried out in ferrets, which, based on accumulated data, are the best available animal model to study transmission of avian and human influenza viruses ( 7 , 9 - 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • However, the majority of Avian Influenza viruses (93%) are able to produce the PB1-F2 protein compared to human (43%) and swine (48%) influenza viruses. (zootecnicainternational.com)
  • These studies revealed that the diversity and abundance of CD4 T cells specific for HA do not segregate on the basis of whether the HA was derived from human seasonal or avian influenza viruses. (asm.org)
  • More recently, in 2013, an outbreak of H7N9 avian influenza in China exhibited a similarly high case fatality rate of around 35% and showed some evidence of nonsustained, human-to-human transmission ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • However, heparinase II treatment of LMH cells had no effect on binding of the ORF2-3 construct, suggesting a possible distinct attachment mechanism of avian as compared to human HEV. (duhnnae.com)
  • molecular
  • Sensitizer-induced occupational asthma immunologic form of asthma which occurs due to inhalation of specific substances (i.e., high-molecular-weight proteins from plants and animal origins, or low-molecular-weight agents that include chemicals, metals and wood dusts) and occurs after a latency period of several weeks to years. (wikipedia.org)
  • assay
  • Results from the binding assay showed that three truncated capsid proteins attached to avian LMH cells, but did not penetrate into cells. (duhnnae.com)
  • receptors
  • Ashwell's work on hepatic binding proteins has served as a stimulus for the identification of a host of carbohydrate-specific receptors on various cell surfaces and has inaugurated the current concept of a cellular lectin. (asbmb.org)
  • genomes
  • Complementation of HBV genomes defective in expressing the S or L protein and therefore incompetent to form virions was possible with the closely related WHV S protein or a WHV pre-S-HBV S chimera, respectively, but not with the less related DHBV S or L protein or with a DHBV L-HBV S chimera. (asm.org)
  • Insect
  • In the present study, sC-His protein was expressed in Sf9 insect cells and purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. (npust.edu.tw)
  • sequence
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (uniprot.org)
  • Pathogenicity is very strongly linked to the amino acid sequence of the cleavage site for naturally occurring viruses [ 16 ] and thus aligned sequences of the proteins were annotated with the pathogenicity value (high or low) using the presence or absence of insertions in the cleavage site of the corresponding HA protein, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • exposure
  • Although the mechanisms of avian sex determination remains unknown, the genetic sex is experimentally reversible by in ovo exposure to exogenous estrogens (ZZ-male feminization) or aromatase inhibitors (ZW-female masculinization). (biomedsearch.com)
  • epitopes
  • HLA-DR1 and HLA-DR4 transgenic mice were vaccinated with purified HA proteins, and CD4 T cells to specific epitopes were identified and quantified. (asm.org)
  • The identification of AIV epitopes on NS1 protein is important for understanding influenza virus pathogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bird
  • Now routinely run in the Avian and Wildlife Laboratory, EPH has become an integral component in well bird/new bird screens as well as an accessory test in chlamydophilosis and aspergillosis testing. (miami.edu)
  • BFL symptoms improve in the absence of the bird proteins which caused the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • particles
  • These proteins are also secreted from infected cells as subviral particles consisting of surface protein and lipid (e.g., 20-nm hepatitis B surface antigen for HBV). (asm.org)