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  • inhibition
  • The purpose of the present study was to determine the interactions of exercise training and ACE inhibition (trandolapril) on these parameters in the obese Zucker rat. (physiology.org)
  • TNF-α treatment of a number of cell lines, including primary human adipocytes, rat hepatoma Fao cells, human embryonic kidney 293 cells, and NIH-3T3 fibroblasts, has been shown to result in immediate inhibition of insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of IR and IRS-1 ( 18 - 20 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • slices
  • Pyramidal neurons in rat organotypic slices had markedly decreased density of dendritic spines and numbers of electrophysiologically active synapses after exposure to picomolar levels of soluble oligomers. (jneurosci.org)
  • To determine directly whether specific forms of soluble Aβ trigger synapse loss, we examined the effect of Aβ monomers and oligomers on excitatory synapses and dendritic spines in organotypic slices of rat hippocampus. (jneurosci.org)
  • Using supraoptic nuclei in brain slices from lactating rats, we examined the involvement of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and filamentous actin (F-actin) in burst generation by oxytocin (OT) neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • exposure
  • Upon exposure to an HFD, LCR rats gained more weight and fat mass, and their insulin resistant condition was exacerbated, despite consuming similar amounts of metabolizable energy as chow-fed controls. (physiology.org)
  • hippocampal
  • Here, we created a chronic inflammatory environment by LPS injection into rat hippocampal formation and labeled new granule cells through injection of a retroviral (RV) vector encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) 1 week thereafter. (jneurosci.org)
  • Cardiac
  • Western blot analysis showed that cardiac adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase (AMPK) signalling was lower in OLETF rats than in LETO rats, and that ALA treatment increased the signalling in OLETF rats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • antioxidant
  • Blueberries belong to the genus Vaccinium and their health benefits may be attributable to the bioactive compounds, anthocyanins, which also have antioxidant properties [ 8 , 9 , 10 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The effect of ALA on AMPK signalling, antioxidant enzymes, and fibrosis-related genes in the heart of OLETF rats were performed by Western blot analysis or immunohistochemistry. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, the low antioxidant activity in OLETF rats was increased by ALA treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • receptor
  • The present study was performed to test the hypothesis that a chronic increase in levels of insulin causes a decrease in expression of the D1 receptor and its uncoupling from G proteins, which may account for the diminished inhibitory effect of dopamine on NKA in obese Zucker rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • 20,21 We found that this phenomenon was the result of reduced D1 receptor numbers and uncoupling of the D1 receptor from G proteins in obese Zucker rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • Previously, we reported that a mixture of CLA isomers improved glucose tolerance in ZDF rats and activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ response elements in vitro. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, the emergence of severe psychiatric adverse effects, mostly attributable to the inverse agonistic activity of rimonabant at central CB1 receptor, led to its withdrawal from the market [ 12 , 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • aerobic
  • Rats bred both for low (LCR)- and high (HCR)-capacity endurance running provide a genetic model with inherent differences in aerobic capacity that allows for the testing of this supposition without the confounding effects of a training stimulus. (physiology.org)
  • activity
  • These phenomena might account for the diminished inhibitory effect of dopamine on NKA activity in hyperinsulinemic rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • 21 After treatment with rosiglitazone and the lowering of plasma insulin levels, we found that the inhibitory effect of DA on NKA activity was restored in treated obese Zucker rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • levels
  • In addition to increased Sirius red staining of collagen deposits, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) were expressed at higher levels in OLETF rat hearts than in LETO rat hearts, and the levels of these factors were decreased by ALA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • response
  • We reported induction of aP2 gene expression in adipose tissue of CLA-treated ZDF rats and activation PPAR-γ response elements by CLA in vitro ( 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • function
  • Gordon CJ (1987) Relationship between preferred ambient temperature and autonomic thermoregulatory function in rat. (springer.com)
  • expansion
  • Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease attributable to the expansion of a CAG repeat within the first exon of the huntingtin gene. (jneurosci.org)
  • We found that stent-induced vascular injury in obese, hyperlipidemic rats had increased neointimal heparanase expression and that the magnitude of this increase directly related to the extent of neointimal expansion. (ahajournals.org)