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  • gene
  • A set of four specific primers was designed to target the sequences of the pol gene of ALV, and the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay were developed and compared with PCR and virus isolation methods. (biomedcentral.com)
  • genome
  • ResultsIn this study, the avian leukosis virus subgroup J ALV-J proviral genome, including the gag genes, were treated as targets for RNAi. (duhnnae.com)
  • Despite the discovery of specific host receptors that are critical for ALV entry, there has been only one report on the acquisition of resistance to ALV subgroup C in avian species via genome editing of host receptor genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Once inside the host cell's cytoplasm , the virus uses its own reverse transcriptase enzyme to produce DNA from its RNA genome, the reverse of the usual pattern, thus retro (backwards). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, retroviruses function differently, as their RNA is reverse-transcribed into DNA, which is integrated into the host cell's genome (when it becomes a provirus ), and then undergoes the usual transcription and translational processes to express the genes carried by the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to piRNAs that protect the germ-line genome from transposon activation, mammals and avian produce a distinct and abundant set of non-repetitive piRNA sequences whose function is unknown. (rochester.edu)
  • Virions (virus particles) contain two 5 ′ ("five prime"), end-linked, identical copies of the genome RNA, and are therefore said to be diploid. (encyclopedia.com)
  • An example of this is reticuloendotheliosis virus strain T. The genome of complex retroviruses, such as HTLV, can contain several other genes that regulate genome expression or replication and are not present in simple retroviruses. (encyclopedia.com)
  • subgroups
  • The transmission of ALV-J is much higher than other ALV subgroups [ 6 ], and some birds show immunological tolerance against the virus, thus making control and eradication much more difficult. (biomedcentral.com)
  • genetics
  • The study of this virus family has led to the discovery of oncogenes , resulting in a quantum advance in the field of cancer genetics. (encyclopedia.com)
  • pathogens
  • The family Retroviridae includes such important human pathogens as human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ) and human Tlymphotropic virus (HTLV), the causes of AIDS and adult T-cell leukemia respectively. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It is not possible to list all the pathogens that are capable of causing some conditions, such as pneumonia, food poisoning, meningitis, urine infections, respiratory viruses, etc. (dnafrequencies.com)
  • Bunyaviruses include many important human pathogens such as Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Hantaan Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Andes virus and Sin Nombre Virus. (upenn.edu)
  • antibody
  • These results suggest that MAB may influence the development of viremia, antibody, and shedding of ALV following massive exposure to virus at hatching. (docphin.com)
  • mutations
  • Naturally occurring genetic mutations in the host receptors, or artificial expression of mutant receptors in host cells, can affect susceptibility to the virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • cells
  • Studies of several thousand sites of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) integration in human cells indicated that transcription units (TUs) are favored for integration, and comparison to transcriptional profiles from target cells indicates that active TUs are particularly favored ( 19 , 26 , 31 ). (asm.org)
  • This indicates that the virus cannot proliferate in the germ cells. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In this paper we present evidence that uninfected 15B cells also produce subgroup E viruses, designated 15B-E viruses. (fhcrc.org)
  • Since 15B-E isolates occurred in uninfected cells and contained proteins which are characteristic of RAV-0 and recombinants of RAV-0, we suggest that 15B-E viruses are recombinants of endogenous virus information. (fhcrc.org)
  • integration
  • For this virus group, it is possible to compare the placement of de novo sites of integration generated experimentally to the preexisting distribution of ERVK sequences, allowing the forces dictating the accumulation of ERVs to be specified more precisely. (asm.org)
  • Murine leukemia virus (MLV), in contrast, showed an integration bias in favor of CpG islands and transcription start sites ( 31 ) and a weaker preference for transcription units. (asm.org)
  • The FACT Complex Promotes Avian Leukosis Virus DNA Integration. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Isolation
  • The results verify that the LAMP method was more sensitive than the conventional PCR and virus isolation method. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, no viremia was detected at 6 weeks after insemination even when virus isolation had been conducted six times at weekly intervals for each of the 12 females. (beds.ac.uk)
  • protein
  • A significant level of mature Gag protein was present in the bone, suggesting the accumulation of mature virus particles in the diseased bone. (umassmed.edu)
  • In most viruses, DNA is transcribed into RNA, and then RNA is translated into protein . (wikipedia.org)