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  • pathogenesis
  • Our work further provides a first transcriptomic study of MHC class II-expressing retinal cells during EAU and delivers a series of new candidate genes possibly implicated in the pathogenesis of retinal autoimmunity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although T cells play a very important role in the process, and both CD4 and CD8 T cells are required to adoptively transfer diabetes (( 1 ), ( 2 )), other cell types are clearly also important in the pathogenesis of disease. (rupress.org)
  • molecules
  • In particular, most MHC class II hi cells express co-stimulatory molecules during EAU. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a set of cell surface proteins divided into two major groups respectively known as class I and class II molecules, which play a fundamental role in adaptive immunity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, they can acquire surface expression of MHC class II and costimulatory molecules as well as T cell stimulatory behavior when cultured with selected cytokines. (frontiersin.org)
  • To be classified as a professional APC, a cell should have the ability of antigen acquisition and processing as well as exhibit accessory molecules allowing them to interact with T cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • The expression of B7-1 directly on the pancreatic β cells, which do not normally express costimulator molecules, converts the cells into effective antigen-presenting cells leading to an intensified autoimmune attack. (rupress.org)
  • To elucidate the relative importance of each of the subsets of cells, the NOD-rat insulin promoter (RIP)-B7-1 animals were crossed with NOD.β2microglobulin −/− mice which lack major histocompatibility complex class I molecules and are deficient in peripheral CD8 T cells, NOD.CD4 −/− mice which lack T cells expressing CD4, and NOD.μMT −/− mice which lack B220-positive B cells. (rupress.org)
  • Taking into account this unique pathotropism, we assumed that NSPCs could be used as a cell-based delivery model for immunomodulatory molecules. (biomedcentral.com)
  • antibodies
  • We show here that systemic administration of OX40 agonist antibodies increased the proportion of CD8 T cells at the tumor site in three different tumor models. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Provision of OX40 agonistic antibodies in the absence of a danger signal can replace the adjuvant effect, resulting in enhanced expansion of T cells and increased long-term memory T-cell populations ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The majority of reports have identified important roles for OX40 in CD4 function ( 1 - 4 ), although agonistic antibodies to OX40 also have powerful effects on the proliferation, effector function, and long-term survival of CD8 T cells ( 8 - 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Identification of protein tyrosine phosphatase-like IA2 (islet cell antigen 512) as the insulin-dependent diabetes-related 37/40K autoantigen and a target of islet-cell antibodies. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A general autoimmune disease in which antibodies attack a number of different tissues. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Occurs when the body produces antibodies that coat red blood cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Conversely, if the immune system cells do not recognize the cell as "self," they attach themselves to it and put out a signal that the body has been invaded, which in turn stimulates the production of substances such as antibodies that engulf and destroy the foreign particles. (encyclopedia.com)
  • pathology
  • This approach was thereby designed to focus the nonspecific inhibitory activities of particular cytokines onto rare NAg-specific Th cells to prevent CNS pathology. (jimmunol.org)
  • occurs
  • Neutrophils are white blood cells that are part of the immune system and are involved in the demyelination that occurs in multiple sclerosis (MS). (mssociety.ca)
  • Autophagy refers to a fundamental recycling process of cells that occurs in yeast, fungi, plants, as well as animals and humans. (medicalxpress.com)
  • proteins
  • This is how T cells fight an infection and some types of cancer - by targeting proteins on bacteria, viruses and cells. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Consistent with this idea, the researchers found that they could activate retina-specific T cells by exposing them to a soup of bacterial proteins extracted from mouse intestines. (technologynetworks.com)
  • immunomodulatory
  • The models developed in this study were implemented in a web-based platform VaxinPAD to predict and design immunomodulatory peptides or A-cell epitopes. (springer.com)
  • In addition, the immunomodulatory capacity of IFN-β treatment in patients with MS is mediated at least in part by induction of IL-10 production by immune cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • monocytes
  • In addition, intravenous GA treatment enhanced the intrinsic ability of monocytes to suppress T cell proliferation, both in vitro and in vivo. (vuw.ac.nz)
  • The findings of this study therefore suggest that GA-induced monocytes may contribute to GA therapy through direct mechanisms of antigen non-specific T cell immunosuppression. (vuw.ac.nz)
  • They emerge from white blood cells (monocytes) that circulate in the blood. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Regulation
  • The main goal of the research group is to elucidate mechanisms involved in vitamin A- and cAMP-mediated regulation of cell cycle, DNA damage and apoptosis in lymphoid cells, in order to identify new targets for improved therapy of cancer and certain immune disorders. (uio.no)
  • Cell fate decisions are programmed by interactions between multiple layers of regulation of gene expression involving chromatin modifications and a dynamic organization of the genome in the 3-dimensional space of the cell nucleus. (uio.no)
  • costimulatory
  • Acquisition of full T-cell effector function and memory differentiation requires appropriate costimulatory signals, including ligation of the costimulatory molecule OX40 (TNFRSF4, CD134). (aacrjournals.org)
  • activation
  • Functional annotation analysis reveals that both hematopoietic cell populations are more competent in MHC class II-associated antigen presentation and in T cell activation than non-hematopoietic cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The so-called "three-signal model" ( 4 ) is usually used to define the APC function required for the activation of T cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Recently published studies and our in-house data indicate that activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in DCs and terminally differentiated CD4 + T cells induces strong immunoregulatory phenotype. (biospace.com)
  • effector
  • Critical defects in these T cells, which prevent full effector function ( 15 ), can be overcome with in vitro restimulation ( 15 ) and in vivo vaccination ( 16 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • It is clear that CD8 T cells also play a role in the final effector phases of diabetes. (rupress.org)
  • functionally
  • The classic view of granulocytes as terminally differentiated, short-lived phagocytes is therefore changing to phenotypically and functionally heterogeneous cells that are engaged in cross-talk with other leukocyte populations and provide an additional link between innate and adaptive immunity. (frontiersin.org)
  • induction
  • This study focused on a novel approach for the induction of Ag-specific tolerance in the Lewis rat model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) 3 . (jimmunol.org)
  • Basal expression and induction of glutamate decarboxylase and GABA in excitatory granule cells of the rat and monkey hippocampal dentate gyrus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Dr. Vallières wants to unravel the mechanisms through which neutrophils exhibit their negative effects on MS by examining if they are interacting with another cell of the immune that is harmful in MS called T cells. (mssociety.ca)
  • A promising method for a comprehensive therapy of MS integrating various possible therapeutic mechanisms might be the treatment with neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • recognize
  • When the immune system attacks an invader, it is very specific - a particular immune system cell will only recognize and target one type of invader. (encyclopedia.com)
  • To function properly, the immune system must not only develop this specialized knowledge of individual invaders, but it must also learn how to recognize and not destroy cells that belong to the body itself. (encyclopedia.com)