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  • Stimulation
  • citation needed] Possible mechanisms of recovery include: Generation of heart muscle cells Stimulation of growth of new blood vessels to repopulate damaged heart tissue Secretion of growth factors Assistance via some other mechanism It may be possible to have adult bone-marrow cells differentiate into heart muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surgical techniques currently being studied include: bone marrow stimulation osteochondral autograft transplantation osteochondral allograft transplantation autologous chondrocyte implantation cell-based (using chondrocytes or stem-cells) or acellular scaffolding Articular cartilage stem cell paste grafting is another technique in use and is undergoing continued investigation. (wikipedia.org)
  • See Coeliac Disease, HLA-DQ, HLA DR3-DQ2) A DQ isoform that appears to be responsible for EATL in the overwhelming number of cases is highly effective at presenting a proteolytically protected region of α2-gliadin to T-cells, constant over-stimulation of T-cell eventually results in neoplastic growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiate
  • Discoveries in recent years have suggested that adult stem cells might have the ability to differentiate into cell types from different germ layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cells from the bone marrow, which is derived from mesoderm, can differentiate into liver, lung, GI tract and skin, which are derived from endoderm and mesoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all the specialized cells-ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm (see induced pluripotent stem cells)-but also maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs, such as blood, skin, or intestinal tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potency: the capacity to differentiate into specialized cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potency specifies the differentiation potential (the potential to differentiate into different cell types) of the stem cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pluripotent stem cells are the descendants of totipotent cells and can differentiate into nearly all cells, i.e. cells derived from any of the three germ layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multipotent stem cells can differentiate into a number of cell types, but only those of a closely related family of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oligopotent stem cells can differentiate into only a few cell types, such as lymphoid or myeloid stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Properties of stem cells can be illustrated in vitro, using methods such as clonogenic assays, in which single cells are assessed for their ability to differentiate and self-renew. (wikipedia.org)
  • They can differentiate into many cell types including bone, fat, and muscle which allow them to treat a large range of disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since they are derived from the mesoderm, they have been shown to differentiate into bone, cartilage, muscle, and adipose tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of these cells are CD34+ heme progenitors (destined to differentiate into blood components), while very few are actually MSC's capable of differentiating into bone, cartilage, or muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple Myeloma
  • Similar to other plasma cell dyscrasias that, for example, lead to multiple myeloma, WM is commonly preceded by two clinically asymptomatic but progressively more pre-malignant phases, IgM monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (i.e. (wikipedia.org)
  • somatic
  • Two common methods of therapeutic cloning that are being researched are somatic-cell nuclear transfer and, more recently, pluripotent stem cell induction. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the cloning of a sheep known as Dolly in 1996 by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), the idea of human cloning became a hot debate topic. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2018, the first successful cloning of primates using somatic cell nuclear transfer, the same method as Dolly the sheep, with the birth of two live female clones (crab-eating macaques named Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua) was reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • In somatic cell nuclear transfer ("SCNT"), the nucleus of a somatic cell is taken from a donor and transplanted into a host egg cell, which had its own genetic material removed previously, making it an enucleated egg. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • More recent findings suggest that pluripotent stem cells may reside in blood and adult tissues in a dormant state. (wikipedia.org)
  • As BLSC's and VSEL cells are present in virtually all adult tissues, including lung, brain, kidneys, muscles, and pancreas Co-purification of BLSC's and VSEL cells with other populations of adult stem cells may explain the apparent pluripotency of adult stem cell populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cells can now be artificially grown and transformed (differentiated) into specialized cell types with characteristics consistent with cells of various tissues such as muscles or nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mesenchymal stem cells have the capacity to become any type of fully developed cell, which can contribute to replacing muscle tissues or internal organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, that leaves the very small number of MSC's in the marrow as cells capable of differentiating into tissues of interest to joint preservation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diagnosis of CLL is based on the demonstration of an abnormal population of B lymphocytes in the blood, bone marrow, or tissues that display an unusual but characteristic pattern of molecules on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reproductive cloning would involve making an entire cloned human, instead of just specific cells or tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood
  • He is an established national expert in myeloid disease and member of the British Society for Haematology, the Royal College of Physicians, the Royal College of Pathologists and the European group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT). (christie.nhs.uk)
  • Both cell types are white blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is attributed to the IgM monoclonal protein increasing the viscosity of the blood by forming aggregates to each other, binding water through their carbohydrate component and by their interaction with blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A diagnosis of Waldenström's macroglobulinemia depends on a significant monoclonal IgM spike evident in blood tests and malignant cells consistent with the disease in bone marrow biopsy samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • In his early career Dr Moore discovered that all stem cells of the blood and lymphoid system developed in the yolk sac at an early stage of embryo development and migrated via the blood stream to colonize the bone marrow and immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • All adult blood stem cells derived from this initial source. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1983-84 his group succeeded in identifying and purifying a human growth factor, G-CSF, that stimulates white blood cell production (neutrophils). (wikipedia.org)
  • It contains no blood vessels therefore its cells are dependent upon diffusion for the supply of oxygen and nutrients. (wikipedia.org)
  • By definition, autologous cells are obtained from one's own body, just as one may bank his or her own blood for elective surgical procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • This demonstrates that the cells can produce new blood cells over a long term. (wikipedia.org)
  • These marrow components can be divided into plasma, red blood cells, platelets, and nucleated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This allows the bone marrow to recover, proliferate and continue producing healthy blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transplantation may be autologous (an individual's own blood cells saved earlier), allogeneic (blood cells donated by someone else with matching HLA), or syngeneic (blood cells donated by an identical twin). (wikipedia.org)
  • Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) are naturally occurring glycoproteins that stimulate white blood cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since allogeneic PBSCT involves transformation of blood between different individuals, this naturally carries more complications than autologous PBSCT. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes too many lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell). (wikipedia.org)
  • CLL results in the build up of B cell lymphocytes in the bone marrow, lymph nodes, and blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells do not function well and crowd out healthy blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagnosis is typically based on blood tests finding high numbers of mature lymphocytes and smudge cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most people are diagnosed without symptoms as the result of a routine blood test that shows a high white blood cell count. (wikipedia.org)
  • Less commonly, CLL may present with enlarged lymph nodes without a high white blood cell count or no evidence of the disease in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • CLL is usually first suspected by a diagnosis of lymphocytosis, an increase in a type of white blood cell, on a complete blood count test. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most often the lymphocyte count is greater than 5000 cells per microliter (µl) of blood, but can be much higher. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • a donor's healthy bone marrow reintroduces functional stem cells to replace the cells lost in the host's body during treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • This complicates the design of drugs, for instance neural stem cell targeted therapies for the treatment of clinical depression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The value of autologous osteochondral paste for in-vitro treatment of damage to articular cartilage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, an ideal treatment must possess both immunomodulating properties to control irregular autoimmune responses to prevent further damage and regenerative properties to stimulate natural repair mechanisms and replace damaged cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • cardiac function
  • Cardiomyocytes (muscle cells of the heart) were thought to be terminally differentiated cells that were irreplaceable and thus required to maintain cardiac function throughout life. (wikipedia.org)
  • involves
  • The WM spectrum of dysplasias differs from other spectrums of plasma cell dyscrasias in that it involves not only aberrant plasma cells but also aberrant lymphoplasmacytoid cells and that it involves IgM while other plasma dyscrasias involve other antibody isoforms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of all stem cell types, autologous harvesting involves the least risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • Another team used a similar technique for cell extraction and ex vivo expansion but cells were embedded within a collagen gel before being surgically re-implanted. (wikipedia.org)
  • myocardium
  • There were no periprocedual complications such as sustained ventricular arrhythmias and pericardial effusions, nor did any significant adverse effects such as bone formation in the myocardium at the 2-month follow-up. (ahajournals.org)
  • donors
  • Of these, 28,901 (57 percent) were autologous and 21,516 (43 percent) were allogeneic (11,928 from family donors and 9,588 from unrelated donors). (wikipedia.org)
  • The 4 major units that perform Allogeneic - stem cells harvested from genetically similar but not identical donors - and Autologous - stem cells harvested from self- HCTs are found at the "EVANGELISMOS" Hospital in Athens, the "PAPANIKOLAOU" Hospital in Thessaloniki and the PATRAS UNIVERSITY GENERAL HOSPITAL in Rio-Patras and the "AGHIA SOPHIA" Children's Hospital in Athens. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed
  • Allen C. Eaves (born 1941) was the founding Director of the Terry Fox Laboratory for Hematology/Oncology Research, which over a 25 year period (1981-2006) he grew into an internationally recognized[citation needed] centre for the study of leukemia and stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular matrix
  • Cartilage is composed of cells embedded in an extracellular matrix of collagen fibers and proteoglycans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hypothesis was that harvesting a mixture of articular cartilage and cancellous bone would combine pluripotent cells of the cancellous bone with cartilage extracellular matrix and growth factors and when exposed to continuous motion, hyaline-like cartilage would be stimulated to form. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells are activated by a mixture of transcriptional factors, genes, growth factors, receptors, the extracellular matrix and signalling pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphoma
  • Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM), also known as lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, is a type of cancer affecting two types of B cells, lymphoplasmacytoid cells and plasma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These advantages have established autologous HSCT as one of the standard second-line treatments for such diseases as lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL), also enteropathy-type T-cell lymphoma (ETTL), is a type of T-cell lymphoma that affects the small intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the most common primary gastrointestinal T-cell lymphoma, arising from the T cells that are found between the cells that line the small intestinal (brush border cells or small intestinal epithelial cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • EATL can be classified as an extranodal peripheral T cell lymphoma, a category it shares with hepatosplenic T cell lymphoma and panniculitic T cell lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enteropathy associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL) is environmentally induced as a result of the consumption of Triticeae glutens (e.g. wheat gluten). (wikipedia.org)
  • The peripheral index for T-cell lymphoma is useful in defining prognosis for enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lack of the normal distribution of these B cells is one basis for demonstrating clonality, the key element for establishing a diagnosis of any B cell malignancy (B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma). (wikipedia.org)
  • tumour
  • During his medical training he was greatly influenced by Dr. Ross Langley, a research-oriented hematologist who suggested that Eaves do a PhD at the Princess Margaret Hospital in Toronto where Dr. Robert Bruce was collaborating with Drs. James Till and Ernest McCulloch (Lasker Award) on how different types of cancer chemotherapeutic agents killed tumour stem cells while sparing normal stem cells. (wikipedia.org)