• Bendor D, and Wang X (2005) The neuronal representation of pitch in primate auditory cortex. (springer.com)
  • Cant NB and Benson CG (2003) Parallel auditory pathways: projection patterns of the different neuronal populations in the dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei. (springer.com)
  • The neuronal response to tones as a function of intensity was topographically studied with multiple-unit recordings in the primary auditory cortex (AI) of barbiturate-anesthetized cats. (springer.com)
  • In contrast to the sizable literature describing visual STM and its neural substrates, relatively few studies have investigated auditory STM at the behavioral or neuronal levels. (frontiersin.org)
  • Based on this finding we could expect that in patient with unilateral hearing loss and tinnitus the input from unimpaired ear has not been transfered sufficiently to the bilateral hemisphere and this loss of input has resulted in reorganization in neuronal activity of the auditory cortex. (epfl.ch)
  • To test this hypothesis we compare the amplitude of the neuronal activity bold response of the auditory cortex in the ipsilateral and contralateral hemisphere to the hearing ear in response to different frequency tones. (epfl.ch)
  • We provide evidence for the existence of a neuronal network of secondary and higher-order areas belonging to the auditory and motor modality that is important in the integration of auditory and motor domains. (uzh.ch)
  • To scrutinize the neuronal basis of these multisensory influences, we investigate mechanisms of neural information coding in the auditory cortex of the macaque. (mpg.de)
  • Overall our findings suggest that visual influences in auditory cortex might be more than just a simple response modulation, but make neuronal firing more reliable, and hence enhance the information encoded in auditory cortex about the environment. (mpg.de)
  • In the present study, we sought to bridge some of these divisions by examining activity related to pitch in both neurons and neuronal ensembles within the auditory cortex of the rhesus macaque, a primate species with similar pitch perception and auditory cortical organisation to humans. (operativeneurosurgery.com)
  • While the functions of different neuronal types in the CN and the SOC are quite well understood, the nature of the code at the inferior colliculus (IC), medial geniculate (MGB) and primary auditory cortex (A1) levels are less well understood. (biologists.org)
  • Utilizing anatomical, electrophysiological, imaging and optogenetics approaches the authors of the study were able to analyze individual neuronal cells connecting the auditory cortex and the lateral amygdala in the brains of mice. (neuro-central.com)
  • METHODS: We compared neuronal (n = 269) and multiunit activity (MUA), as well as local field potentials (LFP) in rat core auditory cortex (A1) during NREM sleep, comparing responses to sounds depending on the presence or absence of sleep spindles. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Because neuronal somal volume depends on both the number of axonal terminations onto and furnished by the neuron, we hypothesized that axon terminal densities are reduced in feedforward but not feedback auditory pathways in subjects with schizophrenia. (blogspot.dk)
  • As with other primary sensory cortical areas, auditory sensations reach perception only if received and processed by a cortical area. (wikipedia.org)
  • In discussing parallels between the auditory cortex and the cortical processing of other sensory modalities, we cannot ignore the fact that for most neuroscientists the standard model of sensory processing in cortex is the visual system and that other sensory systems are first and foremost compared to this model. (springer.com)
  • This SSA could be a correlate of auditory sensory memory at the level of single A1 neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Therefore, we propose that a major function of SSA in A1 neurons is to encode auditory sensory memory on multiple time scales. (jneurosci.org)
  • The purpose of this frequency map (known as a tonotopic map) is unknown and is likely to reflect the fact that the sensory epithelium of the auditory system, the cochlea , is arranged according to sound frequency. (wikidoc.org)
  • Here, using simultaneously recorded cortical populations and morphologically identified pyramidal cells, we compare the laminar structure of spontaneous and sensory-evoked population activity in rat auditory cortex. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These sensory cortices send signals to the amygdala through the association cortex. (umn.edu)
  • These results reveal a clear double-dissociation in the crossmodal contributions of visual and auditory cortex to tactile perception, and support a supramodal brain organization scheme in which visual and auditory cortex comprise distributed networks that support shape and frequency perception, independent of sensory input modality. (brillonline.com)
  • A network for sensory-motor integration: what happens in the auditory cortex during piano playing without acoustic feedback? (uzh.ch)
  • Although often denoted as sensory integration, the exact function of these multisensory influences is unclear, and it remains to be shown whether they actually make the auditory neurons more reliable or informative about the acoustic environment. (mpg.de)
  • Findings of age-related inhibitory changes within mammalian auditory circuits are similar to age and deafferentation plasticity changes observed in other sensory systems. (biologists.org)
  • The auditory cortex represents spatial locations differently from other sensory modalities. (aalto.fi)
  • The goal of this study was to establish whether the neural representation of auditory space can also be influenced by task conditions involving other sensory modalities than hearing. (aalto.fi)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Responses in core auditory cortex are well preserved regardless of sleep spindles recorded in that area, suggesting that thalamocortical sensory relay remains functional during sleep spindles, and that sensory disconnection in sleep is mediated by other mechanisms. (ox.ac.uk)
  • One such area, the perirhinal cortex (PRh), processes sensory signals containing mnemonic information. (elsevier.com)
  • In the second (independent) part, I will use whole-cell and extracellular recording in vivo and in slices of primary auditory cortex (A1) to reveal the neural correlates, mechanisms, and network dynamics involved in learning the significance of sensory input. (grantome.com)
  • Plasticity is an important feature of A1, especially for processing the behavioral significance of sensory signals such as speech, music and other forms of auditory communication. (grantome.com)
  • The aging of auditory system determines the physical, sensory, and neural changes in the peripheral and central parts and may cause changes in the reception and sound processing. (intechopen.com)
  • This deficit may contribute to impairments in auditory sensory processing in this disorder. (blogspot.dk)
  • Loss of sensory input from peripheral organ damage, sensory deprivation, or brain damage can result in adaptive or maladaptive changes in sensory cortex. (hindawi.com)
  • Our findings imply that inhibitory plasticity may play a role in reorganizing sensory cortex after cross-modal invasion, suggesting clinical strategies for recovery after brain injury or sensory deprivation. (hindawi.com)
  • Loss of sensory drive as a result of deprivation or deafferentation can lead to a compensatory plastic reorganization of the affected sensory cortex. (hindawi.com)
  • For example, in deaf and blind subjects, the spared sensory cortex can be taken over by sensory inputs from other sensory modalities [ 2 - 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The auditory cortex is the part of the temporal lobe that processes auditory information in humans and many other vertebrates . (wikipedia.org)
  • Sexual dimorphism within the auditory cortex can be seen in humans between males in females through the planum temporale, encompassing Wernicke's region, for the platnum temporale within males has been observed to have a larger platinum temporale volume on average, reflecting previous studies discussing interactions between sex hormones and asymmetrical brain development. (wikipedia.org)
  • This SSA might play a role in stream segregation and in binding of auditory objects over many time scales, a property that is crucial for processing of natural auditory scenes in cats and of speech and music in humans. (jneurosci.org)
  • What is known about the human auditory cortex comes from a base of knowledge gained from studies in mammals , including primates, used to interpret electrophysiologic tests and functional imaging studies of the brain in humans. (wikidoc.org)
  • Prof. Jonathan Z. Simon ( ECE / ISR / Biology ) has been awarded a grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for his research, titled "The Neural Basis of Perceptually-Relevant Auditory Modulations in Humans. (umd.edu)
  • The early visual cortex hasn't previously been known to process auditory information, and while there is some anatomical evidence of interconnectedness in monkeys, our study is the first to clearly show a relationship in humans. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The goal of the present study was to determine whether the architectonic criteria used to identify the core, lateral belt, and parabelt auditory cortices in macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) could be used to identify homologous regions in humans (Homo sapiens). (mysciencework.com)
  • Current evidence indicates that auditory cortex in humans, as in monkeys, is located on the superior temporal gyrus (STG), and is functionally and structurally altered in illnesses such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. (mysciencework.com)
  • Serial reconstructions of the auditory cortex in humans were made showing the location of the lateral belt and parabelt with respect to gross anatomical landmarks. (mysciencework.com)
  • In our previous work with this model, we found that primary auditory cortical areas of ferrets rewired with ectopic visual inputs (cross-modal auditory cortex, abbreviated as XMAC) retain substantial auditory function, but sound frequency tuning and tonotopy are compromised [ 19 , 20 ] much as can occur in humans with peripheral hearing loss [ 21 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Similarities between these data and the previous demonstrations that phantom limb pain is highly correlated with cortical reorganization suggest that tinnitus may be an auditory phantom phenomenon. (pnas.org)
  • Based on previous findings from our group reporting a close association of phantom limb pain and reorganization of primary somatosensory cortex ( 8 , 9 ), we hypothesized that tinnitus might be a phantom phenomenon ( 10 ) related to alterations of the tonotopic map in auditory cortex. (pnas.org)
  • Beain 2013) has shown that bilateral input protects the cortex from unilaterally driven reorganization. (epfl.ch)
  • 1995) Topographic reorganization in the striate cortex of the adult cat and monkey is cortically mediated. (springer.com)
  • In the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), egocentric selection shifts the best frequencies of collicular neurons not only toward the best frequency of electrically stimulated cortical neurons but also towards the frequency of a repetitively delivered acoustic stimulus (tone burst), resulting in local reorganization of the frequency map in the subcortical nuclei (Yan & Suga 1998), and also the auditory cortex (Chowdhury & Suga 1998). (umn.edu)
  • It also evokes such reorganization according to auditory experience based on associative learning (Gao and Suga, 1998). (umn.edu)
  • To address how these plasticity processes are coordinated over the course of functional recovery, we tracked receptive field reorganization, spontaneous activity, and response gain from individual principal neurons in the adult mouse auditory cortex over a 50-day period surrounding either moderate or massive auditory nerve damage. (elifesciences.org)
  • The mammalian auditory system is plastic, maintaining the capacity for structural and functional reorganization all throughout life. (grantome.com)
  • In the present study, we investigated the spindle oscillation in the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), medial geniculate body (MGB) and auditory cortex (AC). (hku.hk)
  • The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is thought to be an essential brain region for sensorimotor gating. (elsevier.com)
  • First, the latency of excitatory inputs changes systematically with the stimulus location (visual) or frequency (auditory) ( Fig. 1 A , B , differential latency model). (jneurosci.org)
  • The reduction of auditory input that conveys to auditory cortex leads to the changes in the balance of excitatory and inhibitory activation of the corresponding neurons in this area and is possibly the cause of tinnitus. (epfl.ch)
  • Excitatory neurons in auditory cortex, for example, adapt to repetitive tones in a stimulus-specific manner without fully generalizing to a low-probability deviant tone ("oddball") that breaks the preceding regularity. (uzh.ch)
  • Based on these results, we proposed a wave sonagram hypothesis and made a neural network model of the auditory cortex using 2-dimensionally distributed neural oscillators with excitatory and inhibitory connections. (nii.ac.jp)
  • If our findings do reflect a lower number of excitatory feedforward thalamocortical and intrinsic axon terminals, then these abnormalities might underlie the deficits in auditory processing observed in subjects with schizophrenia. (blogspot.dk)
  • Andersen RA, Knight PL, Merzenich MM (1980) The thalamocortical and corticothalamic connections of AI, AII and the anterior auditory field (AAF) in the cat: evidence for two largely segregated systems of connections. (springer.com)
  • Here we measure the functional 2-dimensional spatial connectivity pattern of the supragranular auditory cortex on micro-column scales. (nih.gov)
  • Here we use silent, event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging at 7 Tesla and a cortex-based analysis of functional data to delineate with high spatial resolution the detailed topography of two tonotopic maps in two adjacent subdivisions of PAC. (nih.gov)
  • The functional organization of the auditory system. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, one of the remaining steps toward a complete view of the functional organization of the auditory system is a more detailed understanding of auditory STM and its underlying neural processes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Importantly, the auditory cortices, amygdala, and ventromedial prefrontal regions showed increased activity during listening conditions requiring valuation, but did not predict reward value, which was instead predicted by increasing functional connectivity of these regions with the nucleus accumbens as the reward value increased. (sciencemag.org)
  • In this thesis we combined the recovered spatial information with response properties from neighbouring neurons, to characterise the functional topographic organisation in deep layers of core auditory cortex. (bl.uk)
  • In particular, it will be important to understand how such functional segregation interacts with hemispheric lateralization, a feature of the auditory cortex that characterizes the human brain. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The goal of Simon's research program is to understand how acoustic modulations, the building blocks of speech and other natural sounds are encoded in the auditory cortex. (umd.edu)
  • How the human auditory system extracts perceptually relevant acoustic features of speech is unknown. (cryptogon.com)
  • To address this question, we used intracranial recordings from nonprimary auditory cortex in the human superior temporal gyrus to determine what acoustic information in speech sounds can be reconstructed from population neural activity. (cryptogon.com)
  • These findings reveal neural encoding mechanisms of speech acoustic parameters in higher order human auditory cortex. (cryptogon.com)
  • We comment on the significance of these results for auditory cortical processing of acoustic and non-acoustic information. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Such observations have long puzzled researchers across disciplines and raised serious questions regarding the role of the auditory cortex in encoding ongoing acoustic signals. (elsevier.com)
  • The auditory system needs to be able to analyse complex acoustic waveforms. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • A new paper is about to appear in Neu-roim-age on Acoustic cue selec-tion and dis-crim-i-na-tion under degra-da-tion: Dif-fer-en-tial con-tri-bu-tions of the infe-ri-or pari-etal and pos-te-ri-or tem-po-ral cor-tices by Math-ias Scharinger, Mol-ly J. Hen-ry, Jonas Obleser [ UPDATE ] Link added. (auditorycognition.com)
  • That AC extracts acoustic features follows from the location of primary AC in the transverse temporal gyri (TTG), the first stop in the cortex in an assumed processing hierarchy starting from the outside world of moving air molecules and ending with language comprehension in 'higher' cortical region(s). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The representation of acoustic cues involves regions downstream from the auditory cortex (ACx). (elsevier.com)
  • In natural auditory environments, speech signals can be subjected to various kinds of external, "additive" distortions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We used optical imaging of intrinsic signals to study the large-scale organization of ferret auditory cortex in response to complex sounds. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This study suggests that these two dynamic and complex systems, the external and internal worlds, systematically communicate and are coupled via modulation mechanism, leading to a reverberating flow of information embedded in oscillating waves in human cortex. (umd.edu)
  • In two studies published today (May 24) in Neuron, researchers demonstrate that ultrasound activates the brains of rodents by stimulating an auditory response-not, as researchers had presumed, only the specific neurons where the ultrasound is focused. (the-scientist.com)