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  • UNSCEAR
  • The 2000 UNSCEAR estimate for worldwide average natural background radiation dose is 2.4 mSv (240 mrem), with a range from 1 to 13 mSv. (wikipedia.org)
  • Preliminary dose-estimation reports by WHO and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) indicate that, outside the geographical areas most affected by radiation, even in locations within Fukushima prefecture, the predicted risks remain low and no observable increases in cancer above natural variation in baseline rates are anticipated. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, a December 2012 UNSCEAR statement to the Fukushima Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Safety advised that "because of the great uncertainties in risk estimates at very low doses, UNSCEAR does not recommend multiplying very low doses by large numbers of individuals to estimate numbers of radiation-induced health effects within a population exposed to incremental doses at levels equivalent to or lower than natural background levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • derive
  • The principal clinical role of TDM would be to derive optimal drug doses corresponding to the profile of the individual being monitored, not to an average response detected during clinical trials. (thebody.com)
  • SF = Cancer slope factor (mg/kg-day)−1 ADAF = Age-dependant adjustment factor for age bin "i" (unitless) The Cancer Slope Factor is used to derive the Risk Specific Dose (RSD)(mg/kg-day) for direct-acting carcinogenic agents, those that cause chemical changes (mutations) in DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • hazards
  • Read all potential side effects do occur, they usually subside on dose reduction or on complete withdrawal of lorazepam, cirrhotic male patients (n=13) and normal male subjects (n=11) exhibited no substantive difference in any of these winter health hazards pharmacokinetics and metabolism absorption intravenous a 4-mg dose provides! (ninjaevolution.net)
  • calculation
  • The goal of the PEREGRINE Monte Carlo Dose Calculation Project is to deliver a Monte Carlo package that is both accurate and sufficiently fast for routine clinical use. (unt.edu)
  • For any open-field treatment plan, we then evaluate these existing photon phase-space distributions at the patient`s surface, and pass the obtained photons to the dose calculation routines within PEREGRINE. (unt.edu)
  • EPCARD allows calculation of a simulated dose from most important components of penetrating cosmic radiation on any aviation route and for any flight profile at altitudes from 5 to 25 km. (wikipedia.org)
  • drug
  • More importantly, approximately 50% of people taking the recommended doses of highly active antiretroviral therapy, or HAART, are not able to maintain an undetectable viral load, indicating insufficient drug exposure, drug resistance, or both. (thebody.com)
  • The fact that the minimum drug concentration needed to suppress viremia (virus in the blood) is uncomfortably close to the maximum tolerated dose also suggests a critical need to optimize, or individualize, drug doses. (thebody.com)
  • Before discussing the complexities of drug individualization, it is worth examining how standard doses are derived. (thebody.com)
  • Researchers must settle on a 'standard dose' for a particular antiretroviral drug that reflects merely an average positive response to the drug that was seen among study subjects. (thebody.com)
  • Additionally, most study subjects to date have been antiretroviral-naive (not previously treated) adult White males, which further undermines the universal relevance of standard drug doses since several important factors such as age, race, gender, and treatment history can affect an indiv-idual's response to a drug. (thebody.com)
  • The researchers used medical records to determine the chemotherapy (drug therapy) given to treat the cancer and doses of radiotherapy given to different sites of the body. (www.nhs.uk)
  • there was also concern about how to handle dosing when switching people from a single drug regimen to the combination drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is currently the most expensive drug available given in a single dose, costing over US$ 37,000 (€ 30,000) for the average dose. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also not to be confused with drug tolerance ("drug resistance," or tachyphylaxis) which refers to a lack of adverse effects even at higher than average doses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the drug will accumulate within the blood to higher-than-expected concentrations, reaching a MTC at a dose that would otherwise be considered normal for the average person. (wikipedia.org)
  • estimate
  • This estimate, usually expressed in units of proportion (of a population) affected per mg of substance/kg body weight-day, is generally reserved for use in the low-dose region of the dose-response relationship, that is, for exposures corresponding to risks less than 1 in 100. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CTDI can be used in conjunction with patient size to estimate the absorbed dose. (wikipedia.org)
  • exposure
  • In some rich countries, like the US and Japan, artificial exposure is, on average, greater than the natural exposure, due to greater access to medical imaging. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Europe, average natural background exposure by country ranges from under 2 mSv annually in the United Kingdom to more than 7 mSv annually for some groups of people in Finland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because risk at low exposure levels is difficult to measure directly either by animal experiments or by epidemiologic studies, the development of a slope factor generally entails applying a model to the available data set and using the model to extrapolate from the relatively high doses administered to experimental animals (or the exposures noted in epidemiologic studies) to the lower exposure levels expected for human contact in the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • One BRET is the equivalent of one day worth of average human exposure to background radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • assessment
  • This in average increases the river temperature by 1.3 °C. To prevent damage to the fish population, the power plant's activity must be reduced when the river temperature exceeds 18 °C. As with all Swiss nuclear power plants, the KKM is subjected to a periodic complete safety assessment. (wikipedia.org)
  • EPCARD.Net Professional version 5.4.3 was approved for official use for aircrew dose assessment by LBA and PTB in April 2010. (wikipedia.org)
  • effective
  • 0.05), suggesting that drugs were restricted at effective doses to the spinal cord. (jneurosci.org)
  • Estimated effective doses from the accident outside of Japan are considered to be below, or far below the dose levels regarded as very small by the international radiological protection community. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the Chernobyl accident, only 0.1% of the 110,000 cleanup workers surveyed have so far developed leukemia, although not all cases resulted from the accident Estimated effective doses from the accident outside Japan are considered to be below (or far below) the dose levels regarded as very small by the international radiological protection community. (wikipedia.org)
  • meal
  • Dose is administered before each meal and is estimated according to the severity of the condition and weight of the animal. (drugs.com)
  • varies
  • Radon is unevenly distributed and varies with weather, such that much higher doses apply to many areas of the world, where it represents a significant health hazard. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • is ativan and lorazepam the same After this additional dose administration in special populations elderly patients and patients under 8 years of age and was excessively sleepy and difficult to diagnose. (ninjaevolution.net)
  • newborn
  • Tinnitus after a normal dose of aspirin Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease Liver failure (possibly also kidney failure) after a normal dose of acetaminophen Fatal poisoning in a breastfed newborn baby due to normal use of codeine by the mother. (wikipedia.org)
  • rate
  • For example, in considering radiation safety , background radiation is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency as "Dose or dose rate (or an observed measure related to the dose or dose rate) attributable to all sources other than the one(s) specified. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the design team's was to limit the dose to less than 2 mR/hr at any external wall of the test cell by optimizing the dose rate at the cave. (wikipedia.org)
  • and after 14 weeks the average dose rate will have reduced to 1/10,000th of the initial level. (wikipedia.org)
  • background
  • So a distinction is made between sources of dose which are incidentally in a location, which are defined here as being "background", and the dose due to a specified source. (wikipedia.org)
  • The collective radiation background dose for natural sources in Europe is about 500,000 man-Sieverts per year. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of the BRET measure is to allow a low level dose to be easily compared with a universal yardstick: the average dose of background radiation, mostly from natural sources, that every human unavoidably receives during daily life. (wikipedia.org)
  • people
  • The study found that, given 1,000 people with an average risk for heart disease, three above the norm have an otherwise avoidable heart attack as a result of using ibuprofen for a year, notes Forbes. (reference.com)
  • Concentrations
  • Concentrations over 500 times the world average have been found inside buildings in Scandinavia, the United States, Iran, and the Czech Republic. (wikipedia.org)
  • areas
  • Even in the most severely affected areas, radiation doses never reached more than a quarter of the radiation dose linked to an increase in cancer risk (25 mSv whereas 100 mSv has been linked to an increase in cancer rates among victims at Hiroshima and Nagasaki). (wikipedia.org)
  • given
  • My instructions are that levels over two hundred for more than four hours after additional insulin is given per doctor instructions, are to be called into the available doctor and it will be decided to use ER or change insulin dosing. (drugs.com)
  • taken
  • At that point the reading determines the dose to be taken, per doctor of R insulin (pens are the best). (drugs.com)
  • A base dose of NPH is taken twice a day, 12 hours apart to control fluctuations. (drugs.com)
  • cancer
  • However, 167 Fukushima plant workers received radiation doses that slightly elevate their risk of developing cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Preliminary dose-estimation reports by the World Health Organization and United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation indicate that 167 plant workers received radiation doses that slightly elevate their risk of developing cancer, however like the Chernobyl nuclear disaster that it may not be statistically detectable. (wikipedia.org)
  • total
  • The total dose from Chernobyl is estimated at 80,000 man-sieverts, or roughly 1/6 as much. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, some (non-genotoxic) carcinogens may exhibit a threshold whereby doses lower than the threshold do not invoke a carcinogenic response. (wikipedia.org)
  • daily
  • We measured the indoor PM 2.5 concentration and, using Monte-Carlo simulation, estimated potential average daily dose (ADD) of PM 2.5 for homemakers pan-frying a piece of pork inside ordinary homes. (mdpi.com)
  • The daily dose of reserpine in antihypertensive treatment is as low as 0.1 to 0.25 mg. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers
  • Researchers have found that long-term consumption of low dose caffeine slowed hippocampus-dependent learning and impaired long-term memory in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • potential
  • Potential dose distributions at proposed surface radioactvity clearance levels resulting from occupational scenarios. (unt.edu)
  • Factor
  • The CTDI and absorbed dose may differ by more than a factor of two for small patients such as children. (wikipedia.org)
  • body
  • The dose distribution imparted by a CT scan is much more homogeneous than that imparted by radiography, but is still somewhat larger near the skin than in the centre of the body. (wikipedia.org)