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  • measurement
  • Accurate atmospheric measurement of human-emitted greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and the chlorofluorocarbons, have been made for decades. (ossfoundation.us)
  • Note that the contrast in spatial aerosol features is decreased by spatial and temporal averaging, particularly on 9 July, when the measurement density was low and the spatiotemporal gradients in the AOT were large. (knmi.nl)
  • This can be achieved by actively involving citizens and the technology they own to form an atmospheric measurement network. (knmi.nl)
  • measurements
  • For this reason, there is a strong need to properly estimate its contribution to the aerosol loading, as a natural contribution for air quality evaluation by European Union Member States, as stated in the "Guidance for State Members on PM10 measurements and the inter-comparison with the reference method" ( http://ec.europa.eu/environment/air/pdf/finalwgreporten.pdf ). (hindawi.com)
  • Measurements from ground-based sun photometer networks can be used both to provide a ground-truth validation of satellite aerosol retrieval sand to produce a land-based aerosol climatology which is complementary to satellite retrievals that currently are being performed mostly over ocean. (nasa.gov)
  • This method uses consistency between direct normal and diffuse horizontal measurements together with a special regression technique for retrieval of daily time series of column mean aerosol particle size, aerosol optical depth, NO 2 , ozone and water vapor column amounts together with the instrument's calibration constants. (nasa.gov)
  • Climatology
  • Reference: Micropulse Lidar-Derived Aerosol Optical Depth Climatology at ARM Sites Worldwide, Durga Kafle and Richard Coulter, Journal of Geophysical Research , doi:10.1002/jgrd.50536). (anl.gov)
  • uncertainty
  • But mainly because of uncertainty in the aerosol effect, the overall net forcing is quite uncertain, but still indicated to be positive. (ossfoundation.us)
  • Such an analysis has been followed by the consideration of both observation data (various field observational experiments) and numerical modeling results to assess climate impacts of aerosols bearing in mind that these impacts are the most significant uncertainty in studying natural and anthropogenic causes of climate change. (adlibris.com)
  • Atmospheric aerosols are one of the main sources of uncertainty in estimating Earth's radiation budget. (hindawi.com)
  • spectral
  • Fluorescence of aerosols in the spectral range from 420 nm to 510 nm was studied with the excitation at 355 nm. (spie.org)
  • Experiments
  • Study and research have been in place over the past 20 years, where weather modification experiments were initiated using silver iodide crystals.There is no major step taken to implement it in the live environment yet but UK scientist Professor Tim Lenton says that aerosol injection is ongoing worldover. (theenvironmentalblog.org)
  • While there has been much research on global warming , and enough evidence to support that it is a threat that we cannot afford to ignore, there aren't many conclusive experiments to prove the effects of aerosol geoengineering. (theenvironmentalblog.org)
  • properties
  • These maps show structures at scales of kilometers that are typical for urban air pollution, indicating the potential of iSPEX to provide information about aerosol properties at locations and at times that are not covered by current monitoring efforts. (knmi.nl)
  • The analysis was focused on the study of optical and physical properties variation of atmospheric aerosols under Saharan outbreaks. (hindawi.com)
  • In past years, some studies describing aerosol properties over this region (Alados-Arboledas et al. (hindawi.com)
  • volcanic
  • It is impossible to determine the cause when you don't know how volcanic or any other natural sources of aerosols vary. (drtimball.com)
  • Hubert Lamb, founder of the CRU, identified a major part of the aerosol problem in 1970 when he created the Dust Veil Index (DVI) designed to quantify the impact of volcanic dust on the atmospheric energy balance. (drtimball.com)
  • backscatter
  • Thus the multiscattered signals, together with the direct backscatter signal, contain more information about the aerosols than is available from a conventional single field of view lidar. (spie.org)
  • estimate
  • Over the course of the twentieth century, Hansen and other climate scientists rierslot.net estimate aerosols may have offset global warming by as much as 50 percent by reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the surface. (drtimball.com)
  • optical
  • Unfortunately, there is sparse observational data describing the vertical profiles of aerosols and the aerosol optical depth (AOD) as a function of altitude. (anl.gov)
  • climate system
  • Combined, the total amount, and type, of aerosols affect the amount of atmospheric forcing imposed inside the climate system. (ossfoundation.us)
  • From thermal equilibrium (radiative forcing relatively zero including natural variation) for the past 10,000 years (Holocene), since the beginning of the Industrial age, the earth climate system is currently estimated to be 3.6 W/m 2 positively charged (GHG's, and -2.0 W/m 2 negatively charged (aerosols). (ossfoundation.us)
  • capabilities
  • Preliminary studies have been performed that demonstrate the capabilities of the ATOFMS analysis for a variety of aerosol samples. (epa.gov)